Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Self-regulation Related Abstracts

19 Psychological Well-Being and Perception of Disease Severity in People with Multiple Sclerosis, Who Underwent a Program of Self-Regulation to Promote Physical Activity

Authors: Luisa Pedro, José Pais-Ribeiro, João Páscoa Pinheiro


Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system that affects more often young adults in the prime of his career and personal development, with no cure and unknown causes. The most common signs and symptoms are fatigue, muscle weakness, changes in sensation, ataxia, changes in balance, gait difficulties, memory difficulties, cognitive impairment and difficulties in problem solving. MS is a relatively common neurological disorder in which various impairments and disabilities impact strongly on function and daily life activities. The aim of this study is to examine the implications of the program of self-regulation in the perception of illness and mental health (psychological well-being domain) in MS patients. MS is a relatively common neurological disorder in which various impairments and disabilities impact strongly on function and daily life activities. The aim of this study is to examine the implications of the program of self-regulation in the perception of illness and mental health (psychological well-being domain) in MS patients. After this, a set of exercises was implemented to be used in daily life activities, according to studies developed with MS patients. We asked the subjects the question “Please classify the severity of your disease?” and used the domain of psychological well-being, the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-38) at the beginning (time A) and end (time B) of the program of self-regulation. We used the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. A non-parametric statistical hypothesis test (Wilcoxon test) was used for the variable analysis. The intervention followed the recommendations of the Helsinki Declaration. The age range of the subjects was between 20 and 58 years with a mean age of 44 years. 58.3 % were women, 37.5 % were currently married, 67% were retired and the mean level of education was 12.5 years. In the correlation between the severity of the disease perception and psychological well before the self-regulation program, an obtained result (r = 0.26, p <0.05), then the self-regulation program, was (r = 0.37, p <0.01), from a low to moderate correlation. We conclude that the program of self-regulation for physical activity in patients with MS can improve the relationship between the perception of disease severity and psychological well-being.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Multiple Sclerosis, Self-regulation, psychological well-being

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18 Attitude to the Types of Organizational Change

Authors: O. Y. Yurieva, O. V. Yurieva, O. V. Kiselkina, A. V. Kamaseva


Since the early 2000s, there are some innovative changes in the civil service in Russia due to administrative reform. Perspectives of the reform of the civil service include a fundamental change in the personnel component, increasing the level of professionalism of officials, increasing their capacity for self-organization and self-regulation. In order to achieve this, the civil service must be able to continuously change. Organizational changes have long become the subject of scientific understanding; problems of research in the field of organizational change is presented by topics focused on the study of the methodological aspects of the implementation of the changes, the specifics of changes in different types of organizations (business, government, and so on), design changes in the organization, including based on the change in organizational culture. In this case, the organizational changes in the civil service are the least studied areas; research of problems of its transformation is carried out in fragments. According to the theory of resistance of Herbert Simon, the root of the opposition and rejection of change is in the person who will resist any change, if it threatens to undermine the degree of satisfaction as a member of the organization (regardless of the reasons for this change). Thus, the condition for successful adaptation to changes in the organization is the ability of its staff to perceive innovation. As part of the problem, the study sought to identify the innovation civil servants, to determine readiness for the development of proposals for the implementation of organizational change in the public service. To identify the relationship to organizational changes case study carried out by the method of "Attitudes to organizational change" of I. Motovilina, which allowed predicting the type of resistance to changes, to reveal the contradictions and hidden results. The advantage of the method of I. Motovilina is its brevity, simplicity, the analysis of the responses to each question, the use of "overlapping" issues potentially conflicting factors. Based on the study made by the authors, it was found that respondents have a positive attitude to change more local than those that take place in reality, such as "increase opportunities for professional growth", "increase the requirements for the level of professionalism of", "the emergence of possible manifestations initiatives from below". Implemented by the authors diagnostics related to organizational changes in the public service showed the presence of specific problem areas, with roots in the lack of understanding of the importance of innovation personnel in the process of bureaucratization of innovation in public service organizations.

