Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Sensor Related Abstracts

52 Magnetic Braking System of an Elevator in the Event of Sudden Breakage of the Hoisting Cable

Authors: Amita Singha


The project describes the scope of magnetic braking. The potential applications of the braking system can be a de-accelerating system to increase the safety of an elevator or any guided rail transportation system.

Keywords: Sensor, boost and buck converter, electromagnet, elevator, ferromagnetic material, solenoid, timer

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51 Detection and Tracking Approach Using an Automotive Radar to Increase Active Pedestrian Safety

Authors: Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Michael Heuer, Alexander Rain, Marc-Michael Meinecke


Vulnerable road users, e.g. pedestrians, have a high impact on fatal accident numbers. To reduce these statistics, car manufactures are intensively developing suitable safety systems. Hereby, fast and reliable environment recognition is a major challenge. In this paper we describe a tracking approach that is only based on a 24 GHz radar sensor. While common radar signal processing loses much information, we make use of a track-before-detect filter to incorporate raw measurements. It is explained how the Range-Doppler spectrum can help to indicated pedestrians and stabilize tracking even in occultation scenarios compared to sensors in series.

Keywords: Sensor, Radar, Active Safety, Pedestrian Detection

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50 Power Aware Modified I-LEACH Protocol Using Fuzzy IF Then Rules

Authors: Gagandeep Singh, Navdeep Singh


Due to limited battery of sensor nodes, so energy efficiency found to be main constraint in WSN. Therefore the main focus of the present work is to find the ways to minimize the energy consumption problem and will results; enhancement in the network stability period and life time. Many researchers have proposed different kind of the protocols to enhance the network lifetime further. This paper has evaluated the issues which have been neglected in the field of the WSNs. WSNs are composed of multiple unattended ultra-small, limited-power sensor nodes. Sensor nodes are deployed randomly in the area of interest. Sensor nodes have limited processing, wireless communication and power resource capabilities Sensor nodes send sensed data to sink or Base Station (BS). I-LEACH gives adaptive clustering mechanism which very efficiently deals with energy conservations. This paper ends up with the shortcomings of various adaptive clustering based WSNs protocols.

Keywords: Sensor, MATLAB, WSN, I-Leach

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49 To Design an Architectural Model for On-Shore Oil Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Network System

Authors: Saurabh Shukla, G. N. Pandey


In recent times, oil exploration and monitoring in on-shore areas have gained much importance considering the fact that in India the oil import is 62 percent of the total imports. Thus, architectural model like wireless sensor network to monitor on-shore deep sea oil well is being developed to get better estimate of the oil prospects. The problem we are facing nowadays that we have very few restricted areas of oil left today. Countries like India don’t have much large areas and resources for oil and this problem with most of the countries that’s why it has become a major problem when we are talking about oil exploration in on-shore areas also the increase of oil prices has further ignited the problem. For this the use of wireless network system having relative simplicity, smallness in size and affordable cost of wireless sensor nodes permit heavy deployment in on-shore places for monitoring oil wells. Deployment of wireless sensor network in large areas will surely reduce the cost it will be very much cost effective. The objective of this system is to send real time information of oil monitoring to the regulatory and welfare authorities so that suitable action could be taken. This system architecture is composed of sensor network, processing/transmission unit and a server. This wireless sensor network system could remotely monitor the real time data of oil exploration and monitoring condition in the identified areas. For wireless sensor networks, the systems are wireless, have scarce power, are real-time, utilize sensors and actuators as interfaces, have dynamically changing sets of resources, aggregate behaviour is important and location is critical. In this system a communication is done between the server and remotely placed sensors. The server gives the real time oil exploration and monitoring conditions to the welfare authorities.

Keywords: Sensor, Oil, Wireless Sensor Network, on-shore level

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48 Electrochemiluminescent Detection of DNA Damage Induced by Tetrachloro-1,4- Benzoquinone Using DNA Sensor

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Xue Sun


DNA damage induced by tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), a reactive metabolite of pentachloro-phenol (PCP), was investigated using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with calf thymus double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) in this work. DNA modified films were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polycationic poly(diallyldimethyl- ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negatively charged ds-DNA on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The DNA intercalator [Ru(bpy)2(dppz)]2+ (bpy=2, 2′-bipyridine, dppz0dipyrido [3, 2-a: 2′,3′-c] phenazine) was chosen as an electrochemical probe to detect DNA damage. After the sensor was incubated in 0.1 M pH 7.3 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for 30min, the intact PDDA/DNA film produced a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal. However, after the sensor was incubated in 100 μM TCBQ or a mixed solution of 100 μM TCBQ and 2 mM H2O2, ECL signal decreased significantly. During the incubation of DNA in TCBQ or TCBQ-H2O2 solution, the double-helix of DNA was damaged, which resulted in the decrease of Ru-dppz bound to DNA. Additionally, the results were verified independently by fluorescence experiments. This paper provides a sensitive method to directly screen DNA damage induced by chemicals in the environment.

