Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Sensitivity Analysis Related Abstracts

44 Approximation of a Wanted Flow via Topological Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: Mohamed Abdelwahed

Abstract:

We propose an optimization algorithm for the geometric control of fluid flow. The used approach is based on the topological sensitivity analysis method. It consists in studying the variation of a cost function with respect to the insertion of a small obstacle in the domain. Some theoretical and numerical results are presented in 2D and 3D.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, topological gradient, shape optimization, stokes equations

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43 Validation of SWAT Model for Prediction of Water Yield and Water Balance: Case Study of Upstream Catchment of Jebba Dam in Nigeria

Authors: Adeniyi G. Adeogun, Bolaji F. Sule, Adebayo W. Salami, Michael O. Daramola

Abstract:

Estimation of water yield and water balance in a river catchment is critical to the sustainable management of water resources at watershed level in any country. Therefore, in the present study, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) interfaced with Geographical Information System (GIS) was applied as a tool to predict water balance and water yield of a catchment area in Nigeria. The catchment area, which was 12,992km2, is located upstream Jebba hydropower dam in North central part of Nigeria. In this study, data on the observed flow were collected and compared with simulated flow using SWAT. The correlation between the two data sets was evaluated using statistical measures, such as, Nasch-Sucliffe Efficiency (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The model output shows a good agreement between the observed flow and simulated flow as indicated by NSE and R2, which were greater than 0.7 for both calibration and validation period. A total of 42,733 mm of water was predicted by the calibrated model as the water yield potential of the basin for a simulation period 1985 to 2010. This interesting performance obtained with SWAT model suggests that SWAT model could be a promising tool to predict water balance and water yield in sustainable management of water resources. In addition, SWAT could be applied to other water resources in other basins in Nigeria as a decision support tool for sustainable water management in Nigeria.

Keywords: Modeling, GIS, Sensitivity Analysis, SWAT, water yield, watershed level

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42 Design and Sensitivity Analysis of Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Collector

Authors: H. M. Farghally, N. M. Ahmed, H. T. El-Madany, D. M. Atia, F. H. Fahmy

Abstract:

Energy is required in almost every aspect of human activities and development of any nation in this world. Increasing fossil fuel price, energy security and climate change have important bearings on sustainable development of any nation. The renewable energy technology is considered one of the drastic approaches taken over the world to reduce the energy problem. The preservation of vegetables by freezing is one of the most important methods of retaining quality in agricultural products over long-term storage periods. Freezing factories show high demand of energy for both heat and electricity; the hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) systems could be used in order to meet this requirement. This paper presents PV/T system design for freezing factory. Also, the complete mathematical modeling and Matlab Simulink of PV/T collector is introduced. The sensitivity analysis for the manufacturing parameters of PV/T collector is carried out to study their effect on the thermal and electrical efficiency.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Ecological Sciences, Sensitivity Analysis, hybrid PV/T system

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41 Parameter Estimation with Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for the SARS Outbreak in Hong Kong

Authors: Afia Naheed, Manmohan Singh, David Lucy

Abstract:

This work is based on a mathematical as well as statistical study of an SEIJTR deterministic model for the interpretation of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Based on the SARS epidemic in 2003, the parameters are estimated using Runge-Kutta (Dormand-Prince pairs) and least squares methods. Possible graphical and numerical techniques are used to validate the estimates. Then effect of the model parameters on the dynamics of the disease is examined using sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity and uncertainty analytical techniques are used in order to analyze the affect of the uncertainty in the obtained parameter estimates and to determine which parameters have the largest impact on controlling the disease dynamics.

