Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

semiochemicals Related Abstracts

3 Oviposition Responses of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to Hay Infusion Volatiles in Laboratory Bioassays and Investigation of Volatile Detection Methods

Authors: Lynda K. Eneh, Okal N. Mike, Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson, Ulrike Fillinger, Jenny M. Lindh


The responses of individual gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) to hay infusion volatiles were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Such infusions have long been known to be effective baits for monitoring mosquitoes that vector arboviral and filarial diseases but have previously not been tested for malaria vectors. Hay infusions were prepared by adding sun-dried Bermuda grass to lake water and leaving the mixture in a covered bucket for three days. The proportions of eggs laid by gravid An. gambiae s.s. in diluted (10%) and concentrated infusions ( ≥ 25%) was compared to that laid in lake water in two-choice egg-count bioassays. Furthermore, with the aim to develop a method that can be used to collect volatiles that influence the egg-laying behavior of malaria mosquitoes, different volatile trapping methods were investigated. Two different polymer-traps eluted using two different desorption methods and three parameters were investigated. Porapak®-Q traps and solvent desorption was compared to Tenax®-TA traps and thermal desorption. The parameters investigated were: collection time (1h vs. 20h), addition of salt (0.15 g/ml sodium chloride (NaCl) vs. no NaCl), and stirring the infusion (0 vs. 300 rpm). Sample analysis was with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An. gambiae s.s was ten times less likely to lay eggs in concentrated hay infusion than in lake water. The volatiles were best characterized by thermally desorbed Tenax traps, collected for 20 hours from infusion aliquots with sodium chloride added. Ten volatiles identified from headspace and previously indicated as putative oviposition semiochemicals for An. gambiae s.s. or confirmed semiochemicals for other mosquito species were tested in egg-count bioassays. Six of these (3-methylbutanol, phenol, 4-methylphenol, nonanal, indole and 3-methylindole), when added to lake water, were avoided for egg-laying when lake water was offered as the alternative in dual-choice egg count bioassays. These compounds likely contribute to the unfavorable oviposition responses towards hay infusions. This difference in oviposition response of different mosquito species should be considered when designing control measures.

Keywords: Anopheles gambiae, oviposition behaviour, egg-count cage bioassays, hay infusions, volatile detection, semiochemicals

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2 Investigating Potential Pest Management Strategies for Citrus Gall Wasp in Australia

Authors: M. Yazdani, J. F. Carragher


Citrus gall wasp (CGW), Bruchophagus fellis (Hym: Eurytomidae), is an Australian native insect pest. CGW has now become a problem of national concern, threatening the viability of the entire Australian citrus industry. However, CGW appears to exhibit a preference for certain citrus species; growers report that grapefruit and lemons are most severely infested, with oranges and mandarins affected to a lesser extent. Given the specificity of the host plant-insect interactions, it is speculated that plant volatiles may play a significant role in host recognition. To address whether plant volatiles is involved in host plant preference by CGW we tested the behavioral response of CGW to plants in a wind tunnel. The result showed that CGW had significantly higher preference to grapefruit and lemon than other cultivars and the least preference was recorded to mandarin (Chi-square test, P<0.001). Because CGW exhibited a detectable choice further studies were undertaken to identify the components of the volatiles from each species. We trapped the volatile chemicals emitted by a 30 cm tip of each plant onto a solid Porapak matrix. Eluted extracts were then analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and the presumptive identity of the major compounds from each species inferred from the MS library. Although the same major compounds existed in all of the cultivars, the relative ratios of them differed between species. Next, we will validate the identity of the key volatiles using authentic standards and establish their ability to elicit olfactory responses in CGW in wind tunnel and field experiments. Identification of semiochemicals involved in host location by CGW is of interest not only from an ecological perspective but also for the development of novel pest control strategies.

Keywords: IPM, semiochemicals, volatiles, Citrus gall wasp, Bruchophagus fellis

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1 Fatal Attractions: Exploiting Olfactory Communication between Invasive Predators for Conservation

Authors: Patrick M. Garvey, Roger P. Pech, Daniel M. Tompkins


Competition is a widespread interaction and natural selection will encourage the development of mechanisms that recognise and respond to dominant competitors, if this information reduces the risk of a confrontation. As olfaction is the primary sense for most mammals, our research tested whether olfactory ‘eavesdropping’ mediates alien species interactions and whether we could exploit our understanding of this behaviour to create ‘super-lures’. We used a combination of pen and field experiments to evaluate the importance of this behaviour. In pen trials, stoats (Mustela erminea) were exposed to the body odour of three dominant predators (cat / ferret / African wild dog) and these scents were found to be attractive. A subsequent field trial tested whether attraction displayed towards predator odour, particularly ferret (Mustela furo) pheromones, could be replicated with invasive predators in the wild. We found that ferret odour significantly improved detection and activity of stoats and hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), while also improving detections of ship rats (Rattus rattus). Our current research aims to identify the key components of ferret odour, using chemical analysis and behavioural experiments, so that we can produce ‘scent from a can’. A lure based on a competitors’ odour would be beneficial in many circumstances including: (i) where individuals display variability in attraction to food lures, (ii) there are plentiful food resources available, (iii) new immigrants arrive into an area, (iv) long-life lures are required. Pest management can therefore benefit by exploiting behavioural responses to odours to achieve conservation goals.

Keywords: Invasive Species, semiochemicals, predator interactions, eavesdropping

Procedia PDF Downloads 273