Keywords: Sensor, Detection, DNA damage, electrochemiluminescence

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47 C4H6 Adsorption on the Surface of A BN Nanotube: A DFT Studies

Authors: Maziar Noei


Adsorption of a boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) was examined toward ethylacetylene (C4H6) molecule by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G (d) level, and it was found that the adsorption energy (Ead) of ethylacetylene the pristine nanotubes is about -1.60kcal/mol. But when nanotube have been doped with Si and Al atomes, the adsorption energy of ethylacetylene molecule was increased. Calculation showed that when the nanotube is doping by Al, the adsorption energy is about -24.19kcal/mol and also the amount of HOMO/LUMO energy gap (Eg) will reduce significantly. Boron nitride nanotube is a suitable adsorbent for ethylacetylene and can be used in separation processes ethylacetylene. It is seem that nanotube (BNNT) is a suitable semiconductor after doping, and the doped BNNT in the presence of ethylacetylene an electrical signal is generating directly and therefore can potentially be used for ethylacetylene sensors.

Keywords: Nanotube, Sensor, dft, ethylacetylene

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46 Control and Automation of Sensors in Metering System of Fluid

Authors: Abdelkader Harrouz, Omar Harrouz, Ali Benatiallah


This paper is to present the essential definitions, roles and characteristics of automation of metering system. We discuss measurement, data acquisition and metrological control of a signal sensor from dynamic metering system. After that, we present control of instruments of metering system of fluid with more detailed discussions to the reference standards.

Keywords: Communication, Sensor, Computer, metering

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45 Fabrication of a New Electrochemical Sensor Based on New Nanostructured Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole for Selective and Sensitive Determination of Morphine

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Arash Ghoorchian, Maryam Shanesaz, Reza Naderi


Morphine (MO), the most effective painkiller, is considered the reference by which analgesics are assessed. It is very necessary for the biomedical applications to detect and maintain the MO concentrations in the blood and urine with in safe ranges. To date, there are many expensive techniques for detecting MO. Recently, many electrochemical sensors for direct determination of MO were constructed. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is a polymeric material, which has a built-in functionality for the recognition of a particular chemical substance with its complementary cavity.This paper reports a sensor for MO using a combination of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and differential-pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electropolymerization of MO doped polypyrrole yielded poor quality, but a well-doped, nanostructure and increased impregnation has been obtained in the pH=12. Above a pH of 11, MO is in the anionic forms. The effect of various experimental parameters including pH, scan rate and accumulation time on the voltammetric response of MO was investigated. At the optimum conditions, the concentration of MO was determined using DPV in a linear range of 7.07 × 10−6 to 2.1 × 10−4 mol L−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and a detection limit of 13.3 × 10-8 mol L−1, respectively. The effect of common interferences on the current response of MO namely ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) is studied. The modified electrode can be used for the determination of MO spiked into urine samples, and excellent recovery results were obtained. The nanostructured polypyrrole films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and furrier transforms infrared (FTIR).

Keywords: Sensor, nanostructure, polypyrrole, molecularly imprinted polymer, morphine detection

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44 Acoustic Partial Discharge Propagation and Perfectly Matched Layer in Acoustic Detection-Transformer

Authors: Nirav J. Patel, Kalpesh K. Dudani


Partial discharge (PD) is the dissipation of energy caused by localized breakdown of insulation. Power transformers are one of the most important components in the electrical energy network. Insulation degradation of transformer is frequently linked to PD. This is why PD detection is used in power system to monitor the health of high voltage transformer. If such problem are not detected and repaired, the strength and frequency of PD may increase and eventually lead to the catastrophic failure of the transformer. This can further cause external equipment damage, fires and loss of revenue due to an unscheduled outage. Hence, reliable online PD detection is a critical need for power companies to improve personnel safety and decrease the probability of loss of service. The PD phenomenon is manifested in a variety of physically observable signals including Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radiation and Acoustic Disturbances, Electrical pulses. Acoustic method is based on sensing the radiated acoustic emission from discharge sites in the insulation. Propagated wave from the PD fault site are captured sensor are consequently pre-amplified, filtered, recorded and analyze.

