Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Serviceability Related Abstracts

4 Flexural Behaviour of Normal Strength and High Strength Fibre Concrete Beams

Authors: Mostefa Hamrat, Bensaid Boulekbache, Mohamed Chemrouk, Sofiane Amziane

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of an experimental work on the flexural behaviour of two types of concrete in terms of the progressive cracking process until failure and the crack opening, and beam deflection, using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. At serviceability limit states, comparisons of the building code equations and the equations developed by some researchers for the short-term deflections and crack widths have been made using the reinforced concrete test beams. The experimental results show that the addition of steel fibers increases the first cracking load and amplify the number of cracks that conducts to a remarkable decreasing in the crack width with an increasing in ductility. This study also shows that there is a good agreement between the deflection values for RC beams predicted by the major codes (Eurocode2, ACI 318, and the CAN/CSA-S806) and the experimental results for beams with steel fibers at service load. The most important added benefit of the DIC technique is that it allows detecting the first crack with a high precision easily measures the crack opening and follows the progressive cracking process until failure of reinforced concrete members.

Keywords: Beams, Serviceability, deflection, Digital Image Correlation (DIC), crack width, codes provisions

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3 A Framework for the Evaluation of Infrastructures’ Serviceability

Authors: Taeil Park, Kyonghoon Kim, Wonyoung Park

Abstract:

In 1994, Korea experienced a national tragedy of Seongsu Bridge collapse. The accident was severe enough to alert governmental officers to the problem of existing management policy for national infrastructures. As a result, government legislated the ‘Guidelines for the safety inspection and test of infrastructure’ which have been utilized as the primary tool to make decision for the maintenance and rehabilitation of infrastructure for last twenty years. Although it is clear that the guideline established a basics how to evaluate and manage the condition of infrastructures in systematic manner, it is equally clear that the guideline needs improvements in order to obtain reasonable investment decisions for budget allocation. Because its inspection and evaluation procedures mainly focused on the structural condition of infrastructures, it was hard to make decision when the infrastructures were in same level of structural condition. In addition, it did not properly reflect various aspects of infrastructures such as performance, public demand, capacity, etc., which were more valuable to public. Regardless of the importance, these factors were commonly neglected in governmental decision-making process, because there factors were somewhat subjective and difficult to quantify in rational manner. Thus, this study proposes a framework to properly evaluate the serviceability indicators using AHP and Fuzzy approach. The framework is expected to assist governmental agency in establishing effective investment strategies for budget planning.

Keywords: Infrastructure, Evaluation, Fuzzy, Serviceability

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2 Serviceability of Fabric-Formed Concrete Structures

Authors: Yadgar Tayfur, Antony Darby, Tim Ibell, Mark Evernden, John Orr

Abstract:

Fabric form-work is a technique to cast concrete structures with a great advantage of saving concrete material of up to 40%. This technique is particularly associated with the optimized concrete structures that usually have smaller cross-section dimensions than equivalent prismatic members. However, this can make the structural system produced from these members prone to smaller serviceability safety margins. Therefore, it is very important to understand the serviceability issue of non-prismatic concrete structures. In this paper, an analytical computer-based model to optimize concrete beams and to predict load-deflection behaviour of both prismatic and non-prismatic concrete beams is presented. The model was developed based on the method of sectional analysis and integration of curvatures. Results from the analytical model were compared to load-deflection behaviour of a number of beams with different geometric and material properties from other researchers. The results of the comparison show that the analytical program can accurately predict the load-deflection response of concrete beams with medium reinforcement ratios. However, it over-estimates deflection values for lightly reinforced specimens. Finally, the analytical program acceptably predicted load-deflection behaviour of on-prismatic concrete beams.

Keywords: Optimisation, Serviceability, continuous beams, fabric-formed concrete

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1 Study on the Prediction of Serviceability of Garments Based on the Seam Efficiency and Selection of the Right Seam to Ensure Better Serviceability of Garments

Authors: Md Azizul Islam

Abstract:

Seam is the line of joining two separate fabric layers for functional or aesthetic purposes. Different kinds of seams are used for assembling the different areas or parts of the garment to increase serviceability. To empirically support the importance of seam efficiency on serviceability of garments, this study is focused on choosing the right type of seams for particular sewing parts of the garments based on the seam efficiency to ensure better serviceability. Seam efficiency is the ratio of seam strength and fabric strength. Single jersey knitted finished fabrics of four different GSMs (gram per square meter) were used to make the test garments T-shirt. Three distinct types of the seam: superimposed, lapped and flat seam was applied to the side seams of T-shirt and sewn by lockstitch (stitch class- 301) in a flat-bed plain sewing machine (maximum sewing speed: 5000 rpm) to make (3x4) 12 T-shirts. For experimental purposes, needle thread count (50/3 Ne), bobbin thread count (50/2 Ne) and the stitch density (stitch per inch: 8-9), Needle size (16 in singer system), stitch length (31 cm), and seam allowance (2.5cm) were kept same for all specimens. The grab test (ASTM D5034-08) was done in the Universal tensile tester to measure the seam strength and fabric strength. The produced T-shirts were given to 12 soccer players who wore the shirts for 20 soccer matches (each match of 90 minutes duration). Serviceability of the shirt were measured by visual inspection of a 5 points scale based on the seam conditions. The study found that T-shirts produced with lapped seam show better serviceability and T-shirts made of flat seams perform the lowest score in serviceability score. From the calculated seam efficiency (seam strength/ fabric strength), it was obvious that the performance (in terms of strength) of the lapped and bound seam is higher than that of the superimposed seam and the performance of superimposed seam is far better than that of the flat seam. So it can be predicted that to get a garment of high serviceability, lapped seams could be used instead of superimposed or other types of the seam. In addition, less stressed garments can be assembled by others seems like superimposed seams or flat seams.

Keywords: Serviceability, seam efficiency, seam, T-shirt

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