Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Semiconductors Related Abstracts

13 Modeling Reflection and Transmission of Elastodiffussive Wave Sata Semiconductor Interface

Authors: AMIT SHARMA, J. N. Sharma


This paper deals with the study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor halfspace and elastic solid. The amplitude ratios (reflection and transmission coefficients) of reflected and transmitted waves to that of incident wave varying with the incident angles have been examined for the case of quasi-longitudinal wave. The special cases of normal and grazing incidence have also been derived with the help of Gauss elimination method. The mathematical model consisting of governing partial differential equations of motion and charge carriers diffusion of n-type semiconductors and elastic solid has been solved both analytically and numerically in the study. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients has been carried out by using MATLAB programming software for silicon (Si) semiconductor and copper elastic solid. The computer simulated results have been plotted graphically for Si semiconductors. The study may be useful in semiconductors, geology, and seismology in addition to surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

Keywords: Acoustics, Semiconductors, quasilongitudinal, reflection and transmission

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12 Gap Formation into Bulk InSb Crystals Grown by the VDS Technique Revealing Enhancement in the Transport Properties

Authors: Dattatray Gadkari, Dilip Maske, Manisha Joshi, Rashmi Choudhari, Brij Mohan Arora


The vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique has been applied to the growth of bulk InSb crystals. The concept of practical stability is applied to the case of detached bulk crystal growth on earth in a simplified design. By optimization of the set up and growth parameters, 32 ingots of 65-75 mm in length and 10-22 mm in diameter have been grown. The results indicate that the wetting angle of the melt on the ampoule wall and the pressure difference across the interface are the crucial factors effecting the meniscus shape and stability. Taking into account both heat transfer and capillarity, it is demonstrated that the process is stable in case of convex menisci (seen from melt), provided that pressure fluctuations remain in a stable range. During the crystal growth process, it is necessary to keep a relationship between the rate of the difference pressure controls and the solidification to maintain the width of gas gap. It is concluded that practical stability gives valuable knowledge of the dynamics and could be usefully applied to other crystal growth processes, especially those involving capillary shaping. Optoelectronic properties were investigated in relation to the type of solidification attached and detached ingots growth. These samples, room temperature physical properties such as Hall mobility, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and microhardness achieved for antimonide samples grown by VDS technique have shown the highest values gained till at this time. These results reveal that these crystals can be used to produce InSb with high mobility for device applications.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Electronic materials, Defects, Alloys, Optical Microscopy, Crystal structure, Crystal Growth, Solidification, etching, Hall effect

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11 2D PbS Nanosheets Synthesis and Their Applications as Field Effect Transistors or Solar Cells

Authors: T. Bielewicz, S. Dogan, C. Klinke


Two-dimensional, solution-processable semiconductor materials are interesting for low-cost electronic applications [1]. We demonstrate the synthesis of lead sulfide nanosheets and how their size, shape and height can be tuned by varying concentrations of pre-cursors, ligands and by varying the reaction temperature. Especially, the charge carrier confinement in the nanosheets’ height adjustable from 2 to 20 nm has a decisive impact on their electronic properties. This is demonstrated by their use as conduction channel in a field effect transistor [2]. Recently we also showed that especially thin nanosheets show a high carrier multiplication (CM) efficiency [3] which could make them, through the confinement induced band gap and high photoconductivity, very attractive for application in photovoltaic devices. We are already able to manufacture photovoltaic devices out of single nanosheets which show promising results.

Keywords: Physical Sciences, Physics, Chemistry, Materials, Colloids, Semiconductors, Two-Dimensional Materials, condensed-matter physics

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10 Spin-Polarized Investigation of Ferromagnetism on Magnetic Semiconductors MnxCa1-xS in the Rock-salt Phase

Authors: M. A. Ghebouli, H. Choutri, M. Fatmi, B. Ghebouli, L. Louail


The structural, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors MnxCa1-xS in the rock-salt phase have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Features such as lattice constant, bulk modulus, elastic constants, spin-polarized band structure, total and local densities of states have been computed. We predict the values of the exchange constants and the band edge spin splitting of the valence and conduction bands. The hybridization between S-3p and Mn-3d produces small local magnetic moment on the nonmagnetic Ca and S sites. The ferromagnetism is induced due to the exchange splitting of S-3p and Mn-3d hybridized bands. The total magnetic moment per Mn of MnxCa1-xS is 4.4µB and is independent of the Mn concentration. The unfilled Mn -3d levels reduce the local magnetic moment of Mn from its free space charge value of 5µB to 4.4µB due to 3p–3d hybridization.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Magnetic Properties, Ab Initio Calculations, band-structure