Keywords: Self-regulation, Self-Organization, civil service, innovative changes

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17 The Relationship between EFL Learners' Self-Regulation and Willingness to Communicate

Authors: Mania Nosratinia, Zahra Deris


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between EFL learners' self-regulation (SR) and willingness to communicate (WTC). To this end, 520 male and female EFL learners, ranging between 19 and 34 years old (Mage = 26), majoring in English Translation, English Language Teaching and English Literature at Islamic Azad University, Fars Province, were randomly selected. They were given two questionnaires: Self-Regulation Questionnaire devised by Brown, Miller, and Lawendowski (1999) and Willingness to Communicate Scale devised by McCroskey and Baer (1985). Preliminarily, pertinent analyses were performed on the data to check the assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity. Since the assumption of normality was violated, Spearman's rank-order correlation was employed to probe the relationships between SR and WTC. The results indicated a significant and positive correlation between the two variables, ρ = .56, n = 520, p < .05, which signified a large effect size supplemented by a very small confidence interval (0.503 – 0.619). The results of the Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated that there is a statistically significant difference in WTC score between the different levels of SR, χ2(2) = 157.843, p = 0.000 with a mean rank SR score of 128.13 for low-SR level, 286.64 for mid-SR level, and 341.12 for high-SR level. Also, a post-hoc comparison through running a Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner indicated significant differences among the SR level groups on WTC scores. Given the findings of the study, the obtained results may help EFL teachers, teacher trainers, and material developers to possess a broader perspective towards the TEFL practice and to take practical steps towards the attainments of the desired objectives and effective instruction.

Keywords: Relationship, Self-regulation, EFL learner, willingness to communicate

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16 Relative Influence of Self-Regulation, Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, and Goal Orientation on School Engagement among Public Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Oluwole David Adebayo, Ogunremi Beatrice


Public secondary school students are face with some challenges from the parents, government and teachers in school. Some of the challenges that arises from the parents are lack of attention and adequate communication. From the government are unavailability of useful instructional materials, competent and professionally trained teachers for each subject the students do in school. The challenges that arise from the teachers most often are mismanagement of time, inability to understand the capacity of the student and lack class management and follow up. This study investigated self-regulation, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and goal orientation as predictors of school engagement among public secondary school students in Ibadan. A structured questionnaire was administered on 258 students from six mixed secondary schools in Ibadan. Pearson Product Moment Correlation method was used for data analysis. Four hypothesis were raised and answered, the results showed there is positive and significant relationships between school engagement among public secondary school students and each of the independent variable: Self-regulation, Emotional intelligence, Self-efficacy, Goal orientation. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that the parents have to encourage their children on how to be goal oriented ,build their self-efficacy skill, to be self-regulated and emotionally intelligent in order to be effective in school and be able to increase their intellectual ability.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, Emotional Intelligence, Goal Orientation, school engagement

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15 Development of an Instructional Model for Health Education Based On Social Cognitive Theory and Strategic Life Planning to Enhance Self-Regulation and Learning Achievement of Lower Secondary School Students

Authors: Adisorn Bansong, Walai Isarankura Na Ayudhaya, Aumporn Makanong


A Development of an Instructional Model for Health Education was the aim to develop and study the effectiveness of an instructional model for health education to enhance self-regulation and learning achievement of lower secondary school students. It was the Quasi-Experimental Designs, used a Single-group Interrupted Time-series Designs, conducted by 2 phases: 1. To develop an instructional model based on Social Cognitive Theory and Strategic Life Planning. 2. To trial and evaluate effectiveness of an instructional model. The results as the following: i. An Instructional Model for Health Education consists of five main components: a) Attention b) Forethought c) Tactic Planning d) Execution and e) Reflection. ii. After an Instructional Model for Health Education has used for a semester trial, found the 4.07 percent of sample’s Self-Regulation higher and learning achievement on post-test were significantly higher than pre-test at .05 levels (p = .033, .000).

