Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Serotonin Related Abstracts

9 Antidepressant-Like Effects of EQC-34, a 5HT3 Receptor Antagonist in Neurobehavioral Mouse Model of Depression

Authors: D: Gupta, M. Radhakrishnan, Y. Kurhe, D. Thangaraj

Abstract:

Depression is among the leading causes of death worldwide. The current pharmacotherapy is associated with poor compliance, resistance and relapse, which necessitate the development of novel compounds with better efficacy. The present study designed and synthesized EQC-34 (N-cyclohexyl-3-ethoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide) as novel serotonin type-3 (5HT3) antagonist and evaluated its antidepressant-like effects using neurobehavioral mouse model. 5HT3 antagonism (as pA2 value) was determined on the longitudinal smooth muscle of guinea-pig ileum against 2-methyl-5HT (a 5HT3 agonist). The doses were calculated by dose response of basal locomotor activity. Consequently, effects of EQC-34 on neurobehavioral parameters were measured in forced swim (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The possible mechanism was estimated by interaction study with fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and mCPBG (1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide, a selective 5HT3 agonist), and confirmed by potentiation of head twitch response by 5hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5HTP). EQC-34 (1-4 mg/kg, i.p.) produced significant decreased behavioral despair effects in FST and TST. It potentiated fluoxetine response, while mCPBG reduced EQC-34 activity in FST. Further, EQC-34 potentiated 5HTP induced head twitch response. EQC-34 revealed potential antidepressant-like effects, which may involve 5HT3 receptor mediated facilitation of 5HT neurotransmission, thereby reversing the pathological deficiency of monoamines (5HT) observed in depression. Thus, it may be further investigated as promising agent to improve therapeutics of depression.

Keywords: Depression, Serotonin, forced swim test

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8 Association between a Serotonin Re-Uptake Transporter Gene Polymorphism and Mucosal Serotonin Level in Women Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Healthy Control: A Pilot Study from Northern India

Authors: Sunil Kumar, Uday C. Ghoshal

Abstract:

Background and aims: Serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT) is an important factor in gut function, playing key roles in intestinal peristalsis and secretion, and in sensory signaling in the brain-gut axis. Removal from its sites of action is mediated by a specific protein called the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT). Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the SERT gene have effects on transcriptional activity, resulting in altered 5-HT reuptake efficiency. Functional polymorphisms may underlie disturbance in gut function in individuals suffering with disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to assess the potential association between SERT polymorphisms and the diarrhea predominant IBS (D-IBS) phenotype Subjects: A total of 36 northern Indian female patients and 55 female northern Indian healthy controls (HC) were subjected to genotyping. Methods: Leucocyte DNA of all subjects was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based technologies for SERT polymorphisms, specifically the insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter (SERT-P). Statistical analysis was performed to assess association of SERT polymorphism allele with the D-IBS phenotype. Results: The frequency of distribution of SERT-P gene was comparable between female patients with IBS and HC (p = 0.086). However, frequency of SERT-P deletion/deletion genotype was significantly higher in female patients with D-IBS compared to C-IBS and A-IBS [17/19 (89.5%) vs. 4/12 (33.3%) vs. 1/5 (20%), p=0.001, respectively]. The mucosal level of serotonin was higher in D-IBS compared to C-IBS and A-IBS [Median, range (159.26, 98.78–212.1) vs. 110.4, 67.87–143.53 vs. 92.34, 78.8–166.3 pmol/mL, p=0.001, respectively]. The mucosal level of serotonin was higher in female patients with IBS with SERT-P deletion/deletion genotype compared deletion/insertion and insertion/insertion [157.65, 67.87–212.1 vs. 110.4, 78.1–143.32 vs. 100.5, 69.1–132.03 pmol/mL, p=0.001, respectively]. Patients with D-IBS with deletion/deletion genotype more often reported symptoms of abdominal pain, discomfort (p=0.025) and bloating (p=0.039). Symptoms development following lactose ingestion was strongly associated with D-IBS and SERT-P deletion/deletion genotype (p=0.004). Conclusions: Significant association was observed between D-IBS and the SERT-P deletion/deletion genotype, suggesting that the serotonin transporter is a potential candidate gene for D-IBS in women.

Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Serotonin, SERT, genetic polymorphism

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7 Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 Improves Animal Behavior and Monoamine Neurotransmission in Germ-Free Mice

Authors: Liu Wei-Hsien, Chuang Hsiao-Li, Huang Yen-Te, Wu Chien-Chen, Chou Geng-Ting, Tsai Ying-Chieh

Abstract:

Intestinal microflora play an important role in communication along the gut-brain axis. Probiotics, defined as live bacteria or bacterial products, confer a significant health benefit to the host. Here we administered Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) to the germ-free (GF) mouse to investigate the impact of the gut-brain axis on emotional behavior. Administration of live PS128 significantly increased the total distance traveled in the open field test; it decreased the time spent in the closed arm and increased the time spent and total entries into the open arm in the elevated plus maze. In contrast, heat-killed PS128 caused no significant changes in the GF mice. Treatment with live PS128 significantly increased levels of both serotonin and dopamine in the striatum, but not in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. However, live PS128 did not alter pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine production by mitogen-stimulated splenocytes. The above data indicate that the normalization of emotional behavior correlated with monoamine neurotransmission, but not with immune activity. Our findings suggest that daily intake of the probiotic PS128 could ameliorate neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and excessive psychological stress.

Keywords: Serotonin, Dopamine, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, intestinal microflora

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6 Indoleamines (Serotonin & Melatonin) in Edible Plants: Its Influence on Human Health

Authors: G. A. Ravishankar, A. Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Melatonin (MEL) and Serotonin (SER), also known as [5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] are reported to be in a range of plant types which are edible. Their occurrence in plants species appears to be ubiquitous. Their presence in high quantities in plants assumes significance owing to their physiological effects upon consumption by human beings. MEL is a well known animal hormone mainly released by the pineal gland known to influence circadian rhythm, sleep, apart from immune enhancement. Similarly, SER is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, sleep and anxiety in mammals. It is implicated in memory, behavioral changes, scavenging reactive oxygen species, antipsychotic, etc. Similarly Role of SER and MEL in plant morphogenesis, and various physiological processes through intense research is beginning to unfold. These molecules are in common foods viz banana, pineapple, plum, nuts, milk, grape wine. N- Feruloyl serotonin and p-coumaroyl serotonin found in certain seeds are found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, and anti-stress potential apart from reducing depression and anxiety. MEL is found in Mediterranean diets, nuts, cherries, tomato berries, and olive products. Consumption of foods rich in MEL is known to increase blood MEL levels which have been implicated in protective effect against cardiovascular damage, cancer initiation and growth. MEL is also found in wines, green tea, beer, olive oil etc. Moreover, presence of SER and MEL in Coffee beans (green and roasted beans) and decoction has been reported us. In this communication we report the occurrence of indole amines in edible plants and their implications in human health.

Keywords: Neurotransmitters, Serotonin, Melatonin, Edible Plants, physiological effects

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5 Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Paste Electrode on Paper-Based Analytical Device for Simultaneous Determination of Norepinephrine and Serotonin

Authors: Orawon Chailapakul, Siriwan Nantaphol, Robert B. Channon, Takeshi Kondo, Weena Siangproh, Charles S. Henry

Abstract:

In this work, we demonstrate a novel electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified boron-doped diamond paste (BDDP) electrode on paper-based analytical devices (PADs) for simultaneous determination of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT). The BDD paste electrode was easily constructed by filling BDD paste in small channels, which made in transparency film sheets using a CO₂ laser etching 
system. The counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on paper by in-house screen-printing and then combined with BDD paste microelectrode. The electrochemical characterization of the device was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed for the simultaneous determination of NE and 5-HT. The ERGO-modified BDDP electrode displayed excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of NE and 5-HT and strong function for resolving the overlapping voltammetric responses of NE and 5-HT into two well-defined voltammetric peaks. This device was capable of simultaneously detecting NE and 5-HT in wide concentration ranges and with a low limit of detections. In addition, it has the advantages in terms of ease of use, low cost, and disposability.