Keywords: Infectious Disease, Uncertainty analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, Parameter Estimation, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Runge-Kutta methods, Levenberg-Marquardt method

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40 A Review of Methods for Handling Missing Data in the Formof Dropouts in Longitudinal Clinical Trials

Authors: A. Satty, H. Mwambi

Abstract:

Much clinical trials data-based research are characterized by the unavoidable problem of dropout as a result of missing or erroneous values. This paper aims to review some of the various techniques to address the dropout problems in longitudinal clinical trials. The fundamental concepts of the patterns and mechanisms of dropout are discussed. This study presents five general techniques for handling dropout: (1) Deletion methods; (2) Imputation-based methods; (3) Data augmentation methods; (4) Likelihood-based methods; and (5) MNAR-based methods. Under each technique, several methods that are commonly used to deal with dropout are presented, including a review of the existing literature in which we examine the effectiveness of these methods in the analysis of incomplete data. Two application examples are presented to study the potential strengths or weaknesses of some of the methods under certain dropout mechanisms as well as to assess the sensitivity of the modelling assumptions.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, incomplete longitudinal clinical trials, missing at random (MAR), imputation, weighting methods

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39 Sensitivity Analysis in Fuzzy Linear Programming Problems

Authors: S. H. Nasseri, A. Ebrahimnejad

Abstract:

Fuzzy set theory has been applied to many fields, such as operations research, control theory, and management sciences. In this paper, we consider two classes of fuzzy linear programming (FLP) problems: Fuzzy number linear programming and linear programming with trapezoidal fuzzy variables problems. We state our recently established results and develop fuzzy primal simplex algorithms for solving these problems. Finally, we give illustrative examples.

Keywords: Duality, Sensitivity Analysis, fuzzy linear programming, fuzzy numbers

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38 Sensitivity Analysis of Pile-Founded Fixed Steel Jacket Platforms

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Mohamed Noureldin

Abstract:

The sensitivity of the seismic response parameters to the uncertain modeling variables of pile-founded fixed steel jacket platforms are investigated using tornado diagram, first-order second-moment, and static pushover analysis techniques. The effects of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty on seismic response parameters have been investigated for an existing offshore platform. The sources of uncertainty considered in the present study are categorized into three different categories: the uncertainties associated with the soil-pile modeling parameters in clay soil, the platform jacket structure modeling parameters, and the uncertainties related to ground motion excitations. It has been found that the variability in parameters such as yield strength or pile bearing capacity has almost no effect on the seismic response parameters considered, whereas the global structural response is highly affected by the ground motion uncertainty. Also, some uncertainty in soil-pile property such as soil-pile friction capacity has a significant impact on the response parameters and should be carefully modeled. Based on the results, it is highlighted that which uncertain parameters should be considered carefully and which can be assumed with reasonable engineering judgment during the early structural design stage of fixed steel jacket platforms.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, fixed jacket offshore platform, pile-soil structure interaction

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37 Stabilizing a Failed Slope in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Umer Zubair, Kamran Akhtar, Muhammad Arsalan Khan

Abstract:

This paper is based on a research carried out on a failed slope in Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Phase I, Islamabad. The research included determination of Soil parameters, Site Surveying and Cost Estimation. Apart from these, the use of three dimensional (3D) slope stability analysis in conjunction with two dimensional (2D) analysis was used determination of slope conditions. In addition collection of soil reports, a detailed survey was carried out to create a 3D model in Surfer 8 software. 2D cross-sections that needed to be analyzed for stability were generated from 3D model. Slope stability softwares, Rocscience Slide 6.0 and Clara-W were employed for 2D and 3D Analyses respectively which have the ability to solve complex mathematical functions. Results of the analyses were used to confirm site conditions and the threats were identified to recommend suitable remedies.The most effective remedy was suggested for slope stability after analyzing all remedies in software Slide 6 and its feasibility was determined through cost benefit analysis. This paper should be helpful to Geotechnical engineers, design engineers and the organizations working with slope stability.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Sensitivity Analysis, Rocscience, Clara W

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36 From Data Processing to Experimental Design and Back Again: A Parameter Identification Problem Based on FRAP Images

Authors: Stepan Papacek, Jiri Jablonsky, Radek Kana, Ctirad Matonoha, Stefan Kindermann

Abstract:

FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching) is a widely used measurement technique to determine the mobility of fluorescent molecules within living cells. While the experimental setup and protocol for FRAP experiments are usually fixed, data processing part is still under development. In this paper, we formulate and solve the problem of data selection which enhances the processing of FRAP images. We introduce the concept of the irrelevant data set, i.e., the data which are almost not reducing the confidence interval of the estimated parameters and thus could be neglected. Based on sensitivity analysis, we both solve the problem of the optimal data space selection and we find specific conditions for optimizing an important experimental design factor, e.g., the radius of bleach spot. Finally, a theorem announcing less precision of the integrated data approach compared to the full data case is proven; i.e., we claim that the data set represented by the FRAP recovery curve lead to a larger confidence interval compared to the spatio-temporal (full) data.

Keywords: Inverse problem, Sensitivity Analysis, parameter identification, FRAP, optimal experimental design

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35 Performance Evaluation of Al Jame’s Roundabout Using SIDRA

Authors: D. Muley, H. S. Al-Mandhari

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the performance of a multi-lane four-legged modern roundabout operating in Muscat using SIDRA model. The performance measures include Degree of Saturation (DOS), average delay, and queue lengths. The geometric and traffic data were used for model preparation. Gap acceptance parameters, critical gap, and follow-up headway were used for calibration of SIDRA model. The results from the analysis showed that currently the roundabout is experiencing delays up to 610 seconds with DOS 1.67 during peak hour. Further, sensitivity analysis for general and roundabout parameters was performed, amongst lane width, cruise speed, inscribed diameter, entry radius, and entry angle showed that inscribed diameter is the most crucial factor affecting delay and DOS. Upgradation of the roundabout to the fully signalized junction was found as the suitable solution which will serve for future years with LOS C for design year having DOS of 0.9 with average control delay of 51.9 seconds per vehicle.

Keywords: Performance Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, roundabout, SIDRA

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34 Material Parameter Identification of Modified AbdelKarim-Ohno Model

Authors: Martin Cermak, Tomas Karasek, Jaroslav Rojicek

Abstract:

The key role in phenomenological modelling of cyclic plasticity is good understanding of stress-strain behaviour of given material. There are many models describing behaviour of materials using numerous parameters and constants. Combination of individual parameters in those material models significantly determines whether observed and predicted results are in compliance. Parameter identification techniques such as random gradient, genetic algorithm, and sensitivity analysis are used for identification of parameters using numerical modelling and simulation. In this paper genetic algorithm and sensitivity analysis are used to study effect of 4 parameters of modified AbdelKarim-Ohno cyclic plasticity model. Results predicted by Finite Element (FE) simulation are compared with experimental data from biaxial ratcheting test with semi-elliptical loading path.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Sensitivity Analysis, Finite Element Method, cyclic plasticity, inverse approach, ratcheting

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33 Flashover Detection Algorithm Based on Mother Function

Authors: John A. Morales, Guillermo Guidi, B. M. Keune

Abstract:

Electric Power supply is a crucial topic for economic and social development. Power outages statistics show that discharges atmospherics are imperative phenomena to produce those outages. In this context, it is necessary to correctly detect when overhead line insulators are faulted. In this paper, an algorithm to detect if a lightning stroke generates or not permanent fault on insulator strings is proposed. On top of that, lightning stroke simulations developed by using the Alternative Transients Program, are used. Based on these insights, a novel approach is designed that depends on mother functions analysis corresponding to the given variance-covariance matrix. Signals registered at the insulator string are projected on corresponding axes by the means of Principal Component Analysis. By exploiting these new axes, it is possible to determine a flashover characteristic zone useful to a good insulation design. The proposed methodology for flashover detection extends the existing approaches for the analysis and study of lightning performance on transmission lines.

Keywords: Lightning, Sensitivity Analysis, mother function, outages

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32 On the Analysis of Pseudorandom Partial Quotient Sequences Generated from Continued Fractions

Authors: T. Padma, Jayashree S. Pillai

Abstract:

Random entities are an essential component in any cryptographic application. The suitability of a number theory based novel pseudorandom sequence called Pseudorandom Partial Quotient Sequence (PPQS) generated from the continued fraction expansion of irrational numbers, in cryptographic applications, is analyzed in this paper. An approach to build the algorithm around a hard mathematical problem has been considered. The PQ sequence is tested for randomness and its suitability as a cryptographic key by performing randomness analysis, key sensitivity and key space analysis, precision analysis and evaluating the correlation properties is established.