Keywords: Self-regulation, Social Cognitive Theory, learning achievement, strategic life planning

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14 Examining Risk Based Approach to Financial Crime in the Charity Sector: The Challenges and Solutions, Evidence from the Regulation of Charities in England and Wales

Authors: Paschal Ohalehi


Purpose - The purpose of this paper, which is part of a PhD thesis is to examine the role of risk based approach in minimising financial crime in the charity sector as well as offer recommendations to improving the quality of charity regulation whilst still retaining risk based approach as a regulatory framework and also making a case for a new regulatory model. Increase in financial crimes in the charity sector has put the role of regulation in minimising financial crime up for debates amongst researchers and practitioners. Although previous research has addressed the regulation of charities, research on the role of risk based approach to minimising financial crime in the charity sector is limited. Financial crime is a concern for all organisation including charities. Design/methodology/approach - This research adopts a social constructionist’s epistemological position. This research is carried out using semi structured in-depth interviews amongst randomly selected 24 charity trustees divided into three classes: 10 small charities, 10 medium charities and 4 large charities. The researcher also interviewed 4 stakeholders (NFA, Charity Commission and two different police forces in terms of size and area of coverage) in the charity sector. Findings - The results of this research show that reliance on risk based approach to financial crime in the sector is weak and fragmented with the research pointing to a clear evidence of disconnect between the regulator and the regulated leading to little or lack of regulation of trustees’ activities, limited monitoring of charities and lack of training and awareness on financial crime in the sector. Originality – This paper shows how regulation of charities in general and risk based approach in particular can be improved in order to meet the expectations of the stakeholders, the public, the regulator and the regulated.

Keywords: Risk, Self-regulation, Financial Crime, Fraud, risk based approach

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13 Investigating the Subjective Factors Related to the Need for Psychological Help of the College Students

Authors: Ismail Ay


In this study, it is aimed to analyze the relations of the factors such as the learned resourcefulness, self-efficacy, self-regulation and subjective well-being which are thought to affect the needs of the university students for psychological help and to determine if the subjective well-being mediates other factors in the prediction of the needs of the university students for psychological help. The population of the study is formed of undergraduates who get education in 16 faculties in the central campus of the University of Atatürk in the spring term of 2012-2013 academic years. The sample of the study is formed of 1205 undergraduates (female=666, 55,3 %; male=539, 44,7 %; average of age =21,49; Sd=2,18) selected from the mentioned universe by convenience sampling method. “Need for Psychological Help Scale” has been developed as a part of the study to determine the needs for psychological help. “Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire” has been adapted into Turkish to determine the self-regulation skills. Apart from these, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale and to determine subjective well-being; Satisfaction with Life Scale and Positive and Negative Affect Scale have been used within the study. SPSS 22.0 and LISREL 9.1 have been used in the analysis of the data. Pearson product-moment correlation, descriptive analysis, factor analysis and path analysis to test the research hypothesis has been used in the study. According to obtained data, the learned resourcefulness factor does not predict the subjective well-being; however, it highly predicts the self-regulation and self-efficacy factors. It has been determined that the self-regulation and self-efficacy factors predict the subjective well-being in a positive way and medium level, and subjective well-being mediates self-regulation and self-efficacy factors to predict the needs for psychological help. It was also determined that subjective well-being predicts the needs for psychological help in a negative way and fair level. All these results have been discussed in terms of the related theories and literature, and several suggestions have been made.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, subjective well-being, need for psychological help, learned resourcefulness, Maslow, psychological needs

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12 Autonomy not Automation: Using Metacognitive Skills in ESL/EFL Classes

Authors: Marina Paula Carreira Rolim


In order to have ELLs take responsibility for their own learning, it is important that they develop skills to work their studies strategically. The less they rely on the instructor as the content provider, the more they become active learners and have a higher sense of self-regulation and confidence in the learning process. This e-poster proposes a new teacher-student relationship that encourages learners to reflect, think critically, and act upon their realities. It also suggests the implementation of different autonomy-supportive teaching tools, such as portfolios, written journals, problem-solving activities, and strategy-based discussions in class. These teaching tools enable ELLs to develop awareness of learning strategies, learning styles, study plans, and available learning resources as means to foster their creative power of learning outside of classroom. In the role of a learning advisor, the teacher is no longer the content provider but a facilitator that introduces skills such as ‘elaborating’, ‘planning’, ‘monitoring’, and ‘evaluating’. The teacher acts as an educator and promotes the use of lifelong metacognitive skills to develop learner autonomy in the ESL/EFL context.

