Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

sensory evaluation Related Abstracts

20 Effects of Camel Casein Hydrolysate Addition on Rheological Properties of Yoghurt

Authors: A. A. Al-Saleh, E. A. Ismail, A. A. Metwalli

Abstract:

Effects of camel and cow casein hydrolysates by trypsin enzyme on rheological and sensory properties and growth of starter culture of the yoghurts made from cow milk have been investigated. The hydrolysates strongly decreased the fermentation and coagulation time of the yoghurts. The rate of pH decrease was higher with camel casein hydrolysate in comparison with cow casein hydrolysate at all concentrations used (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5%). Viscosities of the yoghurt made with hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to control samples. The addition of the hydrolysates significantly (p <0.05) increased the hardness and adhesiveness of the yoghurts. No significant differences in water holding capacity of control and treated samples were obsereved at 0.5 and 1.0% casein hydrolysate addition. However, increasing casein hydrolysate addition to 1.5% decreased water holding capacity of yoghurt samples. The sensory evaluation scores of the yoghurts were significantly (p<0.05) improved with the addition of casein hydrolysates.

Keywords: yoghurt, camel casein hydrolysates, cow casein hydrolysate, sensory evaluation

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19 Utilization of “Adlai” (Coix lacryma-jobi L) Flour as Wheat Flour Extender in Selected Baked Products in the Philippines

Authors: Rolando B. Llave Jr.

Abstract:

In many countries, wheat flour is used an essential component in production/preparation of bread and other baked products considered to have a significant role in man’s diet. Partial replacement of wheat flour with other flours (composite flour) in preparation of the said products is seen as a solution to the scarcity of wheat flour (in non-wheat producing countries), and improved nourishment. In composite flour, other flours may come from cereals, legumes, root crops, and those that are rich in starch. Many countries utilize whatever is locally available. “Adlai” or Job’s tears is a tall cereal plant that belongs to the same family of grass as wheat, rice, and corn. In some countries, it is used as an ingredient in producing many dishes and alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. As part of the Food Staple Self-Sufficiency Program (FSSP) of the Department of Agriculture (DA) in the Philippines, “adlai” is being promoted as alternative food source for the Filipinos. In this study, the grits coming from the seeds of “adlai” were turned into flour. The resulting flour was then used as partial replacement for wheat flour in selected baked products namely “pan de sal” (salt bread), cupcakes and cookies. The supplementation of “adlai” flour ranged 20%-45% with 20%-35% for “pan de sal”; 30%-45% for cupcakes; and 25% - 40% for cookies. The study was composed of four (4) phases. Phase I was product formulation studies. Phase II included the acceptability test/sensory evaluation of the baked products where the statistical analysis of the data gathered followed. Phase III was the computation of the theoretical protein content of the most acceptable “pan de sal”, cupcake and cookie, and lastly, in Phase IV, cost benefit was analyzed, specifically in terms of the direct material cost.

Keywords: sensory evaluation, “adlai”, composite flour, supplementation

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18 Use of Apple Pomace as a Source of Dietary Fibre in Mutton Nuggets

Authors: Aamina B. Hudaa, Rehana Akhtera, Massarat Hassana, Mir Monisab

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Mutton nuggets produced with the addition of apple pomace at the levels of 0% (Control), 5% (Treatment 1), 10% (Treatment 2), and 15% (Treatment 3) were evaluated for emulsion stability, cooking yield, pH, proximate composition, texture analysis and sensory properties. Apple pomace addition resulted in significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) emulsion stability and cooking yield of treatments in comparison to control and pH values were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for the control as compared to treatments. Among the treatments, the product with 15% apple pomace had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) highest moisture content, and protein, ash and fat contents were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in control than treatment groups. Crude fiber content of control was found significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower in comparison to nuggets formulated with 5%, 10% and 15% apple pomace and was found to increase significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with the increasing levels of apple pomace. Hardness of the products significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased with addition of apple pomace, whereas springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess showed a non-significant (p ≥ 0.05) decrease with the levels of apple pomace. Sensory evaluation showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction in texture, flavour and overall acceptability scores of treatment products; however the scores were in the range of acceptability and T-1 showed better acceptability among apple pomace incorporated treatments.