Keywords: Sensor, acoustic, partial discharge, perfectly matched layer

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43 AFM Probe Sensor Designed for Cellular Membrane Components

Authors: Sarmiza Stanca, Wolfgang Fritzsche, Christoph Krafft, Jürgen Popp


Independent of the cell type a thin layer of a few nanometers thickness surrounds the cell interior as the cellular membrane. The transport of ions and molecules through the membrane is achieved in a very precise way by pores. Understanding the process of opening and closing the pores due to an electrochemical gradient across the membrane requires knowledge of the pore constitutive proteins. Recent reports prove the access to the molecular level of the cellular membrane by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This technique also permits an electrochemical study in the immediate vicinity of the tip. Specific molecules can be electrochemically localized in the natural cellular membrane. Our work aims to recognize the protein domains of the pores using an AFM probe as a miniaturized amperometric sensor, and to follow the protein behavior while changing the applied potential. The intensity of the current produced between the surface and the AFM probe is amplified and detected simultaneously with the surface imaging. The AFM probe plays the role of the working electrode and the substrate, a conductive glass on which the cells are grown, represent the counter electrode. For a better control of the electric potential on the probe, a third electrode Ag/AgCl wire is mounted in the circuit as a reference electrode. The working potential is applied between the electrodes with a programmable source and the current intensity in the circuit is recorded with a multimeter. The applied potential considers the overpotential at the electrode surface and the potential drop due to the current flow through the system. The reported method permits a high resolved electrochemical study of the protein domains on the living cell membrane. The amperometric map identifies areas of different current intensities on the pore depending on the applied potential. The reproducibility of this method is limited by the tip shape, the uncontrollable capacitance, which occurs at the apex and a potential local charge separation.

Keywords: Sensor, Proteins, Membrane, AFM, pores

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42 A Wireless Sensor System for Continuous Monitoring of Particulate Air Pollution

Authors: A. Yawootti, P. Intra, P. Sardyoung, P. Phoosomma, R. Puttipattanasak, S. Leeragreephol, N. Tippayawong


The aim of this work is to design, develop and test the low-cost implementation of a particulate air pollution sensor system for continuous monitoring of outdoors and indoors particulate air pollution at a lower cost than existing instruments. In this study, measuring electrostatic charge of particles technique via high efficiency particulate-free air filter was carried out. The developed detector consists of a PM10 impactor, a particle charger, a Faraday cup electrometer, a flow meter and controller, a vacuum pump, a DC high voltage power supply and a data processing and control unit. It was reported that the developed detector was capable of measuring mass concentration of particulate ranging from 0 to 500 µg/m3 corresponding to number concentration of particulate ranging from 106 to 1012 particles/m3 with measurement time less than 1 sec. The measurement data of the sensor connects to the internet through a GSM connection to a public cellular network. In this development, the apparatus was applied the energy by a 12 V, 7 A internal battery for continuous measurement of about 20 hours. Finally, the developed apparatus was found to be close agreement with the import standard instrument, portable and benefit for air pollution and particulate matter measurements.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Sensor, Wireless Communication, particulate

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41 The Design, Development, and Optimization of a Capacitive Pressure Sensor Utilizing an Existing 9DOF Platform

Authors: Andrew Randles, Navab Singh, Ilker Ocak, Cheam Daw Don, Alex Gu


Nine Degrees of Freedom (9 DOF) systems are already in development in many areas. In this paper, an integrated pressure sensor is proposed that will make use of an already existing monolithic 9 DOF inertial MEMS platform. Capacitive pressure sensors can suffer from limited sensitivity for a given size of membrane. This novel pressure sensor design increases the sensitivity by over 5 times compared to a traditional array of square diaphragms while still fitting within a 2 mm x 2 mm chip and maintaining a fixed static capacitance. The improved design uses one large diaphragm supported by pillars with fixed electrodes placed above the areas of maximum deflection. The design optimization increases the sensitivity from 0.22 fF/kPa to 1.16 fF/kPa. Temperature sensitivity was also examined through simulation.

Keywords: Sensor, INS, inertial measurement unit, IMU, inertial navigation system, capacitive, capacitive pressure sensor

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40 Internet of Things Applications on Supply Chain Management

Authors: Beatriz Cortés, Andrés Boza, David Pérez, Llanos Cuenca


The Internet of Things (IoT) field is been applied in industries with different purposes. Sensing Enterprise (SE) is an attribute of an enterprise or a network that allows it to react to business stimuli originating on the internet. These fields have come into focus recently on the enterprises and there is some evidence of the use and implications in supply chain management while finding it as an interesting aspect to work on. This paper presents a revision and proposals of IoT applications in supply chain management.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Industrial, Sensor, Production Systems, sensing enterprises, supply chain management

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39 Real-Time Monitoring of Drinking Water Quality Using Advanced Devices