Keywords: learning strategies, Autonomy, Self-regulation, reflection, metacognitive skills

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11 Competences for Learning beyond the Academic Context

Authors: Cristina Galván-Fernández


Students differentiate the different contexts of their lives as well as employment, hobbies or studies. In higher education is needed to transfer the experiential knowledge to theory and viceversa. However, is difficult to achieve than students use their personal experiences and social readings for get the learning evidences. In an experience with 178 education students from Chile and Spain we have used an e-portfolio system and a methodology for 4 years with the aims of help them to: 1) self-regulate their learning process and 2) use social networks and professional experiences for make the learning evidences. These two objectives have been controlled by interviews to the same students in different moments and two questionnaires. The results of this study show that students recognize the ownership of their learning and progress in planning and reflection of their own learning.

Keywords: Higher Education, Self-regulation, competences, e-portfolio

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10 Customizable Sonic EEG Neurofeedback Environment to Train Self-Regulation of Momentary Mental and Emotional State

Authors: Cyril Kaplan, Nikola Jajcay


We developed purely sonic, musical based, highly customizable EEG neurofeedback environment designed to administer a new neurofeedback training protocol. The training protocol concentrates on improving the ability to switch between several mental states characterized by different levels of arousal, each of them correlated to specific brain wave activity patterns in several specific regions of neocortex. This paper describes the neurofeedback training environment we developed and its specificities, thus can be helpful as a manual to guide other neurofeedback users (both researchers and practitioners) interested in our editable open source program (available to download and usage under CC license). Responses and reaction of first trainees that used our environment are presented in this article. Combination of qualitative methods (thematic analysis of neurophenomenological insights of trainees and post-session semi-structured interviews) and quantitative methods (power spectra analysis of EEG recorded during the training) were employed to obtain a multifaceted view on our new training protocol.

Keywords: Self-regulation, Mixed Methods, EEG neurofeedback, switch-between-states training

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9 The Role of Self-Regulation and Assessment Feedback on Creative Performance

Authors: Sylvie Studente, Filia J. Garivaldis


The emotions and cognitions that underpin creative performance have been of interest for decades if not centuries, however, research evidence has still not conclusively offered reliable predictors of creativity. It is unclear whether stressors are detrimental to creative thinking, or whether some stress imposes necessary constraints to facilitate the creative process. The present research aims to examine the role of individual differences in self-regulation in influencing the links between emotions, cognitions, and creativity. Self-regulation is the capacity to disengage from moods that inhibit goal progress, and cope with failure, focus on impending intentions, and enhance the intrinsic appeal of tasks. Therefore, it is anticipated that individuals with an intuitive ability in self-regulation are able to harness their emotions and cognitions, to perform well on a creative task. In contrast, individuals with a deficiency in self-regulation will experience difficulty in such a task. Furthermore, stress in the form of positive and negative assessment feedback in the context of education will be manipulated to explore the interactive effects of environmental and individual difference factors on creative performance. The results will provide insight into the underlying factors associated with emotions and creativity, and inform future research in individual differences in cognition and emotion, and environmental triggers of creativity.

Keywords: Creativity, stress, Feedback, Self-regulation

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8 Self-Regulation and School Adjustment of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hong Kong

