Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

sequencing batch reactor Related Abstracts

9 Development and Performance of Aerobic Granular Sludge at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Mustafa M. Bob, Siti Izaidah Azmi, Mohd Hakim Ab Halim, Nur Syahida Abdul Jamal, Aznah Nor-Anuar, Zaini Ujang


In this research, the formation and development of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for domestic wastewater treatment application in hot climate conditions was studied using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The performance of the developed AGS in the removal of organic matter and nutrients from wastewater was also investigated. The operation of the reactor was based on the sequencing batch system with a complete cycle time of 3 hours that included feeding, aeration, settling, discharging and idling. The reactor was seeded with sludge collected from the municipal wastewater treatment plant in Madinah city, Saudi Arabia and operated at a temperature of 40ºC using synthetic wastewater as influent. Results showed that granular sludge was developed after an operation period of 30 days. The developed granular sludge had a good settling ability with the average size of the granules ranging from 1.03 to 2.42 mm. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP) were 87.31%, 91.93% and 61.25% respectively. These results show that AGS can be developed at elevated temperatures and it is a promising technique to treat domestic wastewater in hot and low humidity climate conditions such as those encountered in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Hot Climate, aerobic granular sludge, sequencing batch reactor, domestic wastewater treatment

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8 Landfill Leachate and Settled Domestic Wastewater Co-Treatment Using Activated Carbon in Sequencing Batch Reactors

Authors: Amin Mojiri, Hamidi Abdul Aziz


Leachate is created while water penetrates through the waste in a landfill, carrying some forms of pollutants. In literature, for treatment of wastewater and leachate, different ways of biological treatment were used. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is a kind of biological treatment. This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic waste water by SBR and powdered activated carbon augmented (PAC) SBR process. The response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) were employed. The independent variables were aeration rate (L/min), contact time (h), and the ratio of leachate to wastewater mixture (%; v/v)). To perform an adequate analysis of the aerobic process, three dependent parameters, i.e. COD, color, and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N or NH4-N) were measured as responses. The findings of the study indicated that the PAC-SBR showed a higher performance in elimination of certain pollutants, in comparison with SBR. With the optimal conditions of aeration rate (0.6 L/min), leachate to waste water ratio (20%), and contact time (10.8 h) for the PAC-SBR, the removal efficiencies for color, NH3-N, and COD were 72.8%, 98.5%, and 65.2%, respectively.

Keywords: wastewater, Landfill Leachate, sequencing batch reactor, co-treatment, activate carbon

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7 A Study on the Treatment of Municipal Waste Water Using Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Bhaven N. Tandel, Athira Rajeev


Sequencing batch reactor process is a suspended growth process operating under non-steady state conditions which utilizes a fill and draw reactor with complete mixing during the batch reaction step (after filling) and where the subsequent steps of aeration and clarification occur in the same tank. All sequencing batch reactor systems have five steps in common, which are carried out in sequence as follows, (1) fill (2) react (3) settle (sedimentation/clarification) (4) draw (decant) and (5) idle. The study was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor of dimensions 44cmx30cmx70cm with a working volume of 40 L. Mechanical stirrer of 100 rpm was used to provide continuous mixing in the react period and oxygen was supplied by fish tank aerators. The duration of a complete cycle of sequencing batch reactor was 8 hours. The cycle period was divided into different phases in sequence as follows-0.25 hours fill phase, 6 hours react period, 1 hour settling phase, 0.5 hours decant period and 0.25 hours idle phase. The study consisted of two runs, run 1 and run 2. Run 1 consisted of 6 hours aerobic react period and run 2 consisted of 3 hours aerobic react period followed by 3 hours anoxic react period. The influent wastewater used for the study had COD, BOD, NH3-N and TKN concentrations of 308.03±48.94 mg/L, 100.36±22.05 mg/L, 14.12±1.18 mg/L, and 24.72±2.21 mg/L respectively. Run 1 had an average COD removal efficiency of 41.28%, BOD removal efficiency of 56.25%, NH3-N removal efficiency of 86.19% and TKN removal efficiency of 54.4%. Run 2 had an average COD removal efficiency of 63.19%, BOD removal efficiency of 73.85%, NH3-N removal efficiency of 90.74% and TKN removal efficiency of 65.25%. It was observed that run 2 gave better performance than run 1 in the removal of COD, BOD and TKN.