Keywords: sensory evaluation, Mutton nuggets, apple pomace, textural properties

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17 Is Liking for Sampled Energy-Dense Foods Mediated by Taste Phenotypes?

Authors: Gary J. Pickering, Sarah Lucas, Catherine E. Klodnicki, Nicole J. Gaudette

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Two taste pheno types that are of interest in the study of habitual diet-related risk factors and disease are 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) responsiveness and thermal tasting. Individuals differ considerable in how intensely they experience the bitterness of PROP, which is partially explained by three major single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the TAS2R38 gene. Importantly, this variable responsiveness is a useful proxy for general taste responsiveness, and links to diet-related disease risk, including body mass index, in some studies. Thermal tasting - a newly discovered taste phenotype independent of PROP responsiveness - refers to the capacity of many individuals to perceive phantom tastes in response to lingual thermal stimulation, and is linked with TRPM5 channels. Thermal tasters (TTs) also experience oral sensations more intensely than thermal non-tasters (TnTs), and this was shown to associate with differences in self-reported food preferences in a previous survey from our lab. Here we report on two related studies, where we sought to determine whether PROP responsiveness and thermal tasting would associate with perceptual differences in the oral sensations elicited by sampled energy-dense foods, and whether in turn this would influence liking. We hypothesized that hyper-tasters (thermal tasters and individuals who experience PROP intensely) would (a) rate sweet and high-fat foods more intensely than hypo-tasters, and (b) would differ from hypo-tasters in liking scores. (Liking has been proposed recently as a more accurate measure of actual food consumption). In Study 1, a range of energy-dense foods and beverages, including table cream and chocolate, was assessed by 25 TTs and 19 TnTs. Ratings of oral sensation intensity and overall liking were obtained using gVAS and gDOL scales, respectively. TTs and TnTs did not differ significantly in intensity ratings for most stimuli (ANOVA). In a 2nd study, 44 female participants sampled 22 foods and beverages, assessing them for intensity of oral sensations (gVAS) and overall liking (9-point hedonic scale). TTs (n=23) rated their overall liking of creaminess and milk products lower than did TnTs (n=21), and liked milk chocolate less. PROP responsiveness was negatively correlated with liking of food and beverages belonging to the sweet or sensory food grouping. No other differences in intensity or liking scores between hyper- and hypo-tasters were found. Taken overall, our results are somewhat unexpected, lending only modest support to the hypothesis that these taste phenotypes associate with energy-dense food liking and consumption through differences in the oral sensations they elicit. Reasons for this lack of concordance with expectations and some prior literature are discussed, and suggestions for future research are advanced.

Keywords: sensory evaluation, taste phenotypes, PROP, thermal tasting, diet-related health risk

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16 Sensory Evaluation and Microbiological Properties of Gouda Cheese Affected by Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Essential Oil

Authors: N. Noori, P. Taherkhani, A. Akhondzadeh Basti, H. Gandomi, M. Alimohammadi

Abstract:

Research on natural antimicrobial agents, especially of plant origin, highly noticed in recent years and evaluation of antimicrobial effects of native plants such as Bunium persicum Boiss. is especially important. In the present study, sensory characteristics and microbiological properties of Gouda cheese affected by different concentrations of Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil were investigated. Extraction of the essential oil was performed by hydro distillation. The oil was analyzed by GC using flame ionization (FID) and GC/ MS for detection. The antimicrobial effects were determined against various microbial groups (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, enterococci, mesophilic lactobacilli, enterobacteriaceae, lactococcus and yeasts). Microbial groups were counted during ripening period using plate count on specific culture media. Organoleptic evaluation including teture, flavor, odor, color and total acceptability were determined at the end of aging. According to results, the essential oil yield was 4/1 % ( W/ W). Twenty- six compounds were identified in the oil that concluded 99.7 % of the total oil. The major components of Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil were γ- terpinene- 7- al (26.9 %) and cuminaldehyde (23.3 %). Generally, the increase of Black Cumin essential oil concentration led to reduction in microbial counts in different groups. The maximum antimicrobial effect was seen in yeast that reduced by 2 log compared to the control group at EO concentration of 4µl/ ml at day 90.The minimum reduction was observed in enterobacteriaceae that showed only 0.75 log decreese compared to the control at the same concentration of EO. Addition of EO improved organoleptic properties of Gouda cheese especially in the case of flavor and odor characteristic. However, no significant differences were observed in texture and color between treatment and control groups. Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil could be used as preservative material and flavoring agent in some kinds of food such as cheese and also could be provided consumers health.