Keywords: Serotonin, norepinephrine, boron-doped diamond paste electrode, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide, paper-based analytical device

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4 Computational Analysis and Daily Application of the Key Neurotransmitters Involved in Happiness: Dopamine, Oxytocin, Serotonin, and Endorphins

Authors: Hee Soo Kim, Ha Young Kyung

Abstract:

Happiness and pleasure are a result of dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, and endorphin levels in the body. In order to increase the four neurochemical levels, it is important to associate daily activities with its corresponding neurochemical releases. This includes setting goals, maintaining social relationships, laughing frequently, and exercising regularly. The likelihood of experiencing happiness increases when all four neurochemicals are released at the optimal level. The achievement of happiness is important because it increases healthiness, productivity, and the ability to overcome adversity. To process emotions, electrical brain waves, brain structure, and neurochemicals must be analyzed. This research uses Chemcraft and Avogadro to determine the theoretical and chemical properties of the four neurochemical molecules. Each neurochemical molecule’s thermodynamic stability is calculated to observe the efficiency of the molecules. The study found that among dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin, beta-endorphin has the lowest optimized energy of 388.510 kJ/mol. Beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter involved in mitigating pain and stress, is the most thermodynamically stable and efficient molecule that is involved in the process of happiness. Through examining such properties of happiness neurotransmitters, the science of happiness is better understood.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Neurotransmitters, Serotonin, Dopamine, Happiness, oxytocin, endorphins

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3 Hypothesis of a Holistic Treatment of Cancer: Crab Method

Authors: Devasis Ghosh

Abstract:

The main hindrance to total cure of cancer is a) the failure to control continued production of cancer cells, b) its sustenance and c) its metastasis. This review study has tried to address this issue of total cancer cure in a more innovative way. A 10-pronged “CRAB METHOD”, a novel holistic scientific approach of Cancer treatment has been hypothesized in this paper. Apart from available Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and Oncosurgery, (which shall not be discussed here), seven other points of interference and treatment has been suggested, i.e. 1. Efficient stress management. 2. Dampening of ATF3 expression. 3. Selective inhibition of Platelet Activity. 4. Modulation of serotonin production, metabolism and 5HT receptor antagonism. 5. Auxin, its anti-proliferative potential and its modulation. 6. Melatonin supplementation because of its oncostatic properties. 7. HDAC Inhibitors especially valproic acid use due to its apoptotic role in many cancers. If all the above stated seven steps are thoroughly taken care of at the time of initial diagnosis of cancer along with the available treatment modalities of Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and Oncosurgery, then perhaps, the morbidity and mortality rate of cancer may be greatly reduced.

Keywords: Cancer, stress, Serotonin, valproic acid, ATF3 dampening, auxin modulation, platelet activation

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2 The Effects of Physical Activity and Serotonin on Depression, Anxiety, Body Image and Mental Health

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, Sh. Khoshemehry, M. E. Bahram

Abstract:

Sport has found a special place as an effective phenomenon in all societies of the contemporary world. The relationship between physical activity and exercise with different sciences has provided new fields for human study. The range of issues related to exercise and physical education is such that it requires specialized sciences and special studies. In this article, the psychological and social sections of exercise have been investigated for children and adults. It can be used for anyone in different age groups. Exercise and regular physical movements have a great impact on the mental and social health of the individual in addition to body health. It affects the individual's adaptability in society and his/her personality. Exercise affects the treatment of diseases such as depression, anxiety, stress, body image, and memory. Exercise is a safe haven for young people to achieve the optimum human development in its shelter. The effects of sensorimotor skills on mental actions and mental development are such a way that many psychologists and sports science experts believe these activities should be included in training programs in the first place. Familiarity of students and scholars with different programs and methods of sensorimotor activities not only causes their mental actions; but also increases mental health and vitality, enhances self-confidence and, therefore, mental health.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Mental Health, Anxiety, Serotonin

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1 Dopamine and Serotonin Levels in Blood Samples of Jordanian Children Who Stutter

Authors: Mazin Alqhazo, Ayat Bani Rashaid

Abstract:

This study examines the levels of dopamine and serotonin in blood samples of children who stutter compared with normal fluent speakers. Blood specimens from 50 children who stutter (6 females, 44 males) and 50 normal children matched age and gender were collected for the purpose of the current study. The concentrations of dopamine and serotonin were measured using the 1100 series high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detector instrument (HPLC-UV). It was revealed that dopamine level in the blood samples of stuttering group and fluent group was not significant (P = 0.769), whereas the level of serotonin was significantly higher in the blood samples of stuttering group than the blood samples of fluent normal group (P = 0.015). It is concluded that serotonin blockers could be used in future studies to evaluate its role as a medication for the treatment of stuttering.

Keywords: Stuttering, Serotonin, Dopamine, fluent speakers

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