Authors: Amani Abdallah, Isam Shahrour


The quality of drinking water is a major concern of public health. The control of this quality is generally performed in the laboratory, which requires a long time. This type of control is not adapted for accidental pollution from sudden events, which can have serious consequences on population health. Therefore, it is of major interest to develop real-time innovative solutions for the detection of accidental contamination in drinking water systems This paper presents researches conducted within the SunRise Demonstrator for ‘Smart and Sustainable Cities’ with a particular focus on the supervision of the water quality. This work aims at (i) implementing a smart water system in a large water network (Campus of the University Lille1) including innovative equipment for real-time detection of abnormal events, such as those related to the contamination of drinking water and (ii) develop a numerical modeling of the contamination diffusion in the water distribution system. The first step included verification of the water quality sensors and their effectiveness on a network prototype of 50m length. This part included the evaluation of the efficiency of these sensors in the detection both bacterial and chemical contamination events in drinking water distribution systems. An on-line optical sensor integral with a laboratory-scale distribution system (LDS) was shown to respond rapidly to changes in refractive index induced by injected loads of chemical (cadmium, mercury) and biological contaminations (Escherichia coli). All injected substances were detected by the sensor; the magnitude of the response depends on the type of contaminant introduced and it is proportional to the injected substance concentration.

Keywords: Sensor, Real-time, drinking water, Distribution System, refraction index

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38 A Multicopy Strategy for Improved Security Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Tuğçe Yücel


A Wireless Sensor Network(WSN) is a collection of sensor nodes which are deployed randomly in an area for surveillance. Efficient utilization of limited battery energy of sensors for increased network lifetime as well as data security are major design objectives for WSN. Moreover secure transmission of data sensed to a base station for further processing. Producing multiple copies of data packets and sending them on different paths is one of the strategies for this purpose, which leads to redundant energy consumption and hence reduced network lifetime. In this work we develop a restricted multi-copy multipath strategy where data move through ‘frequently’ or ‘heavily’ used sensors is copied by the sensor incident to such central nodes and sent on node-disjoint paths. We develop a mixed integer programing(MIP) model and heuristic approach present some preleminary test results.

Keywords: Telecommunications, Sensor, WSN, MIP

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37 Highly-Sensitive Nanopore-Based Sensors for Point-Of-Care Medical Diagnostics

Authors: Leyla Esfandiari


Rapid, sensitive detection of nucleic acid (NA) molecules of specific sequence is of interest for a range of diverse health-related applications such as screening for genetic diseases, detecting pathogenic microbes in food and water, and identifying biological warfare agents in homeland security. Sequence-specific nucleic acid detection platforms rely on base pairing interaction between two complementary single stranded NAs, which can be detected by the optical, mechanical, or electrochemical readout. However, many of the existing platforms require amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent or enzymatic labels, and expensive or bulky instrumentation. In an effort to address these shortcomings, our research is focused on utilizing the cutting edge nanotechnology and microfluidics along with resistive pulse electrical measurements to design and develop a cost-effective, handheld and highly-sensitive nanopore-based sensor for point-of-care medical diagnostics.

Keywords: Sensor, Diagnostics, Nucleic Acids, nanopore

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36 Nitrite Sensor Platform Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide with Thionine Dye Based

Authors: Nurulasma Zainudin, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Kwok Feng Chong


Functionalized reduced graphene oxide is essential importance for their end applications. Chemical functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with strange atoms is a leading strategy to modify the properties of the materials moreover maintains the inherent properties of reduced graphene oxide. A thionine functionalized reduce graphene oxide electrode was fabricated and was used to electrochemically determine nitrite. The electrochemical behaviour of thionine functionalized reduced graphene oxide towards oxidation of nitrite via cyclic voltammetry was studied and the proposed method exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic behaviour.

Keywords: Sensor, nitrite, thionine, reduced graphene oxide

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35 Turkey Disaster Risk Management System Project (TAFRISK)

Authors: Ahmet Parlak, Celalettin Bilgen


In order to create an effective early warning system, Identification of the risks, preparation and carrying out risk modeling of risk scenarios, taking into account the shortcomings of the old disaster scenarios should be used to improve the system. In the light of this, the importance of risk modeling in creating an effective early warning system is understood. In the scope of TAFRISK project risk modeling trend analysis report on risk modeling developed and a demonstration was conducted for Risk Modeling for flood and mass movements. For risk modeling R&D, studies have been conducted to determine the information, and source of the information, to be gathered, to develop algorithms and to adapt the current algorithms to Turkey’s conditions for determining the risk score in the high disaster risk areas. For each type of the disaster; Disaster Deficit Index (DDI), Local Disaster Index (LDI), Prevalent Vulnerability Index (PVI), Risk Management Index (RMI) have been developed as disaster indices taking danger, sensitivity, fragility, and vulnerability, the physical and economic damage into account in the appropriate scale of the respective type.

