Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

seroprevalence Related Abstracts

9 Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Pregnant Women in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Waseem

Abstract:

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is ubiquitously distributed viral agent responsible for different clinical manifestations that may vary according to the immunologic status of the patient. CMV can cause morbidity and mortality among fetuses and patients with compromised immune system. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Islamabad to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with CMV infection among pregnant women. Blood samples of 172 pregnant women visiting Mother and Child Healthcare, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad were taken. In present study, serum samples of the women were checked for CMV-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical, obstetrical and socio-demographical characteristics of the women were collected by using structured questionnaires. Out of 172 pregnant women included in the study, 171 (99.4%) were CMV specific IgG positive and 30 (17.4%) were found positive for CMV-IgM antibodies. The CMV has taken an endemic form in Pakistan so, routine screening of CMV among pregnant women is recommended.

Keywords: ELISA, cytomegalovirus, blood transfusion, seroprevalence

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8 Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis under Diverse Production Systems in Central Punjab, Paksitan

Authors: A. Hussain, M. Farooq, A. Khan, M. A. Ali, M. Younus, I. Khan, S. E. Haque, U. Waheed, H. Neubauer, A. A. Anjum, S. A. Muhammad, A. Idrees T. Abbas, S. Raza, M. Mahmood, H. Danish, U. Tayyab, M. Zafar, M. Aslam.

Abstract:

Brucellosis is one of the major problems of milk producing animals in our country which deteriorate the health of livestock. It is a disease of zoonotic significance which is capable of producing disease in humans leading to infertility, orchitis, abortions, and synovitis. In this particular study, milk and serum samples of cattle and buffalo (n=402) were collected from different districts of Punjab including Narowal, Gujranwala and Gujrat. Milk samples were analyzed by Milk Ring Test (MRT), while serum samples were tested through Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (i-ELISA). The sample tested with MRT were 9.5% positive, including cattle 9.6% and buffalo 9.3%. While using the RBPT test for the detection of serum samples and for screening purpose it was observed that 16.4% animals were seropositive, cattle were 18.8% and buffalo were 13.9% seropositive. The higher prevalence of brucellosis indicates the danger of the disease to human population. The serum samples positive by RBPT were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 11.4% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle 13.5% seropositive and buffalo 9.3%. The results indicated high seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle as compared to buffalos. Different risk factors were also studied to know the association between disease and their spread. Advanced age, larger herds, history of abortion and pregnancy of the animals is considered to be the important factors for the prevalence and spread of the hazardous zoonotic disease. It is a core issue of developing countries like Pakistan and has major public health impact.

Keywords: Humans, Brucellosis, infertility, seroprevalence, bovines, orchitis, abortions

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7 Seroprevalence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-Cov) Infection among Healthy and High Risk Individuals in Qatar

Authors: Gheyath Nasrallah, Raham El-Kahlout, Hadi Yassin, Asmaa Athani, Marwan Abou Madi

Abstract:

Background: Since its first isolation in September 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has diffused across 27 countries infecting more than two thousand individuals with a high case fatality rate. MERS-CoV–specific antibodies are widely found in Dromedary camel along with viral shedding of similar viruses detected in human at same region, suggesting that MERS epidemiology may be central role by camel. Interestingly, MERS-CoV has also been also reported to be asymptomatic or to cause influenza-like mild illnesses. Therefore, in a country like Qatar (bordered Saudi Arabia), where camels are widely spread, serological surveys are important to explore the role of camels in MERS-CoV transmission. However, widespread strategic serological surveillances of MERS-CoV among populations, particularly in endemic country, are infrequent. In the absence of clear epidemiological view, cross-sectional MERS antibody surveillances in human populations are of global concern. Method: We performed a comparative serological screening of 4719 healthy blood donors, 135 baseline case contacts (high risk individual), and four MERS confirmed patients (by PCR) for the presence of anti-MERS IgG. Initially, samples were screened using Euroimmune anti- MERS-CoV IgG ELISA kit, the only commercial kit available in the market and recommended by the CDC as a screening kit. To confirm ELISA test results, farther serological testing was performed for all borderline and positive samples using two assays; the anti MERS-CoV IgG and IgM Euroimmune indirect immunofluorescent test (IIFT) and pseudoviral particle neutralizing assay (PPNA). Additionally, to test cross reactivity of anti-MERS-CoV antibody with other family members of coronavirus, borderline and positive samples were tested for the presence of the of IgG antibody of the following viruses; SARS, HCoV-229E, HKU1 using the Euroimmune IIFT for SARS and HCoV-229E and ELISA for HKU1. Results: In all of 4858 screened 15 samples [10 donors (0.21%, 10/4719), 1 case contact (0.77 %, 1/130), 3 patients (75%, 3/4)] anti-MERS IgG reactive/borderline samples were seen in ELISA. However, only 7 (0.14%) of them gave positive with in IIFT and only 3 (0.06%) was confirmed by the specific anti-MERS PPNA. One of the interesting findings was, a donor, who was selected in the control group as a negative anti-MERS IgG ELISA, yield reactive for anti-MERS IgM IIFT and was confirmed with the PPNA. Further, our preliminary results showed that there was a strong cross reactivity between anti- MERS-COV IgG with both HCoV-229E or anti-HKU1 IgG, yet, no cross reactivity of SARS were found. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that MERS-CoV is not heavily circulated among the population of Qatar and this is also indicated by low number of confirmed cases (only 18) since 2012. Additionally, the presence of antibody of other pathogenic human coronavirus may cause false positive results of both ELISA and IIFT, which stress the need for more evaluation studies for the available serological assays. Conclusion: this study provides an insight about the epidemiological view for MERS-CoV in Qatar population. It also provides a performance evaluation for the available serologic tests for MERS-CoV in a view of serologic status to other human coronaviruses.

Keywords: Qatar, seroprevalence, MERS-CoV, healthy individuals

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6 Seroprevalence and Determinants of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christiana Frimpong, Mpundu Makasa, Lungowe Sitali, Charles Michelo

Abstract:

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a neglected zoonotic disease which is prevalent among pregnant women especially in Africa. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and determinants of the disease among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH). Method: A cross-sectional study was employed where 411 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at UTH were interviewed using closed-ended questionnaires. Their blood was also tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using the OnSite Toxo IgG/IgM Combo Rapid Test cassettes by CTK Biotech, Inc, USA. Result: The overall seroprevalence of the infection (IgG) was 5.87%. There was no seropositive IgM result. Contact with cats showed 7.81 times the risk of contracting the infection in the pregnant women and being a farmer/being involved in construction work showed 15.5 times likelihood of contracting the infection. Socio-economic status of the pregnant women also presented an inverse relationship (showed association) with the infection graphically. However, though there were indications of the association between contact with cats, employment type as well as the socioeconomic status of the pregnant women with the infection, there was not enough evidence to suggest these factors as significant determining factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in our study population. Conclusion: There is a low prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia. Screening for the infection among pregnant women can be done once or twice during pregnancy to help protect both mother and child from the disease. Health promotion among women of child bearing age on the subject is of immense importance in order to help curb the situation. Further studies especially that of case-control and cohort studies should be carried out in the country in order to better ascertain the extent of the condition nationwide.

