Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Self-regulated learning Related Abstracts

11 Self-Regulated Learning: A Required Skill for Web 2.0 Internet-Based Learning

Authors: Pieter Conradie, M. Marina Moller


Web 2.0 Internet-based technologies have intruded all aspects of human life. Presently, this phenomenon is especially evident in the educational context, with increased disruptive Web 2.0 technology infusions dramatically changing educational practice. The most prominent of these Web 2.0 intrusions can be identified as Massive Open Online Courses (Coursera, EdX), video and photo sharing sites (Youtube, Flickr, Instagram), and Web 2.0 online tools utilize to create Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) (Symbaloo (aggregator), Delicious (social bookmarking), PBWorks (collaboration), Google+ (social networks), Wordspress (blogs), Wikispaces (wiki)). These Web 2.0 technologies have supported the realignment from a teacher-based pedagogy (didactic presentation) to a learner-based pedagogy (problem-based learning, project-based learning, blended learning), allowing greater learner autonomy. No longer is the educator the source of knowledge. Instead the educator has become the facilitator and mediator of the learner, involved in developing learner competencies to support life-long learning (continuous learning) in the 21st century. In this study, the self-regulated learning skills of thirty first-year university learners were explored by utilizing the Online Self-regulated Learning Questionnaire. Implementing an action research method, an intervention was affected towards improving the self-regulation skill set of the participants. Statistical significant results were obtained with increased self-regulated learning proficiency, positively impacting learner performance. Goal setting, time management, environment structuring, help seeking, task (learning) strategies and self-evaluation skills were confirmed as determinants of improved learner success.

Keywords: andragogy, web 2.0, Self-regulated learning, online self-regulated learning questionnaire

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10 Learning Model Applied to Cope with Professional Knowledge Gaps in Final Project of Information System Students

Authors: Ilana Lavy, Rami Rashkovits


In this study, we describe Information Systems students' learning model which was applied by students in order to cope with professional knowledge gaps in the context of their final project. The students needed to implement a software system according to specifications and design they have made beforehand. They had to select certain technologies and use them. Most of them decided to use programming environments that were learned during their academic studies. The students had to cope with various levels of knowledge gaps. For that matter they used learning strategies that were organized by us as a learning model which includes two phases each suitable for different learning tasks. We analyze the learning model, describing advantages and shortcomings as perceived by the students, and provide excerpts to support our findings.

Keywords: Self-regulated learning, knowledge gaps, independent learner skills, final project

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9 An Experimental Study of Self-Regulated Learning with High School Gifted Pupils

Authors: Prakash Singh


Research studies affirm the view that gifted pupils are endowed with unique personality traits, enabling them to study at higher levels of thinking, at a faster pace, and with a greater degree of autonomy than their average counterparts. The focus of this study was whether high school gifted pupils are capable of studying an advanced level curriculum on their own by employing self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies. To be self-regulated, pupils are required to be metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviourally active participants in their own learning processes so that they are able to initiate and direct their personal curriculum efforts to acquire cognitive skills and knowledge, instead of being solely reliant on their teachers. Researchers working with gifted populations concede that limited studies have been conducted thus far to examine gifted pupils’ expertise in using SRL strategies to assume ownership of their learning. In order to conduct this investigation, an enriched module in Accounting for specifically gifted grade eleven pupils was developed, incorporating advanced level content, and use was made of the Post-test-Only Control Group Design to accomplish this research objective. The results emanating from this empirical study strongly suggest that SRL strategies can be employed to overcome a narrow, rigid approach that limits the education of gifted pupils in the regular classroom of the high school. SRL can meaningfully offer an alternative way to implement an advanced level curriculum for the gifted in the mainstream of education. This can be achieved despite the limitations of differentiation in the regular classroom.