Keywords: aerobic, municipal waste water, sequencing batch reactor, anoxic

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6 The Relationship between Operating Condition and Sludge Wasting of an Aerobic Suspension-Sequencing Batch Reactor (ASSBR) Treating Phenolic Wastewater

Authors: Rafid Alkhaddar, Ali Alzeyadi, Ali Alattabi, Clare Harris


Petroleum refinery wastewater (PRW) can be considered as one of the most significant source of aquatic environmental pollution. It consists of oil and grease along with many other toxic organic pollutants. In recent years, a new technique was implemented using different types of membranes and sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) to treat PRW. SBR is a fill and draw type sludge system which operates in time instead of space. Many researchers have optimised SBRs’ operating conditions to obtain maximum removal of undesired wastewater pollutants. It has gained more importance mainly because of its essential flexibility in cycle time. It can handle shock loads, requires less area for operation and easy to operate. However, bulking sludge or discharging floating or settled sludge during the draw or decant phase with some SBR configurations are still one of the problems of SBR system. The main aim of this study is to develop and innovative design for the SBR optimising the process variables to result is a more robust and efficient process. Several experimental tests will be developed to determine the removal percentages of chemical oxygen demand (COD), Phenol and nitrogen compounds from synthetic PRW. Furthermore, the dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the SBR system will be monitored online to ensure a good environment for the microorganisms to biodegrade the organic matter effectively.

Keywords: phenol, COD, sequencing batch reactor, petroleum refinery wastewater, hydraulic retention time, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)

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5 Kinetic Evaluation of Biodegradability of Paint Shop Wastewater of a Bus Production Factory

Authors: Emine Ubay Cokgor, Didem Güven, Oytun Hanhan, Elif Ceren Aksoy


This paper presents a biological treatability study ofpaintshopwastewaterof a bus factory by an anoxic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor.A lab scale 14L SBR system was implementedto investigate carbon and nitrogen removal performance frompaint shop waste streams combined with domestic and process wastewater of a bus production factory in Istanbul (Turkey).The wastewater collected from decanters of the paint boots and pre-treatmentplant was usedforthefeeding of SBR. The reactor was operated with a total hydraulic retention time of 24 hrs, and a total sludge age of 18.7 days. Initially the efficiency and stability of the reactor were studied when fed with main wastewater stream to simulate the current wastewater treatment plant. Removal efficiency of 57% nitrogen and 90% COD were obtained. Once the paint shop wastewater was introduced to mainstream feeding with a ratio of 1:5, nitrification completely, carbon removal were partially inhibited. SBR system was successful to handle even at very high COD concentrations of paint shop wastewater after feeding of 2 months, with an average effluent COD of 100 mg/L. For the determination of kinetic parameters, respirometric analysis was also conducted with/without paint shop wastewater addition. Model simulation indicated lower maximum specific growth and hydrolysis rates when paint shop wastewater was mixed with the mainstream wastewater of the factory.

Keywords: sequencing batch reactor, nitrogen removal, biological treatability, paint shop wastewater

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4 The Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time on the Sludge Characteristics and Effluent Quality in an Aerobic Suspension Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Rafid M. Alkhaddar, Ali Alzeyadi, Ali W. N. Alattabi, Clare B. Harris, Montserrat Ortoneda, David A. Phipps


This study was performed to optimise the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and study its effects on the sludge characteristics and the effluent quality in an aerobic suspension sequencing batch reactor (ASSBR) treating synthetic wastewater. The results showed that increasing the HRT from 6 h to 12 h significantly improved the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency; it was increased from 78.7% - 75.7% to 94.7% – 97% for COD and Nitrate respectively. However, increasing the HRT from 12 h to 18 h reduced the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency from 94.7% - 97% to 91.1% – 94.4% respectively. Moreover, Increasing the HRT from 18 h to 24 h did not affect the COD and Nitrate removal efficiency. Sludge volume index (SVI) was used to monitor the sludge settling performance. The results showed a direct relationship between the HRT and SVI value. Increasing the HRT from 6 h to 12 h led to decrease the SVI value from 123 ml/g to 82.5 ml/g, and then it remained constant despite of increasing the HRT from 12 h to 18 h and to 24 h. The results obtained from this study showed that the HRT of 12 h was better for COD and Nitrate removal and a good settling performance occurred during that range.

Keywords: COD, sequencing batch reactor, nitrate, hydraulic retention time, sludge characteristics

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3 Effect of a Mixture of Phenol, O-Cresol, P-Cresol, and M-Cresol on the Nitrifying Process in a Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Adriana Sosa, Susana Rincon, Chérif Ben, Diana Cabañas, Juan E. Ruiz, Alejandro Zepeda


