Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Sesamum indicum Related Abstracts

4 Leaf Epidermal Micromorphology as Identification Features in Accessions of Sesamum indicum L. Collected from Northern Nigeria

Authors: S. D. Abdul, F. B. J. Sawa, D. Z. Andrawus, G. Dan'ilu

Abstract:

Fresh leaves of twelve accessions of S. indicum were studied to examine their stomatal features, trichomes, epidermal cell shapes and anticlinal cell-wall patterns which may be used for the delimitation of the varieties. The twelve accessions of S. indicum studied have amphistomatic leaves, i.e. having stomata on both surfaces. Four types of stomatal complex types were observed namely, diacytic, anisocytic, tetracytic and anomocytic. Anisocytic type was the most common occurring on both surfaces of all the varieties and occurred 100% in varieties lale-duk, ex-sudan and ex-gombe 6. One-way ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference between the stomatal densities of ex-gombe 6, ex-sudan, adawa-wula, adawa-ting, ex-gombe 4 and ex-gombe 2 . Accession adawa-ting (improved) has the smallest stomatal size (26.39µm) with highest stomatal density (79.08mm2) while variety adawa-wula possessed the largest stomatal size (74.31µm) with lowest stomatal density (29.60mm2), the exception was found in variety adawa-ting whose stomatal size is larger (64.03µm) but with higher stomatal density (71.54mm2). Wavy, curve or undulate anticlinal wall patterns with irregular and or isodiametric epidermal cell shapes were observed. These accessions were found to exhibit high degree of heterogeneity in their trichome features. Ten types of trichomes were observed: unicellular, glandular peltate, capitate glandular, long unbranched uniseriate, short unbranched uniseriate, scale, multicellular, multiseriate capitate glandular, branched uniseriate and stallate trichomes. The most frequent trichome type is short-unbranched uniseriate, followed by long-unbranched uniseriate (72.73% and 72.5%) respectively. The least frequent was multiseriate capitate glandular (11.5%). The high variation in trichome types and density coupled with the stomatal complex types suggest that these varieties of S. indicum probably have the capacity to conserve water. Furthermore, the leaf micromorphological features varied from one accession to another, hence, are found to be good diagnostic and additional tool in identification as well as nomenclature of the accessions of S. indicum.

Keywords: taxonomy, Stomata, Sesamum indicum, trichomes, epidermal cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
3 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity, Lipid Profile Effect of Citrus reticulata Fruit Peel, Zingiber officinale Rhizome, and Sesamum indicum Seed Extracts

Authors: Amna Beshir Medani Ahmed, Samar Saadeldin Abdelmotalab Omer, Ikram Mohammed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Saad Mohammed Hussein Ayoub

Abstract:

Many herbal medicinal products are considered as potential hypocholesterolemic agents with encouraging safety profiles, however, only a limited amount of clinical research exists to support their efficacy. The present study was designed to compare the antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of Citrus reticulata peel, Zingiber officinale rhizome, and Sesamum indicum seeds. Forty-five rats were used throughout the experiment, which were divided into nine groups, five rats in each as follows; normal control group (normal rats fed with standard normal diet), rats fed hypercholesterolemic diet consisting of 1% cholesterol and 10% saturated animal fat, which were further divided into eight groups; hypercholesterolemic control group (rats only fed hypercholesterolemic diet), groups 3,4,5,6,7, and 8 were given Citrus reticulata, Zingiber officinale, and Sesamum indicum ethanolic extracts at doses of (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg, respectively) orally; and group 9 rats were given atorvastatin (0.18mg/kg) orally as a reference antihypercholesterolaemic drug. Blood samples were obtained four weeks following treatment from the retro-orbital venous plexus after fasting overnight from all groups and the lipid profile (serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides levels) was measured and the risk ratio (TC/HDL-C) was assessed. The antioxidant activity of the three plant extracts was determined using DPPH free-radical assay. Results of in vivo and in vitro antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant assay, respectively, revealed that the three extracts possess comparable antioxidant and anti-hypercholesterolaemic activities.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Sesamum indicum, HDL, LDL, anti hypercholesterolemic effects, TGs, citrus reticulata, zingiber officinale

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
2 Genetic Diversity and Discovery of Unique SNPs in Five Country Cultivars of Sesamum indicum by Next-Generation Sequencing

Authors: Nam-Kuk Kim, Jin Kim, Soomin Park, Changhee Lee, Mijin Chu, Seong-Hun Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we conducted whole genome re-sequencing of 10 cultivars originated from five countries including Korea, China, India, Pakistan and Ethiopia with Sesamum indicum (Zhongzho No. 13) genome as a reference. Almost 80% of the whole genome sequences of the reference genome could be covered by sequenced reads. Numerous SNP and InDel were detected by bioinformatic analysis. Among these variants, 266,051 SNPs were identified as unique to countries. Pakistan and Ethiopia had high densities of SNPs compared to other countries. Three main clusters (cluster 1: Korea, cluster 2: Pakistan and India, cluster 3: Ethiopia and China) were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis using all variants. Interestingly, some variants were detected in DGAT1 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1) and FADS (fatty acid desaturase) genes, which are known to be related with fatty acid synthesis and metabolism. These results can provide useful information to understand the regional characteristics and develop DNA markers for origin discrimination of sesame.

Keywords: ngs, snp, Sesamum indicum, DNA marker

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1 Development and Evaluation of a Calcium Rich Plant-Based Supplement on Bone Turnover of Peri and Post Menopausal Women

Authors: Gayathri.G, Hemamalini.A.J, Chandrasekaran.A

Abstract:

Problem statement: Nutritional deficiency, especially calcium, may lead to poor bone formation and mineralization. Although there are plenty of synthetic supplements available, it is essential to make a calcium rich food supplement accessible to combat calcium deficiency that could be readily prepared at the household level. Thus the current study aimed to formulate and standardize an indigenous low-cost calcium-rich food supplement and to study the impact of supplementation on the bone resorption and formation markers. Methods: A Randomized controlled trial was conducted with 60 subjects distributed equally in control and experimental groups, including perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. A plant-based calcium-rich product was developed and supplemented in form of balls as a midmorning and evening snack by addition of optimized proportions of leaves of Sesbania Grandiflora, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Eleusine coracana, Glycine max, Vigna mungo for a period of 6 months. Postmenopausal and perimenopausal women received 1200mg and 800mg of calcium per day from the supplemented, respectively. Outcome measures like serum calcium; betacrosslaps (bone resorption marker) and total P1NP (bone absorption marker) were assessed after 3 months and after 6 months. Results: There were no significant changes seen in the serum calcium and total P1NP levels (bone formation marker) among the subjects during the supplementation period. The bone resorption marker (betacrosslaps) reduced in all the groups and the reduction (0.32 ± 0.130 ng/ml to 0.25 ± 0.130 ng/ml) was found to be statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) in experimental group of perimenopausal subjects and significant (p < 0.05) in experimental group of postmenopausal subjects (1.11 ± 0.290 ng/ml to 0.42 ± 0.263 ng/ml). Conclusion: With the current severe calcium deficiency in the Indian population, integrating low-cost, calcium-rich native foods that could be readily prepared at household level would be useful in raising the nutritional consumption of calcium, which would, in turn, decrease bone turnover.

Keywords: Calcium, Perimenopause, Postmenopause, Sesamum indicum, glycine max, Sesbania grandiflora, bone resorption, eleusine coracana, vigna mungo, bone absorption, betacrosslaps, total P1NP

Procedia PDF Downloads 4