Keywords: Self-regulated learning, advanced level curriculum, high school gifted pupils, teachers’ professional competencies

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8 The Correspondence between Self-regulated Learning, Learning Efficiency and Frequency of ICT Use

Authors: Maria David, Tunde A. Tasko, Katalin Hejja-Nagy, Laszlo Dorner


The authors have been concerned with research on learning since 1998. Recently, the focus of our interest is how prevalent use of information and communication technology (ICT) influences students' learning abilities, skills of self-regulated learning and learning efficiency. Nowadays, there are three dominant theories about the psychic effects of ICT use: According to social optimists, modern ICT devices have a positive effect on thinking. As to social pessimists, this effect is rather negative. And, regarding the views of biological optimists, the change is obvious, but these changes can fit into the mankind's evolved neurological system as did writing long ago. Mentality of 'digital natives' differ from that of elder people. They process information coming from the outside world in an other way, and different experiences result in different cerebral conformation. In this regard, researchers report about both positive and negative effects of ICT use. According to several studies, it has a positive effect on cognitive skills, intelligence, school efficiency, development of self-regulated learning, and self-esteem regarding learning. It is also proven, that computers improve skills of visual intelligence such as spacial orientation, iconic skills and visual attention. Among negative effects of frequent ICT use, researchers mention the decrease of critical thinking, as permanent flow of information does not give scope for deeper cognitive processing. Aims of our present study were to uncover developmental characteristics of self-regulated learning in different age groups and to study correlations of learning efficiency, the level of self-regulated learning and frequency of use of computers. Our subjects (N=1600) were primary and secondary school students and university students. We studied four age groups (age 10, 14, 18, 22), 400 subjects of each. We used the following methods: the research team developed a questionnaire for measuring level of self-regulated learning and a questionnaire for measuring ICT use, and we used documentary analysis to gain information about grade point average (GPA) and results of competence-measures. Finally, we used computer tasks to measure cognitive abilities. Data is currently under analysis, but as to our preliminary results, frequent use of computers results in shorter response time regarding every age groups. Our results show that an ordinary extent of ICT use tend to increase reading competence, and had a positive effect on students' abilities, though it didn't show relationship with school marks (GPA). As time passes, GPA gets worse along with the learning material getting more and more difficult. This phenomenon draws attention to the fact that students are unable to switch from guided to independent learning, so it is important to consciously develop skills of self-regulated learning.

Keywords: ICT, Self-regulated learning, digital natives, learning efficiency, reading competence

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7 Field-Testing a Digital Music Notebook

Authors: Rena Upitis, Philip C. Abrami, Karen Boese


The success of one-on-one music study relies heavily on the ability of the teacher to provide sufficient direction to students during weekly lessons so that they can successfully practice from one lesson to the next. Traditionally, these instructions are given in a paper notebook, where the teacher makes notes for the students after describing a task or demonstrating a technique. The ability of students to make sense of these notes varies according to their understanding of the teacher’s directions, their motivation to practice, their memory of the lesson, and their abilities to self-regulate. At best, the notes enable the student to progress successfully. At worst, the student is left rudderless until the next lesson takes place. Digital notebooks have the potential to provide a more interactive and effective bridge between music lessons than traditional pen-and-paper notebooks. One such digital notebook, Cadenza, was designed to streamline and improve teachers’ instruction, to enhance student practicing, and to provide the means for teachers and students to communicate between lessons. For example, Cadenza contains a video annotator, where teachers can offer real-time guidance on uploaded student performances. Using the checklist feature, teachers and students negotiate the frequency and type of practice during the lesson, which the student can then access during subsequent practice sessions. Following the tenets of self-regulated learning, goal setting and reflection are also featured. Accordingly, the present paper addressed the following research questions: (1) How does the use of the Cadenza digital music notebook engage students and their teachers?, (2) Which features of Cadenza are most successful?, (3) Which features could be improved?, and (4) Is student learning and motivation enhanced with the use of the Cadenza digital music notebook? The paper describes the results 10 months of field-testing of Cadenza, structured around the four research questions outlined. Six teachers and 65 students took part in the study. Data were collected through video-recorded lesson observations, digital screen captures, surveys, and interviews. Standard qualitative protocols for coding results and identifying themes were employed to analyze the results. The results consistently indicated that teachers and students embraced the digital platform offered by Cadenza. The practice log and timer, the real-time annotation tool, the checklists, the lesson summaries, and the commenting features were found to be the most valuable functions, by students and teachers alike. Teachers also reported that students progressed more quickly with Cadenza, and received higher results in examinations than those students who were not using Cadenza. Teachers identified modifications to Cadenza that would make it an even more powerful way to support student learning. These modifications, once implemented, will move the tool well past its traditional notebook uses to new ways of motivating students to practise between lessons and to communicate with teachers about their learning. Improvements to the tool called for by the teachers included the ability to duplicate archived lessons, allowing for split screen viewing, and adding goal setting to the teacher window. In the concluding section, proposed modifications and their implications for self-regulated learning are discussed.