Authors: T. S. Terence Ma, Irene T. Ho


Conducting adequate assessment of the challenges students with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) face and the support they need is imperative for promoting their school adjustment. Students with ASD often show deficits in communication, social interaction, emotional regulation, and self-management in learning. While targeting these areas in intervention is often helpful, we argue that not enough attention has been paid to weak self-regulation being a key factor underlying their manifest difficulty in all these areas. Self-regulation refers to one’s ability to moderate their behavioral or affective responses without assistance from others. Especially for students with high functioning autism, who often show problems not so much in acquiring the needed skills but rather in applying those skills appropriately in everyday problem-solving, self-regulation becomes a key to successful adjustment in daily life. Therefore, a greater understanding of the construct of self-regulation, its relationship with other daily skills, and its role in school functioning for students with ASD would generate insights on how students’ school adjustment could be promoted more effectively. There were two focuses in this study. Firstly, we examined the extent to which self-regulation is a distinct construct that is differentiable from other daily skills and the most salient indicators of this construct. Then we tested a model of relationships between self-regulation and other daily school skills as well as their relative and combined effects on school adjustment. A total of 1,345 Grade1 to Grade 6 students with ASD attending mainstream schools in Hong Kong participated in the research. In the first stage of the study, teachers filled out a questionnaire consisting of 136 items assessing a wide range of student skills in social, emotional and learning areas. Results from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with 673 participants and subsequent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with another group of 672 participants showed that there were five distinct factors of school skills, namely (1) communication skills, (2) pro-social behavior, (3) emotional skills, (4) learning management, and (5) self-regulation. Five scales representing these skill dimensions were generated. In the second stage of the study, a model postulating the mediating role of self-regulation for the effects of the other four types of skills on school adjustment was tested with structural equation modeling (SEM). School adjustment was defined in terms of the extent to which the student is accepted well in school, with high engagement in school life and self-esteem as well as good interpersonal relationships. A 5-item scale was used to assess these aspects of school adjustment. Results showed that communication skills, pro-social behavior, emotional skills and learning management had significant effects on school adjustment only indirectly through self-regulation, and their total effects were found to be not high. The results indicate that support rendered to students with ASD focusing only on the training of well-defined skills is not adequate for promoting their inclusion in school. More attention should be paid to the training of self-management with an emphasis on the application of skills backed by self-regulation. Also, other non-skill factors are important in promoting inclusive education.

Keywords: autism, Assessment, Self-regulation, Factor Analysis, school adjustment

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7 Self-Regulation in Socially Rejected Pupils

Authors: Karla Hrbackova, Irena Balaban Cakirpaloglu


This paper is a report on self-regulation in socially rejected pupils. A certain form of social rejection can be found in almost every class within the school environment. Research shows that due to social rejection mechanisms supporting the individual´s effort of reintegration into the group are not triggered. Paradoxically the opposite tendency arises, i.e., an increase in selfish and defeating behaviour. The link between peer exposure and self-regulation is likely to vary as a function of a type and quality of peer interaction (e.g., rejection or acceptance). The paper aims to clarify the level of self-regulation related to interpersonal cognitive problem-solving within the process of social rejection in a school class. The research was done on a sample of 1,133 upper-primary school pupils using the Means-Ends Problem Solving technique (MEPS) and peer sociometric nomination. The results showed that the level of self-regulated skills is related to the status of social rejection. Socially rejected pupils achieve lower levels of self-regulation than other classmates. We found deficiency in the regulation of behaviour, emotions and the regulation of will in the peer rejected pupils with the exception of cognitive regulation in which no differences were detected between socially rejected pupils and other classmates. The results have implications for early prevention and intervention efforts to foster adaptive self-regulation and reduce the risk of later social rejection.

Keywords: Self-regulation, interpersonal cognitive problem-solving, socially rejected pupils, upper-primary school pupils

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6 Examining Procrastination and Delay among Individuals with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: S. Chowdhury, S. J. Taylor, T. A. Pychyl


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and procrastination are often discussed in relation to problems with self-regulation and executive functioning (EF). The small body of extant research that has explored the relations between these variables has many limitations particularly in terms of the samples used and the measurement of procrastination. In this study, we recruited a sample of undergraduate students with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of ADHD (n = 48, 66.7% females) as well as a sample of student volunteers without ADHD (n = 68, 75.8% females) to investigate the relations between ADHD subtypes, EF, procrastination and other forms of delay. We used the newly developed Multidimensional Measure of Academic Procrastination and Delay Questionnaire. As hypothesized, the results revealed that individuals with ADHD displayed significantly more irrational delay, general procrastination and academic procrastination compared to individuals without ADHD. This study contributed to the research literature indicating that individuals with ADHD struggle with procrastination as a result of symptoms of ADHD and EF deficits. Theses results provide support for adopting a new language when describing procrastination problems among individuals with ADHD, and they have implications for the nature of academic accommodations and interventions for individuals with ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD, Self-regulation, delay, procrastination, executive functioning

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5 Self-Regulation in Composition Writing: The Case of Variation of Self-Regulation Dispositions in Opinion Essay and Technical Writing