Keywords: Sensor, Disaster, Risk Modeling, Hazard

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34 A Study of Key Technologies for the Realization of Smart Grid and Its Research Situation in Pakistan and Abroad

Authors: Arjmand Khaliq, Pemra Sohaib


In this paper smart grid technologies which converts conventional grid into smart grid has been discussed. Integration of advanced technologies including two way communication, advanced control system, sensors, smart metering system and other provide opportunity to make conventional grid a intelligent and automatic system which is named as smart grid. This paper gives the concept of smart grid and functional characteristics of smart grid technology, summed up the research progress in Pakistan and abroad and the significance of developing smart grid. Based on the analysis of the smart grid, smart grid technologies will result a reliable and energy efficient power system in the future. On the other hand smart grid technologies have been reviewed in this paper highlighting the key technologies of smart grid, and points out the problems and challenges in the realization of smart grid.

Keywords: Energy, Sensor, Smart Grid, Power System Reliability, power system monitoring and control, two-way communication

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33 Application of Building Information Modeling in Energy Management of Individual Departments Occupying University Facilities

Authors: Kung-Jen Tu, Danny Vernatha


To assist individual departments within universities in their energy management tasks, this study explores the application of Building Information Modeling in establishing the ‘BIM based Energy Management Support System’ (BIM-EMSS). The BIM-EMSS consists of six components: (1) sensors installed for each occupant and each equipment, (2) electricity sub-meters (constantly logging lighting, HVAC, and socket electricity consumptions of each room), (3) BIM models of all rooms within individual departments’ facilities, (4) data warehouse (for storing occupancy status and logged electricity consumption data), (5) building energy management system that provides energy managers with various energy management functions, and (6) energy simulation tool (such as eQuest) that generates real time 'standard energy consumptions' data against which 'actual energy consumptions' data are compared and energy efficiency evaluated. Through the building energy management system, the energy manager is able to (a) have 3D visualization (BIM model) of each room, in which the occupancy and equipment status detected by the sensors and the electricity consumptions data logged are displayed constantly; (b) perform real time energy consumption analysis to compare the actual and standard energy consumption profiles of a space; (c) obtain energy consumption anomaly detection warnings on certain rooms so that energy management corrective actions can be further taken (data mining technique is employed to analyze the relation between space occupancy pattern with current space equipment setting to indicate an anomaly, such as when appliances turn on without occupancy); and (d) perform historical energy consumption analysis to review monthly and annually energy consumption profiles and compare them against historical energy profiles. The BIM-EMSS was further implemented in a research lab in the Department of Architecture of NTUST in Taiwan and implementation results presented to illustrate how it can be used to assist individual departments within universities in their energy management tasks.

Keywords: Sensor, Database, electricity sub-meters, energy anomaly detection

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32 Synthesis of MIPs towards Precursors and Intermediates of Illicit Drugs and Their following Application in Sensing Unit

Authors: K. Graniczkowska, N. Beloglazova, S. De Saeger


The threat of synthetic drugs is one of the most significant current drug problems worldwide. The use of drugs of abuse has increased dramatically during the past three decades. Among others, Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS) are globally the second most widely used drugs after cannabis, exceeding the use of cocaine and heroin. ATS are potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, capable of inducing euphoric static similar to cocaine. Recreational use of ATS is widespread, even though warnings of irreversible damage of the CNS were reported. ATS pose a big problem and their production contributes to the pollution of the environment by discharging big volumes of liquid waste to sewage system. Therefore, there is a demand to develop robust and sensitive sensors that can detect ATS and their intermediates in environmental water samples. A rapid and simple test is required. Analysis of environmental water samples (which sometimes can be a harsh environment) using antibody-based tests cannot be applied. Therefore, molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs), which are known as synthetic antibodies, have been chosen for that approach. MIPs are characterized with a high mechanical and thermal stability, show chemical resistance in a broad pH range and various organic or aqueous solvents. These properties make them the preferred type of receptors for application in the harsh conditions imposed by environmental samples. To the best of our knowledge, there are no existing MIPs-based sensors toward amphetamine and its intermediates. Also not many commercial MIPs for this application are available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare different techniques to obtain MIPs with high specificity towards ATS and characterize them for following use in a sensing unit. MIPs against amphetamine and its intermediates were synthesized using a few different techniques, such as electro-, thermo- and UV-initiated polymerization. Different monomers, cross linkers and initiators, in various ratios, were tested to obtain the best sensitivity and polymers properties. Subsequently, specificity and selectivity were compared with commercially available MIPs against amphetamine. Different linkers, such as lipoic acid, 3-mercaptopioponic acid and tyramine were examined, in combination with several immobilization techniques, to select the best procedure for attaching particles on sensor surface. Performed experiments allowed choosing an optimal method for the intended sensor application. Stability of MIPs in extreme conditions, such as highly acidic or basic was determined. Obtained results led to the conclusion about MIPs based sensor applicability in sewage system testing.