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9 Facile Route for the Synthesis of NiO/ZnO Nanocomposite Used in Gas Sensors

Authors: Roussin Lontio Fomekong, John Lambi Ngolui, Arnaud Dercorte


Current years have seen increased interest in the synthesis of p/n metal oxide-based nano composites and their great potential in advanced applications, such as opto electronics, photo catalysis and gas sensors. The superior functional performances of the system combining p-type and n-types semiconducting oxyde in comparison to the corresponding single-phase metal oxides are mainly ascribed to the build-up of an inner electric field at the p/n junction interface.

Keywords: Semiconductors, nanocomposite, heterojunction, p-n

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8 Numerical Design and Characterization of SiC Single Crystals Obtained with PVT Method

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, M. Grybczuk, E. Tymicki, K. J. Kurzydlowski


In the present study, numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer in Physical Vapor Transport reactor during silicon carbide single crystal growth are addressed. Silicon carbide is a wide bandgap material with unique properties making it highly applicable for high power electronics applications. Because of high manufacturing costs improvements of SiC production process are required. In this study, numerical simulations were used as a tool of process optimization. Computer modeling allows for cost and time effective analysis of processes occurring during SiC single crystal growth and provides essential information needed for improvement of the process. Quantitative relationship between process conditions, such as temperature or pressure, and crystal growth rate and shape of crystallization front have been studied and verified using experimental data. Basing on modeling results, several process improvements were proposed and implemented.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Silicon Carbide, finite volume method, Physica Vapor Transport

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7 Finite Volume Method Simulations of GaN Growth Process in MOVPE Reactor

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, K. J. Kurzydlowski, J. Skibinski, P. Caban


In the present study, numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer during gallium nitride growth process in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S is addressed. Existing knowledge about phenomena occurring in the MOVPE process allows to produce high quality nitride based semiconductors. However, process parameters of MOVPE reactors can vary in certain ranges. Main goal of this study is optimization of the process and improvement of the quality of obtained crystal. In order to investigate this subject a series of computer simulations have been performed. Numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer in GaN epitaxial growth process have been performed to determine growth rate for various mass flow rates and pressures of reagents. According to the fact that it’s impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during the process, modeling is the only solution to understand the process precisely. Main heat transfer mechanisms during MOVPE process are convection and radiation. Correlation of modeling results with the experiment allows to determine optimal process parameters for obtaining crystals of highest quality.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Epitaxial Growth, finite volume method, gallium nitride, metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

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6 Modeling and Characterization of the SiC Single Crystal Growth Process

Authors: T. Wejrzanowski, M. Grybczuk, E. Tymicki, K. J. Kurzydlowski


In the present study numerical simulations silicon carbide single crystal growth process in Physical Vapor Transport reactor are addressed. Silicon Carbide is a perspective material for many applications in modern electronics. One of the main challenges for wider applications of SiC is high price of high quality mono crystals. Improvement of silicon carbide manufacturing process has a significant influence on the product price. Better understanding of crystal growth allows for optimization of the process, and it can be achieved by numerical simulations. In this work Virtual Reactor software was used to simulate the process. Predicted geometrical properties of the final product and information about phenomena occurring inside process reactor were obtained. The latter is especially valuable because reactor chamber is inaccessible during the process due to high temperature inside the reactor (over 2000˚C). Obtained data was used for improvement of the process and reactor geometry. Resultant crystal quality was also predicted basing on crystallization front shape evolution and threading dislocation paths. Obtained results were confronted with experimental data and the results are in good agreement.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Silicon Carbide, finite volume method, Physical Vapor Transport

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5 Electrochemistry of Metal Chalcogenides Semiconductor Materials; Theory and Practical Applications

Authors: Mahmoud Elrouby


Metal chalcogenide materials have wide spectrum of properties, for that these materials can be used in electronics, optics, magnetics, solar energy conversion, catalysis, passivation, ion sensing, batteries, and fuel cells. This work aims to, how can obtain these materials via electrochemical methods simply for further applications. The work regards in particular the systems relevant to the sulphur sub-group elements, i.e., sulphur, selenium, and tellurium. The role of electrochemistry in synthesis, development, and characterization of the metal chalcogenide materials and related devices is vital and important. Electrochemical methods as preparation tool offer the advantages of soft chemistry to access bulk, thin, nano film and epitaxial growth of a wide range of alloys and compounds, while as a characterization tool provides exceptional assistance in specifying the physicochemical properties of materials. Moreover, quite important applications and modern devices base their operation on electrochemical principles. Thereupon, our scope in the first place was to organize existing facts on the electrochemistry of metal chalcogenides regarding their synthesis, properties, and applications.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Applications, electrodeposition, metal chacogenides