Keywords: correlation, security analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, pseudorandom sequences, key sensitivity, randomness analysis

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31 Seismic Response and Sensitivity Analysis of Circular Shallow Tunnels

Authors: Siti Khadijah Che Osmi, Mohammed Ahmad Syed

Abstract:

Underground tunnels are one of the most popular public facilities for various applications such as transportation, water transfer, network utilities and etc. Experience from the past earthquake reveals that the underground tunnels also become vulnerable components and may damage at certain percentage depending on the level of ground shaking and induced phenomena. In this paper a numerical analysis is conducted in evaluating the sensitivity of two types of circular shallow tunnel lining models to wide ranging changes in the geotechnical design parameter. Critical analysis has been presented about the current methods of analysis, structural typology, ground motion characteristics, effect of soil conditions and associated uncertainties on the tunnel integrity. The response of the tunnel is evaluated through 2D non-linear finite element analysis, which critically assesses the impact of increasing levels of seismic loads. The finding from this study offer significant information on improving methods to assess the vulnerability of underground structures.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, Seismic Response, geotechnical design parameter, shallow tunnel

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30 Coordinated Voltage Control in Radial Distribution System with Distributed Generators Using Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: Anubhav Shrivastava Shivarudraswamy, Bhat Lakshya

Abstract:

Distributed generation has indeed become a major area of interest in recent years. Distributed generation can address a large number of loads in a power line and hence has better efficiency over the conventional methods. However, there are certain drawbacks associated with it, an increase in voltage being the major one. This paper addresses the voltage control at the buses for an IEEE 30 bus system by regulating reactive power. For carrying out the analysis, the suitable location for placing distributed generators (DG) is identified through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile is dipping. MATLAB programming is used to regulate the voltage at all buses within +/- 5% of the base value even after the introduction of DGs. Three methods for regulation of voltage are discussed. A sensitivity based analysis is then carried out to determine the priority among the various methods listed in the paper.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, Distributed System, Voltage Control, reactive power, distributed generators

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29 Effect of Soil Corrosion in Failures of Buried Gas Pipelines

Authors: Saima Ali, Pathamanathan Rajeev, Imteaz A. Monzur

Abstract:

In this paper, a brief review of the corrosion mechanism in buried pipe and modes of failure is provided together with the available corrosion models. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis is performed to understand the influence of corrosion model parameters on the remaining life estimation. Further, the probabilistic analysis is performed to propagate the uncertainty in the corrosion model on the estimation of the renaming life of the pipe. Finally, the comparison among the corrosion models on the basis of the remaining life estimation will be provided to improve the renewal plan.

Keywords: Corrosion, Sensitivity Analysis, pit depth, exposure period

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28 The Impact of the European Single Market on the Austrian Economy

Authors: Reinhard Neck, Guido Schäfer

Abstract:

In this paper, we explore the macroeconomic effects of the European Single Market on Austria by simulating the McKibbin-Sachs Global Model. Global interdependence and the impact of long-run effects on short-run adjustments are taken into account. We study the sensitivity of the results with respect to different assumptions concerning monetary and fiscal policies for the countries and regions of the world economy. The consequences of different assumptions about budgetary policies in Austria are also investigated. The simulation results are contrasted with ex-post evaluations of the actual impact of Austria’s membership in the Single Market. As a result, it can be concluded that the Austrian participation in the European Single Market entails considerable long-run gains for the Austrian economy with nearly no adverse side-effects on any macroeconomic target variable.