Keywords: sensory evaluation, Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil, Microbiological properties, gouda cheese

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15 Extraction of Inulin from Cichorium Intybus and Its Application as Fat Replacer in Yoghurt

Authors: Hafiz Khuram Wasim Aslam, Muhammad Saeed, Azam Shakeel, Muhammad Inam Ur Raheem, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Atif Randhawa

Abstract:

Inulin is significant ingredient used in food industry that functions technologically as a fat replacer often without compromising taste and texture. In this study inulin was extracted from the chicory roots and the effect of inulin addition as a fat replacer on the physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of non-fat yogurt was investigated. The supplementation of chicory inulin reduced the magnitude of firmness in comparison with non-inulin ¬supplemented non-fat yoghurt. Higher values of acidity were observed due to the more microbial fermentation in the inulin containing yogurt as compared to non-inulin yogurt and were in the range of 0.56 to 0.75 during storage days. Syneresis in control sample increased from 43.9% to 47.9% during the storage study. However inulin addition at different treatment enhanced syneresis from 44.5% to 47.6%. Inulin addition at various concentrations caused an increase in the TPC due to its probiotic effect. No effects of inuline addition on fat and protein contents were observed. Non-fat yoghurt supplemented with inulin demonstrated sensory behavior better than that of the control yoghurt. The most important effect of the addition of inulin to non-fat yoghurt is an increase in the sensory attributes appearance, body and texture, taste and mouth feel, overall acceptability. On an average, yoghurt supplemented with 1 to 2% inulin was better in overall acceptance as compared to control yoghurt.

Keywords: yoghurt, sensory evaluation, inulin, low fat, fat replacer

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14 Comparison Conventional with Microwave-Assisted Drying Method on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Rice Bran Noodle

Authors: Chien-Chun Huang, Yi-U Chiou, Chiun-C.R. Wang

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For longer shelf life of noodles, air-dried method is the traditional way for the noodle preparation. Microwave drying has the specific advantage of rapid and uniform heating due to the penetration of microwaves into the body of the product. Microwave-assisted facility offers a quick and energy saving method during food dehydration as compares to the conventional air-dried method. Recently, numerous studies in the rheological characteristics of pasta or spaghetti were carried out with microwave–assisted air driers and many agricultural products were dried successfully. There are few researches about the evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and cooking quality of microwave-assisted air dried salted noodles. The purposes of this study were to compare the difference between conventional and microwave-assisted drying method on the physicochemical properties and eating quality of rice bran noodles. Three different microwave power including 0.5 KW, 0.75 KW and 1.0 KW installing with 50℃ hot air were applied for dehydration of rice bran noodles in this study. Three proportion of rice bran ranging in 0-20% were incorporated into salted noodles processing. The appearance, optimum cooking time, cooking yield and losses, textural profiles analysis, sensory evaluation of rice bran noodles were measured in this study. The results indicated that high power (1.0 KW) microwave facility caused partially burnt and porous on the surface of rice bran noodles. However, no characteristic of noodle was appeared on the surface of noodles preparing by low power (0.5 KW) microwave facility. The optimum cooking time of noodles was decreased as higher power microwave or higher proportion of rice bran was incorporated into noodles preparation. The higher proportion of rice bran (20%) or higher power of microwave-assisted dried noodles obtained the higher color intensity and the higher cooking losses as compared with conventional air dried noodles. The firmness of cooked rice bran noodles slightly decreased in the cooked noodles which were dried by high power microwave-assisted method. The shearing force, tensile strength, elasticity and texture profiles of cooked rice noodles decreased with the progress of the proportion of rice bran. The results of sensory evaluation indicated conventional dried noodles obtained the higher springiness, cohesiveness and acceptability of cooked noodles than high power (1.0 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles. However, low power (0.5 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles showed the comparable sensory attributes and acceptability with conventional dried noodles. Moreover, the sensory attributes including firmness, springiness, cohesiveness decreased, but stickiness increased, with the increases of rice bran proportion. These results inferred that incorporation of lower proportion of rice bran and lower power microwave-assisted dried noodles processing could produce faster cooking time and acceptable quality of cooked noodles as compared to conventional dried noodles.