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4 Pressure Induced Phase Transition of Semiconducting Alloy TlxGa1-xAs

Authors: Madhu Sarwan, Ritu Dubey, Sadhna Singh


We have investigated the structural phase transition from Zinc-Blende (ZB) to Rock-Salt (RS) structure of TlxGa1-xAs by using Interaction Potential Model (IPM). The IPM consists of Coulomb interaction, Three-Body Interaction (TBI), Van Der Wall (vdW) interaction and overlap repulsive short range interaction. The structural phase transition has been computed by using the vegard’s law. The volume collapse is also computed for this alloy. We have also investigated the second order elastic constants with composition for the alloy TlxGa1-xAs.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Phase Transition, III-V alloy, elastic moduli

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3 First Principle Studies on the Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Some BaMn-Based Double Perovskites

Authors: S. Bentata, T. Lantri, B. Bouadjemi, Z. Aziz, Amel Souidi


Perovskite materials which include magnetic elements have relevance due to the technological perspectives in the spintronics industry. In this work, we have investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of double perovskites Ba2MnXO6 with X= Mo and W by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) [1, 2] as implemented in the WIEN2K [3] code. The interchange-correlation potential was included through the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) [4] as well as taking into account the on-site coulomb repulsive interaction in (GGA+U) approach. We have analyzed the structural parameters, charge and spin densities, total and partial densities of states. The results show that the materials crystallize in the 225 space group (Fm-3m) and have a lattice parameter of about 7.97 Å and 7.95 Å for Ba2MnMoO6 and Ba2MnWO6, respectively. The band structures reveal a metallic ferromagnetic (FM) ground state in Ba2MnMoO6 and half-metallic (HM) ferromagnetic (FM) ground state in the Ba2MnWO6 compound, with total magnetic moment equal 2.9951μB (Ba2MnMoO6 ) and 4.0001μB (Ba2MnWO6 ). The GGA+U calculations predict an energy gap in the spin-up bands in Ba2MnWO6. So we estimate that this material with HM-FM nature implies a promising application in spin-electronics technology.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Electronic Structure, first-principles, double perovskites

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2 Determination of Optical Constants of Semiconductor Thin Films by Ellipsometry

Authors: Aïssa Manallah, Mohamed Bouafia


Ellipsometry is an optical method based on the study of the behavior of polarized light. The light reflected on a surface induces a change in the polarization state which depends on the characteristics of the material (complex refractive index and thickness of the different layers constituting the device). The purpose of this work is to determine the optical properties of semiconductor thin films by ellipsometry. This paper describes the experimental aspects concerning the semiconductor samples, the SE400 ellipsometer principle, and the results obtained by direct measurements of ellipsometric parameters and modelling using appropriate software.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Thin Films, optical constants, Ellipsometry

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1 Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of ZnO Nanowires as a Function of Nano-Diameter

Authors: L. Achou, A. Doghmane


Elastic performances, as an essential property of nanowires (NWs), play a significant role in the design and fabrication of modern nanodevices. In this paper, our interest is focused on ZnO NWs to investigate wire diameter (Dwire ≤ 400 nm) effects on elastic properties. The plotted data reveal that a strong size dependence of the elastic constants exists when the wire diameter is smaller than ~ 100 nm. For larger diameters (Dwire > 100 nm), these ones approach their corresponding bulk values. To enrich this study, we make use of the scanning acoustic microscopy simulation technique. The calculation methodology consists of several steps: determination of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities, calculation of refection coefficients, calculation of acoustic signatures and Rayleigh velocity determination. Quantitatively, it was found that changes in ZnO diameters over the ranges 1 nm ≤ Dwire ≤ 100 nm lead to similar exponential variations, for all elastic parameters, of the from: A = a + b exp(-Dwire/c) where a, b, and c are characteristic constants of a given parameter. The developed relation can be used to predict elastic properties of such NW by just knowing its diameter and vice versa.

Keywords: Semiconductors, nanowires, ZnO, elastic properties, theoretical model

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