Keywords: toxoplasmosis, Pregnant Women, determinants, Zambia, seroprevalence, University Teaching Hospital (UTH)

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5 Molecular and Serological Diagnosis of Newcastle and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Broiler in Chicken in Fars Province, Iran

Authors: Mohammadjavad Mehrabanpour, Maryam Ranjbar Bushehri, Dorsa Mehrabanpour

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Respiratory diseases are the most important problems in the country’s poultry industry, particularly when it comes to broiler flocks. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a species that causes poor performance in growth rate, egg production, and mortality. This pathogen causes a respiratory infection including pulmonary alveolar inflammation, and pneumonia of birds throughout the world. Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease in poultry, and also, it causes considerable losses to the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous occurrence of ORT and ND and NDV isolation by inoculation in embryonated eggs and confirmed by RT-PCR in broiler chicken flocks in Fars province. In this study, 318 blood and 85 tissue samples (brain, trachea, liver, and cecal tonsils) were collected from 15 broiler chicken farms. Survey serum antibody titers against ORT by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit performed. Evaluation of antibody titer against ND virus is performed by hemagglutination inhibition test. Virus isolation with chick embryo eggs 9-11 and RT-PCR method were carried out. A total of 318 serum samples, 135 samples (42.5%) were positive for antibodies to ORT and titer of HI antibodies against NDV in 122 serum samples (38/4%) were 7-10 (log2) and 61 serum samples (19/2%) had occurrence antibody titer against Newcastle virus and ORT. Results of the present study indicated that 20 tissue samples were positive in embryonated egg and in rapid hemagglutination (HA) test. HI test with specific ND positive serum confirmed that 6 of 20 samples. PCR confirmed that all six samples were positive and PCR products of samples indicated 535-base pair fragments in electrophrosis. Due to the great economic importance of these two diseases in the poultry industry, it is necessary to design and implement a comprehensive plan for prevention and control of these diseases.

Keywords: ELISA, Newcastle disease, seroprevalence, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

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4 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Surya Suman

Abstract:

Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: ELISA, seroprevalence, HSV, co-Infection, Rubella, viral infectivity

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3 Serological Evidence of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis in Dairy Cattle Herds in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Nabeeha Hassan Abdel Jalil, Lulwa Saeed Al Badi, Mouza Ghafan Alkhyeli, Khaja Mohteshamuddin, Ahmad Al Aiyan, Mohamed Elfatih Hamad, Robert Barigye

Abstract:

The present study was done to elucidate the prevalence of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in the UAE, the seroprevalence rates of EBL in dairy herds from the Al Ain area, Abu Dhabi (AD) and indigenous cattle at the Al Ain livestock market (AALM) were assessed. Of the 949 sera tested by ELISA, 657 were from adult Holstein-Friesians from three farms and 292 from indigenous cattle at the AALM. The level of significance between the proportions of seropositive cattle were analyzed by the Marascuilo procedure and questionnaire data on husbandry and biosecurity practices evaluated. Overall, the aggregated farm and AALM data demonstrated a seroprevalence of 25.9%, compared to 37.0% for the study farms, and 1.0% for the indigenous cattle. Additionally, the seroprevalence rates at farms #1, #2 and #3 were 54.7%, 0.0%, and 26.3% respectively. Except for farm #2 and the AALM, statistically significant differences were noted between the proportions of seropositive cattle for farms #1 and #2 (Critical Range or CR=0.0803), farms #1 and #3 (p=0.1069), and farms #2 and #3 (CR=0.0707), farm #1 and the AALM (CR=0.0819), and farm #3 and the AALM (CR=0.0726). Also, the proportions of seropositive animals on farm #1 were 9.8%, 59.8%, 29.3%, and 1.2% in the 12-36, 37-72, 73-108, and 109-144-mo-old age groups respectively compared to 21.5%, 60.8%, 15.2%, and 2.5% in the respective age groups for farm #2. On both farms and the AALM, the 37-72-mo-old age group showed the highest EBL seroprevalence rate while all the 57 cattle on farm #2 were seronegative. Additionally, farms #1 and #3 had 3,130 and 2,828 intensively managed Holstein-Friesian cattle respectively, and all animals were routinely immunized against several diseases except EBL. On both farms #1 and #3, artificial breeding was practiced using semen sourced from the USA, and USA and Canada respectively, all farms routinely quarantined new stock, and farm #1 previously imported dairy cattle from an unspecified country, and farm #3 from the Netherlands, Australia and South Africa. While farm #1 provided no information on animal nutrition, farm #3 cited using hay, concentrates, and ad lib water. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first serological evidence of EBL in the UAE and as previously reported, the seroprevalence rates are comparatively higher in the intensively managed dairy herds than in indigenous cattle. As two of the study farms previously sourced cattle and semen from overseas, biosecurity protocols need to be revisited to avoid inadvertent EBL incursion and the possibility of regional transboundary disease spread also needs to be assessed. After the proposed molecular studies have adduced additional data, the relevant UAE animal health authorities may need to develop evidence-based EBL control policies and programs.