Keywords: sensory evaluation, physicochemical characteristics, microwave-assisted drying method, rice bran noodles

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13 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ladele Ademola A., Nkiru T. Meludu, Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.

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Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: Utilization, sweet potato, blends, sensory evaluation, diversification

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12 Study of White Salted Noodles Air Dehydration Assisted by Microwave as Compared to Conventional Air Dried Process

Authors: Chiun-C. R. Wang, I-Yu Chiu

Abstract:

Drying is the most difficult and critical step to control in the dried salted noodles production. Microwave drying has the specific advantage of rapid and uniform heating due to the penetration of microwaves into the body of the product. Microwave-assisted facility offers a quick and energy saving method during food dehydration as compares to the conventional air-dried method for the noodle preparation. Recently, numerous studies in the rheological characteristics of pasta or spaghetti were carried out with microwave–assisted and conventional air driers and many agricultural products were dried successfully. There is very few research associated with the evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and cooking quality of microwave-assisted air dried salted noodles. The purposes of this study were to compare the difference between conventional air and microwave-assisted air drying method on the physicochemical properties and eating quality of rice bran noodles. Three different microwave power including 0.5 KW, 0.75 KW and 1.0 KW installing with 50℃ hot air were applied for dehydration of rice bran noodles in this study. Three proportion of rice bran ranging in 0-20% were incorporated into salted noodles processing. The appearance, optimum cooking time, cooking yield and losses, textural profiles analysis, and sensory evaluation of rice bran noodles were measured in this study. The results indicated that high power (1.0 KW) microwave facility caused partially burnt and porous on the surface of rice bran noodles. However, no significant difference of noodle was appeared on the surface of noodles between low power (0.5 KW) microwave-assisted salted noodles and control set. The optimum cooking time of noodles was decreased as higher power microwave was applied or higher proportion of rice bran was incorporated in the preparation of salted noodles. The higher proportion of rice bran (20%) or higher power of microwave-assisted dried noodles obtained the higher color intensity and the higher cooking losses as compared with conventional air dried noodles. Meanwhile, the higher power of microwave-assisted air dried noodles indicated the larger air cell inside the noodles and appeared little burnt stripe on the surface of noodles. The firmness of cooked rice bran noodles slightly decreased in the cooked noodles which were dried by high power microwave-assisted method. The shearing force, tensile strength, elasticity and texture profiles of cooked rice noodles decreased with the progress of the proportion of rice bran. The results of sensory evaluation indicated conventional dried noodles obtained the higher springiness, cohesiveness and overall acceptability of cooked noodles than high power (1.0 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles. However, low power (0.5 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles showed the comparable sensory attributes and acceptability with conventional dried noodles. Moreover, the sensory attributes including firmness, springiness, cohesiveness decreased, but stickiness increased with the increases of rice bran proportion in the salted noodles. These results inferred that incorporation of lower proportion of rice bran and lower power microwave-assisted dried noodles processing could produce faster cooking time and more acceptable quality of cooked noodles as compared to conventional dried noodles.

Keywords: sensory evaluation, appearance, white salted noodles, microwave-assisted air drying processing, cooking yield, texture profiles, scanning electrical microscopy

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11 Slaughter and Carcass Characterization, and Sensory Qualities of Native, Pure, and Upgraded Breeds of Goat Raised in the Philippines

Authors: Jonathan N. Nayga, Emelita B. Valdez, Mila R. Andres, Beulah B. Estrada, Emelina A. Lopez, Rogelio B. Tamayo, Aubrey Joy M. Balbin