Keywords: Self-regulated learning, digital music technologies, electronic notebooks, studio music instruction

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6 New Knowledge Co-Creation in Mobile Learning: A Classroom Action Research with Multiple Case Studies Using Mobile Instant Messaging

Authors: Genevieve Lim, Arthur Shelley, Dongcheol Heo


Abstract—Mobile technologies can enhance the learning process as it enables social engagement around concepts beyond the classroom and the curriculum. Early results in this ongoing research is showing that when learning interventions are designed specifically to generate new insights, mobile devices support regulated learning and encourage learners to collaborate, socialize and co-create new knowledge. As students navigate across the space and time boundaries, the fundamental social nature of learning transforms into mobile computer supported collaborative learning (mCSCL). The metacognitive interaction in mCSCL via mobile applications reflects the regulation of learning among the students. These metacognitive experiences whether self-, co- or shared-regulated are significant to the learning outcomes. Despite some insightful empirical studies, there has not yet been significant research that investigates the actual practice and processes of the new knowledge co-creation. This leads to question as to whether mobile learning provides a new channel to leverage learning? Alternatively, does mobile interaction create new types of learning experiences and how do these experiences co-create new knowledge. The purpose of this research is to explore these questions and seek evidence to support one or the other. This paper addresses these questions from the students’ perspective to understand how students interact when constructing knowledge in mCSCL and how students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies support the co-creation of new knowledge in mCSCL. A pilot study has been conducted among international undergraduates to understand students’ perspective of mobile learning and concurrently develops a definition in an appropriate context. Using classroom action research (CAR) with multiple case studies, this study is being carried out in a private university in Thailand to narrow the research gaps in mCSCL and SRL. The findings will allow teachers to see the importance of social interaction for meaningful student engagement and envisage learning outcomes from a knowledge management perspective and what role mobile devices can play in these. The findings will signify important indicators for academics to rethink what is to be learned and how it should be learned. Ultimately, the study will bring new light into the co-creation of new knowledge in a social interactive learning environment and challenges teachers to embrace the 21st century of learning with mobile technologies to deepen and extend learning opportunities.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Self-regulated learning, mobile computer supported collaborative learning, mobile instant messaging, new knowledge co-creation

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5 Online-Scaffolding-Learning Tools to Improve First-Year Undergraduate Engineering Students’ Self-Regulated Learning Abilities