Keywords: Cattle, UAE, seroprevalence, enzootic bovine leukosis

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2 Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among Hemato-Oncology Patients in Tertiary Hospital of East Cost Malaysia

Authors: Aisha Khodijah Kholib Jati, Suharni Mohamad, Azlan Husin, Wan Suriana Wan Ab Rahman

Abstract:

Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). It is commonly asymptomatic in normal individual, but it can be fatal to immunocompromised patients as it can lead to severe complications such as encephalitis, chorioetinitis and myocarditis. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and its association with socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics among hemato-oncology patients in Hospital USM. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 56 hemato-oncology patients were screened for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and IgG avidity of T. gondii by using ELISA Kit (BioRad, USA). For anti-T. gondii IgG antibody, titer ≥ 9 IU/ml was considered as recent infection, while for IgM, ratio ≥ 1.00 was considered as reactive for the anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Low avidity index is considered as recent infection within 20 weeks while high avidity considered as past infection. T. gondii exposure, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was assessed by a questionnaire and interview. Results: A total of 28 (50.0%) hemato-oncology patients were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Out of that total, 27 (48.21%) patients were IgG+/IgM- and one patient (1.79%) was IgG+/IgM+ with high avidity index. Univariate analysis showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, employment status, stem cell transplant, blood transfusion, close contact with cats, water supply, and consumption of undercooked meat were not significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity rate. Discussion: The seropositivity rate of IgG anti-T. gondii was high among hemato-oncology patients in Hospital USM. With impaired immune system, these patients might have a severe consequence if the infection reactivated. Therefore, screening for anti-T. gondii may be considered in the future. Moreover, health programme towards healthy food and good hygiene practice need to be implemented.

Keywords: toxoplasmosis, socio-demographic, seroprevalence, immunocompromised

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1 Avidity and IgE versus IgG and IgM in Diagnosis of Maternal Toxoplasmosis

Authors: Ghada A. Gamea, Nabila A. Yaseen, Ahmed A. Othman, Ahmed S. Tawfik

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Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious complications in pregnant women, leading to abortion, stillbirth, and congenital anomalies in the fetus. Definitive diagnosis of T. gondii acute infection is therefore critical for the clinical management of a mother and her fetus. This study was conducted on 250 pregnant females in the first trimester who were inpatients or outpatients at Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department at Tanta University Hospital. Screening of the selected females was done for the detection of immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM), and all subjects were submitted to history taking through a questionnaire including personal data, risk factors for Toxoplasma, complaint and history of the present illness. Thirty-eight samples, including 18 IgM +ve and 20 IgM-ve cases were further investigated by the avidity and IgE ELISA tests. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was (42.8%) based on the presence of IgG antibodies in their sera. Contact with cats and consumption of raw or undercooked meat are important risk factors that were associated with toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. By serology, it could be observed that in the IgM +ve group, only one case (5.6%) showed an acute pattern by using the avidity test, though 10 (55.6%) cases were found to be acute by the IgE assay. On the other hand, in the IgM –ve group, 3 (15%) showed low avidity, but none of them was positive by using the IgE assay. In conclusion, there is no single serological test that can be used to confirm whether T. gondii infection is recent or was acquired in the distant past. A panel of tests for detection of toxoplasmosis will certainly have higher discriminatory power than any test alone.

Keywords: Diagnosis, toxoplasmosis, Serology, seroprevalence

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