Keywords: Sensor, Environment, MIPS, amphetamine type stimulants, molecular imprinted polymers

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31 Enhancement of Environmental Security by the Application of Wireless Sensor Network in Nigeria

Authors: Ahmadu Girgiri, Lawan Gana Ali, Mamman M. Baba


Environmental security clearly articulates the perfections and developments of various communities around the world irrespective of the region, culture, religion or social inclination. Although, the present state of insecurity has become serious issue devastating the peace, unity, stability and progress of man and his physical environment particularly in developing countries. Recently, measure of security and it management in Nigeria has been a bottle-neck to the effectiveness and advancement of various sectors that include; business, education, social relations, politics and above all an economy. Several measures have been considered on mitigating environment insecurity such as surveillance, demarcation, security personnel empowerment and the likes, but still the issue remains disturbing. In this paper, we present the application of new technology that contributes to the improvement of security surveillance known as “Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)”. The system is new, smart and emerging technology that provides monitoring, detection and aggregation of information using sensor nodes and wireless network. WSN detects, monitors and stores information or activities in the deployed area such as schools, environment, business centers, public squares, industries, and outskirts and transmit to end users. This will reduce the cost of security funding and eases security surveillance depending on the nature and the requirement of the deployment.

Keywords: Sensor, Environment, Wireless Sensor Network, Application, insecurity

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30 Optimisation of Energy Harvesting for a Composite Aircraft Wing Structure Bonded with Discrete Macro Fibre Composite Sensors

Authors: Ali H. Daraji, Ye Jianqiao


The micro electrical devices of the wireless sensor network are continuously developed and become very small and compact with low electric power requirements using limited period life conventional batteries. The low power requirement for these devices, cost of conventional batteries and its replacement have encouraged researcher to find alternative power supply represented by energy harvesting system to provide an electric power supply with infinite period life. In the last few years, the investigation of energy harvesting for structure health monitoring has increased to powering wireless sensor network by converting waste mechanical vibration into electricity using piezoelectric sensors. Optimisation of energy harvesting is an important research topic to ensure a flowing of efficient electric power from structural vibration. The harvesting power is mainly based on the properties of piezoelectric material, dimensions of piezoelectric sensor, its position on a structure and value of an external electric load connected between sensor electrodes. Larger surface area of sensor is not granted larger power harvesting when the sensor area is covered positive and negative mechanical strain at the same time. Thus lead to reduction or cancellation of piezoelectric output power. Optimisation of energy harvesting is achieved by locating these sensors precisely and efficiently on the structure. Limited published work has investigated the energy harvesting for aircraft wing. However, most of the published studies have simplified the aircraft wing structure by a cantilever flat plate or beam. In these studies, the optimisation of energy harvesting was investigated by determination optimal value of an external electric load connected between sensor electrode terminals or by an external electric circuit or by randomly splitting piezoelectric sensor to two segments. However, the aircraft wing structures are complex than beam or flat plate and mostly constructed from flat and curved skins stiffened by stringers and ribs with more complex mechanical strain induced on the wing surfaces. This aircraft wing structure bonded with discrete macro fibre composite sensors was modelled using multiphysics finite element to optimise the energy harvesting by determination of the optimal number of sensors, location and the output resistance load. The optimal number and location of macro fibre sensors were determined based on the maximization of the open and close loop sensor output voltage using frequency response analysis. It was found different optimal distribution, locations and number of sensors bounded on the top and the bottom surfaces of the aircraft wing.