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Goat production is one of the activities included in integrated farming in the Philippines. Goats are raised for its meat and regardless of breed the animal is slaughtered for this purpose. In order to document the carcass yield of different goats slaughtered, five (5) different breeds of goats to include Purebred Boer and Anglo-nubian, Crossbred Boer and Anglo-nubian and Philippine Native goat were used in the study. Data on slaughter parameters, carcass characteristics, and sensory evaluation were gathered and analyzed using Complete Random Design (CRD) at 5% level of significance and the results of carcass conformation were assessed descriptively. Results showed that slaughter data such as slaughter/live weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, dressing percentage and percentage drip loss were significantly different (P>0.05) among breeds. On carcass and meat characteristics, pure breed and upgraded Boer were found to be moderately muscular while Native goat was rated as thin muscular. The color of the carcass also revealed that Purebred and crossbred Boer were described dark red, while Native goat was noted to be slightly pale. On sensory evaluation, the results indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among breeds evaluated. It is therefore concluded that purebred goat has heavier carcass, while both purebred Boer and upgrade are rated slightly muscular. It is further confirms that regardless of breed, goat will have the same sensory characteristics. Thus, it is recommended to slaughter heavier goats to obtain more carcasses with better conformation and quality.

Keywords: Goat, sensory evaluation, carcass quality, slaughter

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10 Identification of Ideal Plain Sufu (Fermented Soybean Curds) Based on Ideal Profile Method and Assessment of the Consistency of Ideal Profiles Obtained from Consumers

Authors: Yan Ping Chen, Hau Yin Chung

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The Ideal Profile Method (IPM) is a newly developed descriptive sensory analysis conducted by consumers without previous training. To perform this test, both the perceived and the ideal intensities from the judgements of consumers on products’ attributes, as well as their hedonic ratings were collected for formulating an ideal product (the most liked one). In addition, Ideal Profile Analysis (IPA) was conducted to check the consistency of the ideal data at both the panel and consumer levels. In this test, 12 commercial plain sufus bought from Hong Kong local market were tested by 113 consumers according to the IPM, and rated on 22 attributes. Principal component analysis was used to profile the perceived and the ideal spaces of tested products. The consistency of ideal data was then checked by IPA. The result showed that most consumers shared a common ideal. It was observed that the sensory product space and the ideal product space were structurally similar. Their first dimensions all opposed products with intense fermented related aroma to products with less fermented related aroma. And the predicted ideal profile (the estimated liking score around 7.0 in a 9.0-point scale) got higher hedonic score than the tested products (the average liking score around 6.0 in a 9.0-point scale). For the majority of consumers (95.2%), the stated ideal product considered as a potential ideal through checking the R2 coefficient value. Among all the tested products, sample-6 was the most popular one with consumer liking percentage around 30%. This product with less fermented and moldy flavour but easier to melt in mouth texture possessed close sensory profile according to the ideal product. This experiment validated that data from untrained consumers could be guided as useful information. Appreciated sensory characteristics could be served as reference in the optimization of the commercial plain sufu.

Keywords: Product Development, sensory evaluation, ideal profile method, sufu (fermented soybean curd)

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9 Quality of Donut Supplemented with Hom Nin Rice Flour

Authors: Supatchalee Sirichokworrakit, Pannin Intasen, Chansuda Angkawut

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Hom Nin rice (Oryza Sativa L.) was processed into flour and used to substitute wheat flour in donuts. The donuts were prepared with 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% Hom Nin rice flour (HNF). The donuts were subjected to proximate, texture, color and sensory evaluations. The results of the study revealed that the ash, moisture, crude fiber contents increased while crude fat and protein contents decreased as the level of HNF increased. The hardness and chewiness of donut increased as the HNF increased but the cohesiveness, springiness, and specific volume decreased. Color of donut (L*, a*, and b* values) decreased with the addition of HNF. Overall acceptability for the 20-40% HNF additions did not differ significantly from the score of the 100% wheat flour.

Keywords: sensory evaluation, Hom Nin rice, donut, texture evaluation

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8 Diversification of Indonesian Terasi Shrimp (Acetes indicus) Powder as Alternative and Sustainable Food for the Double Burden of Malnutrition