Authors: Dave Kenneth Tayao Cayado, Carlo P. Magno, Venice Cristine Dangaran


The present study determines whether there will be differences in the self-regulation dispositions that learners utilize when writing different types of composition. There were 7 self-regulation factors that were used to develop a scale in this study such as memory strategy, goal setting, self-evaluation, seeking assistance, learning responsibility, environmental structuring, and organizing. The scale was made specific for writing a composition. The researcher-made scale was administered to 150 participants who all came from a university in the Philippines. The participants were asked to write two compositions namely opinion essay and research introduction/review of related literature. The zero-order correlation revealed that all the factors of self-regulation are correlated with one another. However, only seeking assistance and self-evaluation are correlated with opinion essay and technical writing is not correlated to any of the self-regulation factors. However, when path analysis was used, it was shown that seeking assistance can predict opinion essay scores whereas memory strategy, self-evaluation, and organizing can predict technical writing scores.

Keywords: Self-regulation, technical writing, writing skills, opinion essay

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4 Mitigating Self-Regulation Issues in the Online Instruction of Math

Authors: Robert Vanderburg, Nicholas Gibson, Michael Cowling


Mathematics is one of the core subjects taught in the Australian K-12 education system and is considered an important component for future studies in areas such as engineering and technology. In addition to this, Australia has been a world leader in distance education due to the vastness of its geographic landscape. Despite this, research is still needed on distance math instruction. Even though delivery of curriculum has given way to online studies, and there is a resultant push for computer-based (PC, tablet, smartphone) math instruction, much instruction still involves practice problems similar to those original curriculum packs, without the ability for students to self-regulate their learning using the full interactive capabilities of these devices. Given this need, this paper addresses issues students have during online instruction. This study consists of 32 students struggling with mathematics enrolled in a math tutorial conducted in an online setting. The study used a case study design to understand some of the blockades hindering the students’ success. Data was collected by tracking students practice and quizzes, tracking engagement of the site, recording one-on-one tutorials, and collecting data from interviews with the students. Results revealed that when students have cognitively straining tasks in an online instructional setting, the first thing to dissipate was their ability to self-regulate. The results also revealed that instructors could ameliorate the situation and provided useful data on strategies that could be used for designing future online tasks. Specifically, instructors could utilize cognitive dissonance strategies to reduce the cognitive drain of the tasks online. They could segment the instruction process to reduce the cognitive demands of the tasks and provide in-depth self-regulatory training, freeing mental capacity for the mathematics content. Finally, instructors could provide specific scheduling and assignment structure changes to reduce the amount of student centered self-regulatory tasks in the class. These findings will be discussed in more detail and summarized in a framework that can be used for future work.

Keywords: Distance Education, Mathematics Education, Digital Education, Self-regulation

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3 Tardiness and Self-Regulation: Degree and Reason for Tardiness in Undergraduate Students in Japan

Authors: Keiko Sakai


In Japan, all stages of public education aim to foster a zest for life. ‘Zest’ implies solving problems by oneself, using acquired knowledge and skills. It is related to the self-regulation of metacognition. To enhance this, establishing good learning habits is important. Tardiness in undergraduate students should be examined based on self-regulation. Accordingly, we focussed on self-monitoring and self-planning strategies among self-regulated learning factors to examine the causes of tardiness. This study examines the impact of self-monitoring and self-planning learning skills on the degree and reason for tardiness in undergraduate students. A questionnaire survey was conducted, targeted to undergraduate students in University X in the autumn semester of 2018. Participants were 247 (average age 19.7, SD 1.9; 144 males, 101 females, 2 no answers). The survey contained the following items and measures: school year, the number of classes in the semester, degree of tardiness in the semester (subjective degree and objective times), active participation in and action toward schoolwork, self-planning and self-monitoring learning skills, and reason for tardiness (open-ended question). First, the relation between strategies and tardiness was examined by multiple regressions. A statistically significant relationship between a self-monitoring learning strategy and the degree of subjective and objective tardiness was revealed, after statistically controlling the school year and the number of classes. There was no significant relationship between a self-planning learning strategy and the degree of tardiness. These results suggest that self-monitoring skills reduce tardiness. Secondly, the relation between a self-monitoring learning strategy and the reason of tardiness was analysed, after classifying the reason for tardiness into one of seven categories: ‘overslept’, ‘illness’, ‘poor time management’, ‘traffic delays’, ‘carelessness’, ‘low motivation’, and ‘stuff to do’. Chi-square tests and Fisher’s exact tests showed a statistically significant relationship between a self-monitoring learning strategy and the frequency of ‘traffic delays’. This result implies that self-monitoring skills prevent tardiness because of traffic delays. Furthermore, there was a weak relationship between a self-monitoring learning strategy score and the reason-for-tardiness categories. When self-monitoring skill is higher, a decrease in ‘overslept’ and ‘illness’, and an increase in ‘poor time management’, ‘carelessness’, and ‘low motivation’ are indicated. It is suggested that a self-monitoring learning strategy is related to an internal causal attribution of failure and self-management for how to prevent tardiness. From these findings, the effectiveness of a self-monitoring learning skill strategy for reducing tardiness in undergraduate students is indicated.