Authors: Chen Wang, Gerard Rowe


The number of undergraduate engineering students enrolled in university has been increasing rapidly recently, leading to challenges associated with increased student-instructor ratios and increased diversity in academic preparedness of the entrants. An increased student-instructor ratio makes the interaction between teachers and students more difficult, with the resulting student ‘anonymity’ known to be a risk to academic success. With increasing student numbers, there is also an increasing diversity in the academic preparedness of the students at entry to university. Conceptual understanding of the entrants has been quantified via diagnostic testing, with the results for the first-year course in electrical engineering showing significant conceptual misunderstandings amongst the entry cohort. The solution is clearly multi-faceted, but part of the solution likely involves greater demands being placed on students to be masters of their own learning. In consequence, it is highly desirable that instructors help students to develop better self-regulated learning skills. A self-regulated learner is one who is capable of setting up their own learning goals, monitoring their study processes, adopting and adjusting learning strategies, and reflecting on their own study achievements. The methods by which instructors might cultivate students’ self-regulated learning abilities is receiving increasing attention from instructors and researchers. The aim of this study was to help students understand fully their self-regulated learning skill levels and provide targeted instructions to help them improve particular learning abilities in order to meet the curriculum requirements. As a survey tool, this research applied the questionnaire ‘Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire’ (MSLQ) to collect first year engineering student’s self-reported data of their cognitive abilities, motivational orientations and learning strategies. MSLQ is a widely-used questionnaire for assessment of university student’s self-regulated learning skills. The questionnaire was offered online as a part of the online-scaffolding-learning tools to develop student understanding of self-regulated learning theories and learning strategies. The online tools, which have been under development since 2015, are designed to help first-year students understand their self-regulated learning skill levels by providing prompt feedback after they complete the questionnaire. In addition, the online tool also supplies corresponding learning strategies to students if they want to improve specific learning skills. A total of 866 first year engineering students who enrolled in the first-year electrical engineering course were invited to participate in this research project. By the end of the course 857 students responded and 738 of their questionnaires were considered as valid questionnaires. Analysis of these surveys showed that 66% of the students thought the online-scaffolding-learning tools helped significantly to improve their self-regulated learning abilities. It was particularly pleasing that 16.4% of the respondents thought the online-scaffolding-learning tools were extremely effective. A current thrust of our research is to investigate the relationships between students’ self-regulated learning abilities and their academic performance. Our results are being used by the course instructors as they revise the curriculum and pedagogy for this fundamental first-year engineering course, but the general principles we have identified are applicable to most first-year STEM courses.

Keywords: STEM Education, Self-regulated learning, academic preparedness, online-scaffolding-learning tool

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4 The Roles of Teachers in Promoting Self-Regulated Learning

Authors: Mine Cekin


Self-regulated learning (SRL), which can be defined as learning that takes place when an individual is an active controller over his cognition, behavior, and motivation in the learning process, seems to be an essential educational goal. However, it is asserted that students need an assistance to become self-regulated learners. Therefore, teachers appear to play an important role in the introduction of SRL. Even though the importance of SRL has been shown by many researchers, the issue of how teachers can introduce it in a classroom environment needs to be investigated thoroughly. When it comes to mathematics learning particularly, it seems really difficult to associate this area with self-regulated learning because of the fact that it is mainly seen as a domain that is overwhelmingly memorizing written notations. As a result, self-regulated learning in mathematics education and what roles teachers have seem to deserve a significant attention. In this study, the significance of SRL and the roles of teachers in promoting SRL in the field of mathematics education particularly with the help of current literature have been highlighted. Some of the roles of teachers are becoming self-regulated learners themselves, facilitating motivation and collaboration with their colleagues in their schools.

Keywords: Mathematics Education, Motivation, Self-regulated learning, teacher self-regulation

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3 The Reality of the Digital Inequality and Its Negative Impact on Virtual Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The South African Perspective

Authors: Jacob Medupe


Life as we know it has changed since the global outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and business as usual will not continue. The human impact of the COVID-19 crisis is already immeasurable. Moreover, COVID-19 has already negatively impacted economies, livelihoods and disrupted food systems around the world. The disruptive nature of the Corona virus has affected every sphere of life including the culture and teaching and learning. Right now the majority of education research is based around classroom management techniques that are no longer necessary with digital delivery. Instead there is a great need for new data about how to make the best use of the one-on-one attention that is now becoming possible (Diamandis & Kotler, 2014). The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated an environment where the South African learners are focused to adhere to social distancing in order to minimise the wild spread of the Corona virus. This arrangement forces the student to utilise the online classroom technologies to continue with the lessons. The historical reality is that the country has not made much strides on the closing of the digital divide and this is particularly a common status quo in the deep rural areas. This will prove to be a toll order for most of the learners affected by the Corona Virus to be able to have a seamless access to the online learning facilities. The paper will seek to look deeply into this reality and how the Corona virus has brought us to the reality that South Africa remains a deeply unequal society in every sphere of life. The study will also explore the state of readiness for education system around the online classroom environment.