Keywords: Simulation, Macroeconomics, European Union, Sensitivity Analysis

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27 Cancellation of Transducer Effects from Frequency Response Functions: Experimental Case Study on the Steel Plate

Authors: P. Zamani, S. Mohajerzadeh, A. Taleshi Anbouhi, M. R. Ashory, M. M. Khatibi

Abstract:

Modal analysis is a developing science in the experimental evaluation of dynamic properties of the structures. Mechanical devices such as accelerometers are one of the sources of lack of quality in measuring modal testing parameters. In this paper, eliminating the accelerometer’s mass effect of the frequency response of the structure is studied. So, a strategy is used for eliminating the mass effect by using sensitivity analysis. In this method, the amount of mass change and the place to measure the structure’s response with least error in frequency correction is chosen. Experimental modal testing is carried out on a steel plate and the effect of accelerometer’s mass is omitted using this strategy. Finally, a good agreement is achieved between numerical and experimental results.

Keywords: modal analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, accelerometer mass, frequency response function

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26 Efficiency of DMUs in Presence of New Inputs and Outputs in DEA

Authors: Elahe Sarfi, Esmat Noroozi, Farha Hosseinzadeh Lotfi

Abstract:

Examining the impacts of data modification is considered as sensitivity analysis. A lot of studies have considered the data modification of inputs and outputs in DEA. The issues which has not heretofore been considered in DEA sensitivity analysis is modification in the number of inputs and (or) outputs and determining the impacts of this modification in the status of efficiency of DMUs. This paper is going to present systems that show the impacts of adding one or multiple inputs or outputs on the status of efficiency of DMUs and furthermore a model is presented for recognizing the minimum number of inputs and (or) outputs from among specified inputs and outputs which can be added whereas an inefficient DMU will become efficient. Finally the presented systems and model have been utilized for a set of real data and the results have been reported.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, Sensitivity Analysis, input, out put

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25 Sensitivity Analysis for 14 Bus Systems in a Distribution Network with Distribution Generators

Authors: Shivarudraswamy, Anubhav Shrivastava, Lakshya Bhat

Abstract:

There has been a formidable interest in the area of Distributed Generation in recent times. A wide number of loads are addressed by Distributed Generators and have better efficiency too. The major disadvantage in Distributed Generation is voltage control- is highlighted in this paper. The paper addresses voltage control at buses in IEEE 14 Bus system by regulating reactive power. An analysis is carried out by selecting the most optimum location in placing the Distributed Generators through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile rises. Matlab programming is used for simulation of voltage profile in the respective buses after introduction of DG’s. A tolerance limit of +/-5% of the base value has to be maintained.To maintain the tolerance limit , 3 methods are used. Sensitivity analysis of 3 methods for voltage control is carried out to determine the priority among the methods.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, Distributed System, Voltage Control, reactive power, distributed generators

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24 Sensitivity Analysis for 14 Bus Systems in a Distribution Network with Distributed Generators

Authors: Anubhav Shrivastava, Lakshya Bhat, Shiva Rudraswamy

Abstract:

There has been a formidable interest in the area of Distributed Generation in recent times. A wide number of loads are addressed by Distributed Generators and have better efficiency too. The major disadvantage in Distributed Generation is voltage control- is highlighted in this paper. The paper addresses voltage control at buses in IEEE 14 Bus system by regulating reactive power. An analysis is carried out by selecting the most optimum location in placing the Distributed Generators through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile rises. MATLAB programming is used for simulation of voltage profile in the respective buses after introduction of DG’s. A tolerance limit of +/-5% of the base value has to be maintained. To maintain the tolerance limit, 3 methods are used. Sensitivity analysis of 3 methods for voltage control is carried out to determine the priority among the methods.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, Distributed System, Voltage Control, reactive power, distributed generators

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23 Modeling Waiting and Service Time for Patients: A Case Study of Matawale Health Centre, Zomba, Malawi

Authors: Moses Aron, Elias Mwakilama, Jimmy Namangale

Abstract:

Spending more time on long queues for a basic service remains a common challenge to most developing countries, including Malawi. For health sector in particular, Out-Patient Department (OPD) experiences long queues. This puts the lives of patients at risk. However, using queuing analysis to under the nature of the problems and efficiency of service systems, such problems can be abated. Based on a kind of service, literature proposes different possible queuing models. However, unlike using generalized assumed models proposed by literature, use of real time case study data can help in deeper understanding the particular problem model and how such a model can vary from one day to the other and also from each case to another. As such, this study uses data obtained from one urban HC for BP, Pediatric and General OPD cases to investigate an average queuing time for patients within the system. It seeks to highlight the proper queuing model by investigating the kind of distributions functions over patient’s arrival time, inter-arrival time, waiting time and service time. Comparable with the standard set values by WHO, the study found that patients at this HC spend more waiting times than service times. On model investigation, different days presented different models ranging from an assumed M/M/1, M/M/2 to M/Er/2. As such, through sensitivity analysis, in general, a commonly assumed M/M/1 model failed to fit the data but rather an M/Er/2 demonstrated to fit well. An M/Er/3 model seemed to be good in terms of measuring resource utilization, proposing a need to increase medical personnel at this HC. However, an M/Er/4 showed to cause more idleness of human resources.

Keywords: Health Care, Sensitivity Analysis, out-patient department, queuing model

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22 Accurate Calculation of the Penetration Depth of a Bullet Using ANSYS

Authors: Eunsu Jang, Kang Park

Abstract:

In developing an armored ground combat vehicle (AGCV), it is a very important step to analyze the vulnerability (or the survivability) of the AGCV against enemy’s attack. In the vulnerability analysis, the penetration equations are usually used to get the penetration depth and check whether a bullet can penetrate the armor of the AGCV, which causes the damage of internal components or crews. The penetration equations are derived from penetration experiments which require long time and great efforts. However, they usually hold only for the specific material of the target and the specific type of the bullet used in experiments. Thus, penetration simulation using ANSYS can be another option to calculate penetration depth. However, it is very important to model the targets and select the input parameters in order to get an accurate penetration depth. This paper performed a sensitivity analysis of input parameters of ANSYS on the accuracy of the calculated penetration depth. Two conflicting objectives need to be achieved in adopting ANSYS in penetration analysis: maximizing the accuracy of calculation and minimizing the calculation time. To maximize the calculation accuracy, the sensitivity analysis of the input parameters for ANSYS was performed and calculated the RMS error with the experimental data. The input parameters include mesh size, boundary condition, material properties, target diameter are tested and selected to minimize the error between the calculated result from simulation and the experiment data from the papers on the penetration equation. To minimize the calculation time, the parameter values obtained from accuracy analysis are adjusted to get optimized overall performance. As result of analysis, the followings were found: 1) As the mesh size gradually decreases from 0.9 mm to 0.5 mm, both the penetration depth and calculation time increase. 2) As diameters of the target decrease from 250mm to 60 mm, both the penetration depth and calculation time decrease. 3) As the yield stress which is one of the material property of the target decreases, the penetration depth increases. 4) The boundary condition with the fixed side surface of the target gives more penetration depth than that with the fixed side and rear surfaces. By using above finding, the input parameters can be tuned to minimize the error between simulation and experiments. By using simulation tool, ANSYS, with delicately tuned input parameters, penetration analysis can be done on computer without actual experiments. The data of penetration experiments are usually hard to get because of security reasons and only published papers provide them in the limited target material. The next step of this research is to generalize this approach to anticipate the penetration depth by interpolating the known penetration experiments. This result may not be accurate enough to be used to replace the penetration experiments, but those simulations can be used in the early stage of the design process of AGCV in modelling and simulation stage.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, ANSYS, penetration depth, input parameters

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21 Sensitivity Analysis of Oil Spills Modeling with ADIOS II for Iranian Fields in Persian Gulf

Authors: Farzingohar Mehrnaz, Yasemi Mehran, Esmaili Zinat, Baharlouian Maedeh

Abstract:

Aboozar (Ardeshir) and Bahregansar are the two important Iranian oilfields in Persian Gulf waters. The operation activities cause to create spills which impacted on the marine environment. Assumed spills are molded by ADIOS II (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills) which is NOAA’s weathering oil software. Various atmospheric and marine data with different oil types are used for the modeling. Numerous scenarios for 100 bbls with mean daily air temperature and wind speed are input for 5 days. To find the model sensitivity in each setting, one parameter is changed, but the others stayed constant. In both fields, the evaporated and dispersed output values increased hence the remaining rate is reduced. The results clarified that wind speed first, second air temperature and finally oil type respectively were the most effective factors on the oil weathering process. The obtained results can help the emergency systems to predict the floating (dispersed and remained) volume spill in order to find the suitable cleanup tools and methods.

Keywords: Modeling, Sensitivity Analysis, Oil Spill, ADIOS

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20 Using Simulation Modeling Approach to Predict USMLE Steps 1 and 2 Performances

Authors: Chau-Kuang Chen, Jr., John Hughes, A. Dexter Samuels

Abstract:

The prediction models for the United States Medical Licensure Examination (USMLE) Steps 1 and 2 performances were constructed by the Monte Carlo simulation modeling approach via linear regression. The purpose of this study was to build robust simulation models to accurately identify the most important predictors and yield the valid range estimations of the Steps 1 and 2 scores. The application of simulation modeling approach was deemed an effective way in predicting student performances on licensure examinations. Also, sensitivity analysis (a/k/a what-if analysis) in the simulation models was used to predict the magnitudes of Steps 1 and 2 affected by changes in the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Basic Science Subject Board scores. In addition, the study results indicated that the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) Verbal Reasoning score and Step 1 score were significant predictors of the Step 2 performance. Hence, institutions could screen qualified student applicants for interviews and document the effectiveness of basic science education program based on the simulation results.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, simulation method, prediction model, USMLE

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19 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Roofing System for Abu Dhabi

Authors: Iyasu Eibedingil

Abstract:

The construction industry is one of the major factors responsible for causing a negative impact on the environment. It has the largest share in the use of natural resources including land use, material extraction, and greenhouse gases emissions. For this reason, it is imperative to reduce its environmental impact through the construction of sustainable buildings with less impact. These days, it is possible to measure the environmental impact by using different tools such as the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Given this premise, this study explored the environmental impact of two types of roofing systems through comparative life cycle assessment approach. The tiles were analyzed to select the most environmentally friendly roofing system for the villa at Khalifa City A, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. These products are available in various forms; however, in this study concrete roof tiles and clay roof tiles were considered. The results showed that concrete roof tiles have lower environmental impact. In all scenarios considered, manufacturing the roof tiles locally, using recovered fuels for firing clay tiles, and using renewable energy (electricity from PV plant) showed that the concrete roof tiles were found to be excellent in terms of its embodied carbon, embodied the energy and various other environmental performance indicators.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Sensitivity Analysis, clay roof tile, concrete roof tile

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18 Economic Assessment of the Fish Solar Tent Dryers

Authors: Collen Kawiya

Abstract:

In an effort of reducing post-harvest losses and improving the supply of quality fish products in Malawi, the fish solar tent dryers have been designed in the southern part of Lake Malawi for processing small fish species under the project of Cultivate Africa’s Future (CultiAF). This study was done to promote the adoption of the fish solar tent dryers by the many small scale fish processors in Malawi through the assessment of the economic viability of these dryers. With the use of the project’s baseline survey data, a business model for a constructed ‘ready for use’ solar tent dryer was developed where investment appraisal techniques were calculated in addition with the sensitivity analysis. The study also conducted a risk analysis through the use of the Monte Carlo simulation technique and a probabilistic net present value was found. The investment appraisal results showed that the net present value was US$8,756.85, the internal rate of return was 62% higher than the 16.32% cost of capital and the payback period was 1.64 years. The sensitivity analysis results showed that only two input variables influenced the fish solar dryer investment’s net present value. These are the dried fish selling prices that were correlating positively with the net present value and the fresh fish buying prices that were negatively correlating with the net present value. Risk analysis results showed that the chances that fish processors will make a loss from this type of investment are 17.56%. It was also observed that there exist only a 0.20 probability of experiencing a negative net present value from this type of investment. Lastly, the study found that the net present value of the fish solar tent dryer’s investment is still robust in spite of any changes in the levels of investors risk preferences. With these results, it is concluded that the fish solar tent dryers in Malawi are an economically viable investment because they are able to improve the returns in the fish processing activity. As such, fish processors need to adopt them by investing their money to construct and use them.