Keywords: Sensor, Energy harvesting, Optimisation, Wing

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29 An Energy Transfer Fluorescent Probe System for Glucose Sensor at Biomimetic Membrane Surface

Authors: Hoa Thi Hoang, Stephan Sass, Michael U. Kumke


Concanavalin A (conA) is a protein has been widely used in sensor system based on its specific binding to α-D-Glucose or α-D-Manose. For glucose sensor using conA, either fluoresence based techniques with intensity based or lifetime based are used. In this research, liposomes made from phospholipids were used as a biomimetic membrane system. In a first step, novel building blocks containing perylene labeled glucose units were added to the system and used to decorate the surface of the liposomes. Upon the binding between rhodamine labeled con A to the glucose units at the biomimetic membrane surface, a Förster resonance energy transfer system can be formed which combines unique fluorescence properties of perylene (e.g., high fluorescence quantum yield, no triplet formation) and its high hydrophobicity for efficient anchoring in membranes to form a novel probe for the investigation of sugar-driven binding reactions at biomimetic surfaces. Two glucose-labeled perylene derivatives were synthesized with different spacer length between the perylene and glucose unit in order to probe the binding of conA. The binding interaction was fully characterized by using high-end fluorescence techniques. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques (e.g., fluorescence depolarization) in combination with single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy techniques (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, FCS) were used to monitor the interaction with conA. Base on the fluorescence depolarization, the rotational correlation times and the alteration in the diffusion coefficient (determined by FCS) the binding of the conA to the liposomes carrying the probe was studied. Moreover, single pair FRET experiments using pulsed interleaved excitation are used to characterize in detail the binding of conA to the liposome on a single molecule level avoiding averaging out effects.

Keywords: Sensor, FRET, concanavalin A, biomimetic membrane

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28 Hydrothermally Fabricated 3-D Nanostructure Metal Oxide Sensors

Authors: Mohammad Alenezi


Hierarchical nanostructures with higher dimensionality, consisting of nanostructure building blocks such as nanowires, nanotubes, or nanosheets are very attractive. They hold great properties like the high surface-to-volume ratio and well-ordered porous structures, which can be very challenging to attain for other mono-morphological nanostructures. Well-ordered hierarchical nanostructures with high surface-to-volume ratios facilitate gas diffusion into their surfaces as well as scattering of light. Therefore, hierarchical nanostructures are expected to perform highly as gas sensors. A multistage controlled hydrothermal synthesis method to fabricate high-performance single ZnO brushlike hierarchical nanostructure gas sensor from initial nanowires is reported. The performance of the sensor based on brush-like hierarchical nanostructure is analyzed and compared to that of a nanowire gas sensor. The hierarchical gas sensor demonstrated high sensitivity toward low concentration of acetone at high speed of response. The enhancement in the hierarchical sensor performance is attributed to the increased surface to volume ratio, reduction in dimensionality of the nanowire building blocks, formation of junctions between the initial nanowire and the secondary nanowires, and enhanced gas diffusion into the surfaces of the hierarchical nanostructures.

Keywords: Sensor, Hydrothermal, nanostructure, metal oxide

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27 Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Synthetic Cannabinoids

Authors: Yuji Ito, Hiroshi Nakayama


Synthetic cannabinoids have attracted much public attention recently in Japan. 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole (JWH-018), 1-pentyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl) indole (JWH-015), 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3- (1-(2,2,3,3- tetramethylcyclopropyl)) indole (XLR-11) and 1-methyl-3- (1-admantyl) indole (JWH-018 adamantyl analog) are known as synthetic cannabinoids and are also considered dangerous illegal drugs in Japan. It has become necessary to develop sensitive and useful methods for detection of synthetic cannabinoids. We produced two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against synthetic cannabinoids, named NT1 (IgG1) and NT2 (IgG1), using Hybridoma technology. The cross-reactivity of these produced MAbs was evaluated using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the results, we found both of these antibodies recognize many kinds of synthetic cannabinoids analog. However, neither of these antibodies recognizes naphtoic acid, 1-methyl-indole and indole known as a raw material of synthetic cannabinoid. Thus, the MAbs produced in this study could be a useful tool for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids.

Keywords: Sensor, Monoclonal Antibody, ELISA, synthetic cannabinoid

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26 Protein-Thiocyanate Composite as a Sensor for Iron III Cations

Authors: Hosam El-Sayed, Amira Abou El-Kheir, Salwa Mowafi, Marwa Abou Taleb


Two proteinic biopolymers; namely keratin and sericin, were extracted from their respective natural resources by simple appropriate methods. The said proteins were dissolved in the appropriate solvents followed by regeneration in a form of film polyvinyl alcohol. Proteinium thiocyanate (PTC) composite was prepared by reaction of a regenerated film with potassium thiocyanate in acid medium. In another experiment, the said acidified proteins were reacted with potassium thiocyante before dissolution and regeneration in a form of PTC composite. The possibility of using PTC composite for determination of the concentration of iron III ions in domestic as well as industrial water was examined. The concentration of iron III cations in water was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the intensity of blood red colour of iron III thiocyanate obtained by interaction of PTC with iron III cation in the tested water sample.