Keywords: e-Learning, pedagogy, Distance Education, Online Learning, Virtual learning, Blended Learning, Virtual Classroom, Self-regulated learning, digital literacy, COVID-19, Corona virus, internet connectivity

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2 Promoting Self-Regulated Learning in Primary School: An Ethnographic Study

Authors: P. Menzolini


To shape life-long learning skills in students, Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) has emerged as one of the main empowerment tools. In a Self-Regulated Learning process, students plan, monitor, evaluate and adapt their cognitive, behavioral and emotional actions to the attainment of their own goals. Given that it is in primary school that students build-up and shape their learning habits and attitudes, recent literature is trying to address SRL in that educational context. The aim of this paper is to provide preliminary evidence and insights into actual dynamics occurring within a traditional primary school classroom in terms of SRL promotion acted by teachers. A traditional classroom is here defined as a setting where teachers are not instructed in SRL-related strategies, so that the promotion of SRL is largely the outcome of unintentional practices. Within an ethnographic approach and according to the principles of Grounded Theory, data are collected and analyzed by using participant observations and semi-structured interviews. The challenge of this study consists therefore in empirically approaching SRL promotion through insights deeply grounded in data. The field work is conducted in an Italian second-grade classroom in a primary school. Given the teacher’s commitment to innovative teaching practices, the hypothesis is that within this setting he will be able to effectively drive children to learn through self-regulation. The field work will cover Mathematics, Sciences, English and Gym lessons from September 2020 to June 2021, for around six hours weekly. The preliminary results of this study portray a classroom context characterized, on the one hand, by the central role of agency and the acknowledgment of its value and, on the other one, by a ubiquitous and thick texture of SRL-fostering events, also covering informal situations not strictly related to the school performance. Moreover, we find that SRL models, when applied to data, turn out to be fundamental in unveiling actual SRL processes.

Keywords: ethnography, Grounded theory, Self-regulated learning, primary school

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1 Measuring Self-Regulation and Self-Direction in Flipped Classroom Learning

Authors: S. A. N. Danushka, T. A. Weerasinghe


The diverse necessities of instruction could be addressed effectively with the support of new dimensions of ICT integrated learning such as blended learning –which is a combination of face-to-face and online instruction which ensures greater flexibility in student learning and congruity of course delivery. As blended learning has been the ‘new normality' in education, many experimental and quasi-experimental research studies provide ample of evidence on its successful implementation in many fields of studies, but it is hard to justify whether blended learning could work similarly in the delivery of technology-teacher development programmes (TTDPs). The present study is bound with the particular research uncertainty, and having considered existing research approaches, the study methodology was set to decide the efficient instructional strategies for flipped classroom learning in TTDPs. In a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test design with a mix-method research approach, the major study objective was tested with two heterogeneous samples (N=135) identified in a virtual learning environment in a Sri Lankan university. Non-randomized informal ‘before-and-after without control group’ design was employed, and two data collection methods, identical pre-test and post-test and Likert-scale questionnaires were used in the study. Selected two instructional strategies, self-directed learning (SDL) and self-regulated learning (SRL), were tested in an appropriate instructional framework with two heterogeneous samples (pre-service and in-service teachers). Data were statistically analyzed, and an efficient instructional strategy was decided via t-test, ANOVA, ANCOVA. The effectiveness of the two instructional strategy implementation models was decided via multiple linear regression analysis. ANOVA (p < 0.05) shows that age, prior-educational qualifications, gender, and work-experiences do not impact on learning achievements of the two diverse groups of learners through the instructional strategy is changed. ANCOVA (p < 0.05) analysis shows that SDL is efficient for two diverse groups of technology-teachers than SRL. Multiple linear regression (p < 0.05) analysis shows that the staged self-directed learning (SSDL) model and four-phased model of motivated self-regulated learning (COPES Model) are efficient in the delivery of course content in flipped classroom learning.

Keywords: Self-Directed Learning, Self-regulated learning, COPES model, flipped classroom learning, SSDL model

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