Authors: Galuh Asri Bestari, Hajar Shofiyya

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Double burden of malnutrition (DBM) has been a global problem in these last decades occurs in both developed and developing countries. Overweight in adults and stunting among preschool children have dramatically increased and become the main problems of malnutrition that should be solved immediately since they are directly related with the health status and productivity. Reformulation of food product by using the local sea resources called terasi shrimp (Acetes indicus) has a potential possibility in facing the DBM. A study was carried out in Indonesia to determine the acceptability of terasi shrimp powder through sensory evaluation. Terasi shrimps were processed into powder form through sun drying and pounding methods. The powder form was directly added in food as alternative seasonings and tested among stunted and normal preschool children. Meanwhile, a further processing method is given to the shrimp powder tested in overweight and normal-weighed adults. The shrimp powder was mixed with sago flour and formed into balls, then steamed for 15-20 minutes, and finally served as alternative snacks. Based on the sensory evaluation, the shrimp powder has a good acceptance in taste (54%), shape (60%), and color properties (63%), while the shrimp balls has a good acceptance in size (65%), shape (50%), color (48%), taste (40%), and texture (36%). Terasi shrimp powder can be stored for a month in room temperature. In addition, carried out chemical analysis revealed that terasi shrimp (Acetes indicus) has higher percentage of protein, calcium, and iron than other animal sources, but conversely contains zero sodium and very low percentage of fat. Terasi shrimp’s shell also contains a substance called chitosan which acts by forming gels in the intestinal tract to entrap lipids, thus interfering with their absorption. After going through some processing methods, the shrimp powder and balls did not show any significant changes in their nutrient contents. So that, terasi shrimp powder is good to be consumed not only by overweight adults, but also by children to support their optimum growth. Intervention of terasi shrimp powder should be implemented step by step from national up to global governance program to face the DBM.

Keywords: Alternative Food, sensory evaluation, Acetes indicus, double burden of malnutrition

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7 Study on Preparation and Storage of Jam Incorporating Carrots (Dacus Carrota), Banana (Musa Acuminata) and Lime (Citrus Aurantifola)

Authors: K. Premakumar, D. S. Rushani, H. N. Hettiarachchi

Abstract:

The production and consumption of preserved foods have gained much importance due to globalization, and they provide a health benefit apart from the basic nutritional functions. Therefore, a study was conducted to develop a jam incorporating carrot, banana, and lime. Considering the findings of several preliminary studies, five formulations of the jam were prepared by blending different percentages of carrot and banana including control (where the only carrot was added). The freshly prepared formulations were subjected to physicochemical and sensory analysis.Physico-Chemical parameters such as pH, TSS, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid content, total sugar and non-reducing sugar and organoleptic qualities such as colour, aroma, taste, spread ability and overall acceptability and microbial analysis (total plate count) were analyzed after formulations. Physico-Chemical Analysis of the freshly prepared Carrot –Banana Blend jam showed increasing trend in titrable acidity (from 0.8 to 0.96, as % of citric acid), TSS (from 70.05 to 67.5 0Brix), ascorbic acid content (from 0.83 to 11.465 mg/100ml), reducing sugar (from 15.64 to 20.553%) with increase in carrot pulp from 50 to 100%. pH, total sugar, and non-reducing sugar were also reduced when carrot concentration is increased. Five points hedonic scale was used to evaluate the organoleptic characters. According to Duncan's Multiple Range Test, the mean scores for all the assessed sensory characters varied significantly (p<0.05) in the freshly made carrot-banana blend jam formulations. Based on the physicochemical and sensory analysis, the most preferred carrot: banana combinations of 50:50, 100:0 and 80:20 (T1, T2, and T5) were selected for storage studies.The formulations were stored at 300 °C room temperature and 70-75% of RH for 12 weeks. The physicochemical characteristics were measured at two weeks interval during storage. The decreasing trends in pH and ascorbic acid and an increasing trend in TSS, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar were noted with advancement of storage periods of 12 weeks. The results of the chemical analysis showed that there were significance differences (p<0.05) between the tested formulations. Sensory evaluation was done for carrot –banana blends jam after a period of 12 weeks through a panel of 16 semi-trained panelists. The sensory analysis showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) for organoleptic characters between carrot-banana blend jam formulations. The highest overall acceptability was observed in formulation with 80% carrot and 20% banana pulp. Microbiological Analysis was carried out on the day of preparation, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months after preparation. No bacterial growth was observed in the freshly made carrot -banana blend jam. There were no counts of yeast and moulds and coliforms in all treatments after the heat treatments and during the storage period. Only the bacterial counts (Total Plate Counts) were observed after three months of storage below the critical level, and all formulations were microbiologically safe for consumption. Based on the results of physio-chemical characteristics, sensory attributes, and microbial test, the carrot –banana blend jam with 80% carrot and 20% banana (T2) was selected as best formulation and could be stored up to 12 weeks without any significant changes in the quality characteristics.