Keywords: Self-regulation, Self-Monitoring, higher-education, tardiness

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2 Investigating the Role of Algerian Middle School Teachers in Enhancing Academic Self-Regulation: A Key towards Teaching How to Learn

Authors: Hanane Sarnou, Houda Zouar


In the 21st, century the concept of learners' autonomy is crucial. The concept of self-regulated learning has come forward as a result of enabling learners to direct their learning with autonomy towards academic goals achievement. Academic self-regulation is defined as the process by which learners systematically plan, monitor and asses their learning to achieve their academic established goals. In the field of English as a foreign language, teachers emphasise the role of learners’ autonomy to foster the process of English language learning. Consequently, academic self-regulation is considered as a vehicle to enhance autonomy among English language learners. However, not all learners can be equally self-regulators if not well assisted, mainly those novice pupils of basic education. For this matter, understanding the role of teachers in fostering academic self- regulation must be among the preliminary objectives in searching and developing this area. The present research work targets the role of the Algerian middle school teachers in enhancing academic self-regulation and teaching pupils how to learn, besides their role as models in the trajectory of teaching their pupils to become self-regulators. Despite the considerable endeavours in the field of educational setting on Self-Regulated Learning, the literature of the Algerian context indicates confined endeavours to undertake and divulge this notion. To go deeper into this study, a mixed method approach was employed to confirm our hypothesis. For data collection, teachers were observed and addressed by a questionnaire on their role in enhancing academic self- regulation among their pupils. The result of the research indicates that the attempts of middle school Algerian teachers are implicit and limited. This study emphasises the need to prepare English language teachers with the necessary skills to promote autonomous and self-regulator English learners.

Keywords: English as a Foreign Language, Self-regulation, Algeria, middle school, Teachers' role

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1 Improving Digital Data Security Awareness among Teacher Candidates with Digital Storytelling Technique

Authors: Aynur Aker, Veysel ÇELİK, Ebru GÜÇ


Developments in information and communication technologies have increased both the speed of producing information and the speed of accessing new information. Accordingly, the daily lives of individuals have started to change. New concepts such as e-mail, e-government, e-school, e-signature have emerged. For this reason, prospective teachers who will be future teachers or school administrators are expected to have a high awareness of digital data security. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of the digital storytelling technique on the data security awareness of pre-service teachers of computer and instructional technology education departments. For this purpose, participants were selected based on the principle of volunteering among third-grade students studying at the Computer and Instructional Technologies Department of the Faculty of Education at Siirt University. In the research, the pretest/posttest half experimental research model, one of the experimental research models, was used. In this framework, a 6-week lesson plan on digital data security awareness was prepared in accordance with the digital narration technique. Students in the experimental group formed groups of 3-6 people among themselves. The groups were asked to prepare short videos or animations for digital data security awareness. The completed videos were watched and evaluated together with prospective teachers during the evaluation process, which lasted approximately 2 hours. In the research, both quantitative and qualitative data collection tools were used by using the digital data security awareness scale and the semi-structured interview form consisting of open-ended questions developed by the researchers. According to the data obtained, it was seen that the digital storytelling technique was effective in creating data security awareness and creating permanent behavior changes for computer and instructional technology students.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, Digital Storytelling, teacher candidates, digital data security

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