The complex chemical composition (mixtures of ammonium and recalcitrant compounds) of the effluents from the chemical, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries represents a challenge in their biological treatment. This treatment involves nitrification process that can suffer an inhibition due to the presence of aromatic compounds giving as a result the decrease of the process efficiency. The inhibitory effects on nitrification in the presence of aromatic compounds have already been studied; however a few studies have considered the presence of phenolic compounds in the form of mixtures, which is the form that they are present in real context. For this reason, we realized a kinetic study on the nitrifying process in the presence of different concentrations of a mixture of phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol and p-cresol (0 - 320 mg C/L) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Firstly, the nitrifying process was evaluated in absence of the phenolic mixture (control 1) in a SBR with 2 L working volume and 176 mg/L of nitrogen of microbial protein. Total oxidation of initial ammonium (efficiency; ENH4+ of 100 %) to nitrate (nitrifying yield; YNO3- of 0.95) were obtained with specific rates of ammonium consumption (qN-NH4+) and nitrate production (qN-NO3-) (of 1.11 ± 0.04 h-1 and 0.67 h-1 ± 0.11 respectively. During the phase of acclimation with 40 mg C/L of the phenolic mixture, an inhibitory effect on the nitrifying process was observed, provoking a decrease in ENH4+ and YNO3- (11 and 54 % respectively) as well as in the specific rates (89 y 46 % respectively), being the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (BAO) the most affected. However, in the next cycles without the phenolic mixture (control 2), the nitrifying consortium was able to recover its nitrifying capacity (ENH4+ = 100% and YNO3-=0.98). Afterwards the SBR was fed with 10 mg C/L of the phenolic mixture, obtaining and ENH4+ of 100%, YNO3- and qN-NH4+ 0.62 ± 0.006 and 0.13 ± 0.004 respectively, while the qN-NO3- was 0.49 ± 0.007. Moreover, with the increase of the phenolic concentrations (10-160 mg C/L) and the number of cycles the nitrifying consortium was able to oxidize the ammonia with ENH4+ of 100 % and YNO3- close to 1. However a decrease in the values of the nitrification specific rates and increase in the oxidation in phenolic compounds (70 to 94%) were observed. Finally, in the presence of 320 mg C/L, the nitrifying consortium was able to simultaneously oxidize the ammonia (ENH4+= 100%) and the phenolic mixture (p-cresol>phenol>m-cresol>o-cresol) being the o-cresol the most recalcitrant compound. In all the experiments the use of a SBR allowed a respiratory adaptation of the consortium to oxidize the phenolic mixture achieving greater adaptation of the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) than in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB).

Keywords: Nitrification, phenol, inhibition, sequencing batch reactor, cresol

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2 Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, Khalid S. Hashim, Ali W. Alattabi, Ali Alzeyadi


This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.

Keywords: nitrite, sequencing batch reactor, retention time, nitrate, sludge characteristics, ammonia-nitrogen

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1 Comparison Between Conventional Bacterial and Algal-Bacterial Aerobic Granular Sludge Systems in the Treatment of Saline Wastewater

Authors: Philip Semaha, Zhongfang Lei, Ziwen Zhao, Sen Liu, Zhenya Zhang, Kazuya Shimizu


The increasing generation of saline wastewater through various industrial activities is becoming a global concern for activated sludge (AS) based biological treatment which is widely applied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As for the AS process, increase in wastewater salinity has a negative impact on its overall performance. The advent of conventional aerobic granular sludge (AGS) or bacterial AGS as novel biotechnology has gained much attention because of its superior performance. Most recently, algal-bacterial AGS has been proposed as a much more efficient alternative with better nutrients removal and the potential to reduce aeration cost through symbiotic algae activity, which could also reduce treatment cost. Previous studies on saline wastewater treatment by AGS show that the increase of salinity may decrease biomass growth and nutrient removal rate. Up to the present, little information is available on saline wastewater treatment by algal-bacterial AGS, nor a comparison of the two AGS systems has been done to evaluate nutrient removal capacity as biomass reduces with salinity increase. This study sought to figure out the impact of salinity on algal-bacterial AGS system in comparison to bacterial AGS one, contributing to the application of AGS technology in the real world of saline wastewater treatment. In this study, the salinities tested were 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 g/L of NaCl with 24-hr artificial illuminance of approximately 97.2 µmol m¯²s¯¹, and mature bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS were used for the operation of two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with a working volume of 0.9 L each, respectively. The results showed that salinity increase caused no apparent change in the color of bacterial AGS, while for algal-bacterial AGS, its color was progressively changed from green to dark green. A consequent increase in granule diameter and fluffiness was observed in the bacterial AGS reactor with the increase of salinity in comparison to a decrease in algal-bacterial AGS diameter. Nitritation rate in both systems was almost 100% throughout, except at 10 g/L NaCl with 92% and 95% in the bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS systems, respectively. However, nitrite accumulation peaked from 1.0 and 0.4 mg/L at 1 g/L NaCl in the bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS systems, respectively to 9.8 mg/L in both systems when NaCl concentration varied from 5 to 15 g/L. Almost no ammonia nitrogen was detected in the effluent except at 10g/L NaCl concentration, where it averaged 4.2 and 2.4 mg/L respectively in the bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS systems. Nutrients removal in the algal-bacterial system was relatively higher than the bacterial AGS system in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Nonetheless, the nutrients removal rate was almost 50% or lower. Results show that algal-bacterial AGS is more adaptable to salinity increase and could be more suitable for saline wastewater treatment. Optimization of operation conditions for algal-bacterial AGS system would be important to ensure its stably high efficiency in practice.

Keywords: Nutrients Removal, sequencing batch reactor, algal-bacterial aerobic granular sludge, bacterial aerobic granular sludge, saline wastewater

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