Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

sensory characteristics Related Abstracts

3 Effect of Provitamin a Biofortified Maize Inclusion Diet on Consumers' Acceptability of Ovambo Chicken Meat

Authors: Muthulisi Siwela, Feyisayo Odunitan-Wayas, Unathi Kolanisi, Micheal Chimonyo

Abstract:

Consumers’ surveys have indicated low acceptability of provitamin A biofortified maize (PABM), a high vitamin A (HVA) maize in Southern Africa to curb vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Indigenous chickens are reared and consumed by almost all rural households which are the major VAD prone areas in southern Africa. The objective of this study was to determine if HVA diet fed to the Ovambo indigenous chicken breed will influence consumers’ acceptability of the meat. The leg (thigh and drumstick) of the male birds (21 weeks old) were used for the sensory characteristics. 52 consumer panellists evaluated the sensory characteristics on based on a 5-point hedonic scale and preference test. There was no significant difference (P<0.05) in the preference test between the two diets. There were no significant differences (P<0.05) between the diets based on all sensory characteristics. Age and gender of the consumers and their interactions had no effect (P<0.05) on the acceptability and sensory characteristic ratings. It was concluded that indigenous chickens fed provitamin A biofortified maize can be a possible tool for curbing VAD in southern Africa regions where there is low acceptability of the human consumption of provitamin A biofortified maize. It was concluded that PABM diet fed to indigenous chickens will not influence the acceptability of the chicken meat by VAD vulnerable consumers.

Keywords: Gender, age, chicken meat, biofortified pro-vitamin a maize, ovambo, sensory characteristics

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2 Effects of Temperature and Cysteine Addition on Formation of Flavor from Maillard Reaction Using Xylose and Rapeseed Meal Peptide

Authors: Jinlong Zhao, Shudong He, Zuoyong Zhang, Min Yu

Abstract:

The Maillard reaction can produce the flavor enhancing substance through the chemical crosslinking between free amino group of the protein or polypeptide with the carbonyl of the reducing sugar. In this research, solutions of rapeseed meal peptide and D-xylose with or without L-cysteine (RXC or RX) were heated over a range of temperatures (80-140 °C) for 2 h. It was observed that RXs had a severe browning,while RXCs accompanied by more pH decrement with the temperature increasing. Then the correlation among data of quantitative sensory descriptive analysis, free amino acid (FAA) and GC–MS of RXCs and RXs were analyzed using the partial least square regression method. Results suggested that the Maillard reaction product (MRPs) with cysteine formed at 120 °C (RXC-120) had greater sensory properties especially meat-like flavor compared to other MRPs. Meanwhile, it revealed that glutamic and glycine not only had a positive contribution to meaty aroma but also showed a significant and positive influence on umami taste of RXs based on the FAA data. Moreover, the sulfur-containing compounds showed a significant positive correlation with the meat-like flavor of RXCs, while RXs depended on furans and nitrogenous-containing compounds with more caramel-like flavor. Therefore, a MRP with strong meaty flavor could be obtained at 120 °C by addition of cysteine.

Keywords: Maillard reaction, sensory characteristics, rapeseed meal, FAA, GC–MS, partial least square regression

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1 Sensory Characteristics of White Chocolate Enriched with Encapsulated Raspberry Juice

Authors: Jovana Petrović, Biljana Pajin, Ivana Lončarević, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Danica Zarić, Aleksandar Fistes

Abstract:

Chocolate is a food that activates pleasure centers in the human brain. In comparison to black and milk chocolate, white chocolate does not contain fat-free cocoa solids and thus lacks bioactive components. The aim of this study was to examine the sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins (denoted as encapsulate). Chocolate is primarily intended for enjoyment, and therefore, the sensory expectation is a critical factor for consumers when selecting a new type of chocolate. Consumer acceptance of chocolate depends primarily on the appearance and taste, but also very much on the mouthfeel, which mainly depends on the particle size of chocolate. Chocolate samples were evaluated by a panel of 8 trained panelists, food technologists, trained according to ISO 8586 (2012). Panelists developed the list of attributes to be used in this study: intensity of red color (light to dark); glow on the surface (mat to shiny); texture on snap (appearance of cavities or holes on the snap surface that are seen - even to gritty); hardness (hardness felt during the first bite of chocolate sample in half by incisors - soft to hard); melting (the time needed to convert solid chocolate into a liquid state – slowly to quickly); smoothness (perception of evenness of chocolate during melting - very even to very granular); fruitiness (impression of fruity taste - light fruity notes to distinct fruity notes); sweetness (organoleptic characteristic of pure substance or mixture giving sweet taste - lightly sweet to very sweet). The chocolate evaluation was carried out 24 h after sample preparation in the sensory laboratory, in partitioned booths, which were illuminated with fluorescent lights (ISO 8589, 2007). Samples were served in white plastic plates labeled with three-digit codes from a random number table. Panelist scored the perceived intensity of each attribute using a 7-point scale (1 = the least intensity and 7 = the most intensity) (ISO 4121, 2002). The addition of 10% of encapsulate had a big influence on chocolate color, where enriched chocolate got a nice reddish color. At the same time, the enriched chocolate sample had less intensity of gloss on the surface. The panelists noticed that addition of encapsulate reduced the time needed to convert solid chocolate into a liquid state, increasing its hardness. The addition of encapsulate had a significant impact on chocolate flavor. It reduced the sweetness of white chocolate and contributed to the fruity raspberry flavor.

Keywords: Color, sensory characteristics, encapsulated raspberry juice, white chocolate

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