Keywords: Formulations, sensory evaluation, microbiological analysis, physicochemical parameters

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6 The Effects of Applying Wash and Green-A Syrups as Substitution of Sugar on Dough and Cake Properties

Authors: Banafsheh Aghamohammadi, Masoud Honarvar, Babak Ghiassi Tarzi

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Usage of different components has been considered to improve the quality and nutritional properties of cakes in recent years. The effects of applying some sweeteners, instead of sugar, have been evaluated in cakes and many bread formulas up to now; but there has not been any research about the usage of by-products of sugar factories such as Wash and Green-A Syrups in cake formulas. In this research, the effects of substituting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of sugar with Wash and Green-A Syrups on some dough and cake properties, such as pH, viscosity, density, volume, weight loss, moisture, water activity, texture, staling, color and sensory evaluations, are studied. The results of these experiments showed that the pH values were not significantly different among any of the all cake batters and also most of the cake samples. Although differences among viscosity and specific gravity of all treatments were both significant and insignificant, these two parameters resulted in higher volume in all samples than the blank one. The differences in weight loss, moisture content and water activity of samples were insignificant. Evaluating of texture showed that the softness of most of samples is increased and the staling is decreased. Crumb color and sensory evaluations of samples were also affected by the replacement of sucrose with Wash and Green-A Syrups. According to the results, we can increase the shelf life and improve the quality and nutritional values of cake by using these kinds of syrups in the formulation.

Keywords: sensory evaluation, cake, green-A syrup, quality tests, wash syrup

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5 Learning at Workplace: Competences and Contexts in Sensory Evaluation

Authors: Ulriikka Savela-Huovinen, Hanni Muukkonen, Auli Toom

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The development of workplace as a learning environment has been emphasized in research field of workplace learning. The prior literature on sensory performance emphasized the individual’s competences as assessor, while the competences in the collaborative interactional and knowledge creation practices as workplace learning method are not often mentioned. In the present study aims to find out what kinds of competences and contexts are central when assessor conducts food sensory evaluation in authentic professional context. The aim was to answer the following questions: first, what kinds of competences does sensory evaluation require according to assessors? And second, what kinds of contexts for sensory evaluation do assessors report? Altogether thirteen assessors from three Finnish food companies were interviewed by using semi-structural thematic interviews to map practices and development intentions as well as to explicate already established practices. The qualitative data were analyzed by following the principles of abductive and inductive content analysis. Analysis phases were combined and their results were considered together as a cross-analysis. When evaluated independently required competences were perception, knowledge of specific domains and methods and cognitive skills e.g. memory. Altogether, 42% of analysis units described individual evaluation contexts, 53% of analysis units described collaborative interactional contexts, and 5% of analysis units described collaborative knowledge creation contexts. Related to collaboration, analysis reviewed learning, sharing and reviewing both external and in-house consumer feedback, developing methods to moderate small-panel evaluation and developing product vocabulary collectively between the assessors. Knowledge creation contexts individualized from daily practices especially in cases product defects were sought and discussed. The study findings contribute to the explanation that sensory assessors learn extensively from one another in the collaborative interactional and knowledge creation context. Assessors learning and abilities to work collaboratively in the interactional and knowledge creation contexts need to be ensured in the development of the expertise.

Keywords: Collaboration, sensory evaluation, competences, assessor, contexts, learning and practices

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4 Development and Evaluation of Whey-Based Drink: An Approach to Protect Environmental Pollution

Authors: Zarmina Gillani, Mulazim Hussain Bukhari, Nuzhat Huma, Aqsa Qayyum

Abstract:

Whey is a valuable by-product of dairy industry comprising of precious nutrients lactose, protein, vitamins and minerals for the human food but considered as a pollutant due to its biological activity. So, there is a need to develop nutritious whey products to overcome the problem of environmental pollution. This project was planned to develop a whey drink at different pasteurization temperatures and its quality was evaluated during storage. The result indicated that pH, acidity, total soluble solids and lactose content changed significantly (p < 0.01) due to lactic acid production during storage. Non-significant (p > 0.05) effects were detected on the protein and ash content of whey drink. Fat and viscosity changed significantly with respect to storage only. Sensory evaluation of whey drink revealed that both treatments remained acceptable while whey drink pasteurized at 75°C/30 minutes (WD2) gained more sensory score compared to whey drink pasteurized at 65°C/30minutes (WD1).