Keywords: risk analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, investment appraisal, solar tent drying

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17 An Insite to the Probabilistic Assessment of Reserves in Conventional Reservoirs

Authors: Sai Sudarshan, Harsh Vyas, Riddhiman Sherlekar

Abstract:

The oil and gas industry has been unwilling to adopt stochastic definition of reserves. Nevertheless, Monte Carlo simulation methods have gained acceptance by engineers, geoscientists and other professionals who want to evaluate prospects or otherwise analyze problems that involve uncertainty. One of the common applications of Monte Carlo simulation is the estimation of recoverable hydrocarbon from a reservoir.Monte Carlo Simulation makes use of random samples of parameters or inputs to explore the behavior of a complex system or process. It finds application whenever one needs to make an estimate, forecast or decision where there is significant uncertainty. First, the project focuses on performing Monte-Carlo Simulation on a given data set using U. S Department of Energy’s MonteCarlo Software, which is a freeware e&p tool. Further, an algorithm for simulation has been developed for MATLAB and program performs simulation by prompting user for input distributions and parameters associated with each distribution (i.e. mean, st.dev, min., max., most likely, etc.). It also prompts user for desired probability for which reserves are to be calculated. The algorithm so developed and tested in MATLAB further finds implementation in Python where existing libraries on statistics and graph plotting have been imported to generate better outcome. With PyQt designer, codes for a simple graphical user interface have also been written. The graph so plotted is then validated with already available results from U.S DOE MonteCarlo Software.

Keywords: Simulation, Probability, Sensitivity Analysis, confidence interval

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16 Sensitivity and Reliability Analysis of Masonry Infilled Frames

Authors: Avadhoot Bhosale, Robin Davis P., Pradip Sarkar

Abstract:

The seismic performance of buildings with irregular distribution of mass, stiffness and strength along the height may be significantly different from that of regular buildings with masonry infill. Masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames are very common structural forms used for multi-storey building construction. These structures are found to perform better in past earthquakes owing to additional strength, stiffness and energy dissipation in the infill walls. The seismic performance of a building depends on the variation of material, structural and geometrical properties. The sensitivity of these properties affects the seismic response of the building. The main objective of the sensitivity analysis is to found out the most sensitive parameter that affects the response of the building. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis by considering 5% and 95% probability value of random variable in the infills characteristics, trying to obtain a reasonable range of results representing a wide number of possible situations that can be met in practice by using pushover analysis. The results show that the strength-related variation values of concrete and masonry, with the exception of tensile strength of the concrete, have shown a significant effect on the structural performance and that this effect increases with the progress of damage condition for the concrete. The seismic risk assessments of the selected frames are expressed in terms of reliability index.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, reliability index, RC frames, fragility curve

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15 Electromagnetic Assessment of Submarine Power Cable Degradation Using Finite Element Method and Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: N. Boutra, N. Ravot, J. Benoit, O. Picon

Abstract:

Submarine power cables used for offshore wind farms electric energy distribution and transmission are subject to numerous threats. Some of the risks are associated with transport, installation and operating in harsh marine environment. This paper describes the feasibility of an electromagnetic low frequency sensing technique for submarine power cable failure prediction. The impact of a structural damage shape and material variability on the induced electric field is evaluated. The analysis is performed by modeling the cable using the finite element method, we use sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main damage characteristics affecting electric field variation. Lastly, we discuss the results obtained.

Keywords: Electromagnetism, Sensitivity Analysis, Finite Element Method, submarine power cables

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