Keywords: Sensor, Water, Protein, iron III cations, thiocyanate

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25 Chiral Carbon Quantum Dots for Paper-Based Photoluminescent Sensing Platforms

Authors: Erhan Zor, Funda Copur, Asli I. Dogan, Haluk Bingol


Current trends in the wide-scale sensing technologies rely on the development of miniaturized, rapid and easy-to-use sensing platforms. Quantum dots (QDs) with strong and easily tunable luminescence and high emission quantum yields have become a well-established photoluminescent nanomaterials for sensor applications. Although the majority of the reports focused on the cadmium-based QDs which have toxic effect on biological systems and eventually would cause serious environmental problems, carbon-based quantum dots (CQDs) that do not contain any toxic class elements have attracted substantial research interest in recent years. CQDs are small carbon nanostructures (less than 10 nm in size) with various unique properties and are widely-used in different fields during the last few years. In this respect, chiral nanostructures have become a promising class of materials in various areas such as pharmacology, catalysis, bioanalysis and (bio)sensor technology due to the vital importance of chirality in living systems. We herein report the synthesis of chiral CQDs with D- or L-tartaric acid as precursor materials. The optimum experimental conditions were examined and the purification procedure was performed using ethanol/water by column chromatography. The purified chiral CQDs were characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, XPS, PL and TEM techniques. The resultants display different photoluminescent characteristics due to the size and conformational difference. Considering the results, it can be concluded that chiral CQDs is expected to be used as optical chiral sensor in different platforms.

Keywords: Sensor, Chirality, carbon quantum dots, tartaric acid

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24 Portable Environmental Parameter Monitor Based on STM32

Authors: Liang Zhao, Chongquan Zhong


Introduction: According to statistics, people spend 80% to 90% of time indoor, so indoor air quality, either at home or in the office, greatly impacts the quality of life, health and work efficiency. Therefore, indoor air quality is very important to human activities. With the acceleration of urbanization, people are spending more time in indoor activity. The time in indoor environment, the living space, and the frequency interior decoration are all increasingly increased. However, housing decoration materials contain formaldehyde and other harmful substances, causing environmental and air quality problems, which have brought serious damage to countless families and attracted growing attention. According to World Health Organization statistics, the indoor environments in more than 30% of buildings in China are polluted by poisonous and harmful gases. Indoor pollution has caused various health problems, and these widespread public health problems can lead to respiratory diseases. Long-term inhalation of low-concentration formaldehyde would cause persistent headache, insomnia, weakness, palpitation, weight loss and vomiting, which are serious impacts on human health and safety. On the other hand, as for offices, some surveys show that good indoor air quality helps to enthuse the staff and improve the work efficiency by 2%-16%. Therefore, people need to further understand the living and working environments. There is a need for easy-to-use indoor environment monitoring instruments, with which users only have to power up and monitor the environmental parameters. The corresponding real-time data can be displayed on the screen for analysis. Environment monitoring should have the sensitive signal alarm function and send alarm when harmful gases such as formaldehyde, CO, SO2, are excessive to human body. System design: According to the monitoring requirements of various gases, temperature and humidity, we designed a portable, light, real-time and accurate monitor for various environmental parameters, including temperature, humidity, formaldehyde, methane, and CO. This monitor will generate an alarm signal when a target is beyond the standard. It can conveniently measure a variety of harmful gases and provide the alarm function. It also has the advantages of small volume, convenience to carry and use. It has a real-time display function, outputting the parameters on the LCD screen, and a real-time alarm function. Conclusions: This study is focused on the research and development of a portable parameter monitoring instrument for indoor environment. On the platform of an STM32 development board, the monitored data are collected through an external sensor. The STM32 platform is for data acquisition and processing procedures, and successfully monitors the real-time temperature, humidity, formaldehyde, CO, methane and other environmental parameters. Real-time data are displayed on the LCD screen. The system is stable and can be used in different indoor places such as family, hospital, and office. Meanwhile, the system adopts the idea of modular design and is superior in transplanting. The scheme is slightly modified and can be used similarly as the function of a monitoring system. This monitor has very high research and application values.

Keywords: Sensor, Embedded system, Indoor Air Quality, gas concentration detection

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23 Development of Energy Management System Based on Internet of Things Technique

Authors: Wen-Jye Shyr, Chia-Ming Lin and Hung-Yun Feng


The purpose of this study was to develop an energy management system for university campuses based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technique. The proposed IoT technique based on WebAccess is used via network browser Internet Explore and applies TCP/IP protocol. The case study of IoT for lighting energy usage management system was proposed. Structure of proposed IoT technique included perception layer, equipment layer, control layer, application layer and network layer.

Keywords: Sensor, Energy Management, IoT technique, WebAccess

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