Keywords: Storage, Pasteurization, sensory evaluation, whey

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3 Proximate, Functional and Sensory Evaluation of Some Brands of Instant Noodles in Nigeria

Authors: Olakunle Moses Makanjuola, Adebola Ajayi

Abstract:

Noodles are made from unleavened dough, rolled flat and cut into shapes. The instant noodle market is growing fast in Asian countries and is gaining popularity in the western market. This project reports on the proximate functional and sensory evaluation of different brands of instant noodles in Nigeria. The comparisons were based on proximate functional and sensory evaluation of the product. The result obtained from the proximate analysis showed that sample QHR has the highest moisture content, sample BMG has the highest protein content, sample CPO has the highest fat content, sample. The obtained result from the functional properties showed that sample BMG (Dangote noodles) had the highest volume increase after cooking due to its high swelling capacity, high water absorption capacity and high hydration capacity. Sample sensory analysis of the noodles showed that all the samples are of significant difference (at P < 0.05) in terms of colour, texture, and aroma but there is no significant difference in terms of taste and overall acceptability. Sample QHR (Indomie noodles) is the most preferred by the panelists.

Keywords: Functional, sensory evaluation, noodles, proximate

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2 Potential Application of Artocarpus odoratisimmus Seed Flour in Bread Production

Authors: Hasmadi Mamat, Noorfarahzilah Masri

Abstract:

The search for lesser known and underutilized crops, many of which are potentially valuable as human and animal foods has been the focus of research in recent years. Tarap (Artocarpus odoratisimmus) is one of the most delicious tropical fruit and can be found extensively in Borneo, particularly in Sabah and Sarawak. This study was conducted in order to determine the proximate composition, mineral contents as well as to study the effect of the seed flour on the quality of bread produced. Tarap seed powder (TSP) was incorporated (up to 20%) with wheat flour and used to produce bread. The moisture content, ash, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber were measured using AOAC methods while the mineral content was determined using AAS. The effect of substitution of wheat flour with Tarap seed flour on the quality of dough and bread was investigated using various techniques. Farinograph tests were applied to determine the effect of seaweed powder on the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, while texture profile analysis (TPA) was used to measure the textural properties of the final product. Besides that sensory evaluations were also conducted. On a dry weight basis, the TSP was composed of 12.50% moisture, 8.78% protein, 15.60% fat, 1.17% ash, 49.65% carbohydrate and 12.30% of crude fiber. The highest mineral found were Mg, followed by K, Ca, Fe and Na respectively. Farinograh results found that as TSP percentage increased, dough consistency, water absorption capacity and development time of dough decreased. Sensory analysis results showed that bread with 10% of TSP was the most accepted by panelists where the highest acceptability score were found for aroma, taste, colour, crumb texture as well as overall acceptance. The breads with more than 10% of TSP obtained lower acceptability score in most of attributes tested.

Keywords: Bread, sensory evaluation, proximate analysis, tarap seed

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1 Characterization of Antioxidant-Antimicrobial Microcapsules Containing Carum Copticum Essential Oil and Their Effect on the Sensory Quality of Yoghurt

Authors: Maryam Rahimi, Maryam Moslehishad, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini

Abstract:

In this study, preparation of spray dried Carum copticum essential oil (CCEO)-loaded microcapsules by maltodextrin and its blending with two other natural biodegradable polymers, gum Arabic (GA) or modified starch (MS) were investigated. Addition of these polymers to maltodextrin resulted in the encasement of encapsulation efficiency (EE). The highest EE (78.22±0.34%) and total phenolic (TP) content (83.86±1.72 mg GAE/100g) was related to MD-MS microcapsules. CCEO-loaded microcapsules showed spherical surface, good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In addition, sensory tests confirmed the possible application of CCEO-loaded microcapsules as natural food additives.

Keywords: Antioxidants, encapsulation, Essential Oil, sensory evaluation, spray drying, Carum copticum

Procedia PDF Downloads 24