Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Self-Healing Related Abstracts

10 Novel Scratch Resistant Self-Healing Automotive Clearcoats Using Hyperbranched Polymers and POSS Nanostructures

Authors: H.Yari, M. Mohseni, Z. Ranjbar


In this work a typical automotive clearcoat is modified with a combination of hyperbranched polymer (HBP) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanostructures to simultaneously enhance the scratch resistance and healing ability of the resulting films. Micro-scratch and healing data revealed that these goals were achieved at high loadings of modifiers. Enhanced scratch resistance was attributed to the improved elastic recovery of the clearcoats in presence of modifiers. In addition, improved healing performance due to the partial replacement of covalent cross-links with physical ones resulted from the unique globular highly branched structure of HBP and POSS macromolecules.

Keywords: Self-Healing, automotive clearcoat, POSS building blocks scratch resistance

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9 Recovery through Shattered Life: The Life World of Illness after Being Diagnosed with Breast Cancer in Taiwan

Authors: Min-Tao Hsu


This study aims to explore the lived experiences of women with breast cancer, including their life world of illness and their adaptation to breast cancer. Breast cancer is not only a potentially lethal disease, but also a disease that may lead to many irreversible changes for female patients. Especially, in a culture where the wholeness is pursuit as an essential value, the sickness and/or broken body bring great challenge of life. Based on holism and symbolic interactionism, this study used interpretive ethnography including in-depth interviews and participant observations to collect the narrative of women with breast cancer concerning their illness experience. In addition, this study used Agar’s hermeneutic cycle to analyze data. The average age of 35 participants was 54.2. A total of 15 patients were within 2 years of onset, 5 patients were within 2-5 years of the treatment observation period, and 15 patients suffered from breast cancer for more than 5 years. The average age of onset was 50.4. Result: The main storyline of the life world of illness is ‘breast cancer is a turning point of life.’ Loss of breast was in terms of ‘no more a woman’ in Taiwanese culture. Two young women, one in her newly wedded and another right before marry, were divorced and cancelled wedding right after being diagnosed. All of them addressed that they have a ‘broken body.’ Single women accounted that they won’t marry for not being humiliated and most of married women said they never show female body in front of her husband or partner even in intimacy encounter. Three common themes were discovered: 1) new self and new identity; 2) new social relationships and new me; 3) new body and new life. The intertwining bodies, illness, selves, suffering, and medical treatments of female patients were observed. More, the recovery, of cause, was happened when new self, relationship, and new body were generated. Their identity to be a woman and a wife is shattered and their life is urged into another facet. For helping them to recovery from such situation, building a new identity and new social fabric on the new body need to be included in nursing care plan.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Self-Healing, illness narrative, world of illness, interpretive ethnography

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8 Increasing the Resilience of Cyber Physical Systems in Smart Grid Environments using Dynamic Cells

Authors: Andrea Tundis, Carlos García Cordero, Rolf Egert, Alfredo Garro, Max Mühlhäuser


Resilience is an important system property that relies on the ability of a system to automatically recover from a degraded state so as to continue providing its services. Resilient systems have the means of detecting faults and failures with the added capability of automatically restoring their normal operations. Mastering resilience in the domain of Cyber-Physical Systems is challenging due to the interdependence of hybrid hardware and software components, along with physical limitations, laws, regulations and standards, among others. In order to overcome these challenges, this paper presents a modeling approach, based on the concept of Dynamic Cells, tailored to the management of Smart Grids. Additionally, a heuristic algorithm that works on top of the proposed modeling approach, to find resilient configurations, has been defined and implemented. More specifically, the model supports a flexible representation of Smart Grids and the algorithm is able to manage, at different abstraction levels, the resource consumption of individual grid elements on the presence of failures and faults. Finally, the proposal is evaluated in a test scenario where the effectiveness of such approach, when dealing with complex scenarios where adequate solutions are difficult to find, is shown.

Keywords: Security, Cyber-Physical Systems, Optimization, Energy Management, Resilience, Smart Grids, Self-Healing

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7 Autonomic Sonar Sensor Fault Manager for Mobile Robots

Authors: Martin Doran, Roy Sterritt, George Wilkie


NASA, ESA, and NSSC space agencies have plans to put planetary rovers on Mars in 2020. For these future planetary rovers to succeed, they will heavily depend on sensors to detect obstacles. This will also become of vital importance in the future, if rovers become less dependent on commands received from earth-based control and more dependent on self-configuration and self-decision making. These planetary rovers will face harsh environments and the possibility of hardware failure is high, as seen in missions from the past. In this paper, we focus on using Autonomic principles where self-healing, self-optimization, and self-adaption are explored using the MAPE-K model and expanding this model to encapsulate the attributes such as Awareness, Analysis, and Adjustment (AAA-3). In the experimentation, a Pioneer P3-DX research robot is used to simulate a planetary rover. The sonar sensors on the P3-DX robot are used to simulate the sensors on a planetary rover (even though in reality, sonar sensors cannot operate in a vacuum). Experiments using the P3-DX robot focus on how our software system can be adapted with the loss of sonar sensor functionality. The autonomic manager system is responsible for the decision making on how to make use of remaining ‘enabled’ sonars sensors to compensate for those sonar sensors that are ‘disabled’. The key to this research is that the robot can still detect objects even with reduced sonar sensor capability.

Keywords: Autonomic, Self-Healing, Self-Optimization, self-adaption

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6 Autonomic Threat Avoidance and Self-Healing in Database Management System

Authors: Wajahat Munir, Muhammad Haseeb, Adeel Anjum, Basit Raza, Ahmad Kamran Malik


Databases are the key components of the software systems. Due to the exponential growth of data, it is the concern that the data should be accurate and available. The data in databases is vulnerable to internal and external threats, especially when it contains sensitive data like medical or military applications. Whenever the data is changed by malicious intent, data analysis result may lead to disastrous decisions. Autonomic self-healing is molded toward computer system after inspiring from the autonomic system of human body. In order to guarantee the accuracy and availability of data, we propose a technique which on a priority basis, tries to avoid any malicious transaction from execution and in case a malicious transaction affects the system, it heals the system in an isolated mode in such a way that the availability of system would not be compromised. Using this autonomic system, the management cost and time of DBAs can be minimized. In the end, we test our model and present the findings.

Keywords: Security, Autonomic Computing, Self-Healing, threat avoidance

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5 Reduction Shrinkage of Concrete without Use Reinforcement

Authors: Martin Tazky, Rudolf Hela, Lucia Osuska, Petr Novosad


Concrete’s volumetric changes are natural process caused by silicate minerals’ hydration. These changes can lead to cracking and subsequent destruction of cementitious material’s matrix. In most cases, cracks can be assessed as a negative effect of hydration, and in all cases, they lead to an acceleration of degradation processes. Preventing the formation of these cracks is, therefore, the main effort. Once of the possibility how to eliminate this natural concrete shrinkage process is by using different types of dispersed reinforcement. For this application of concrete shrinking, steel and polymer reinforcement are preferably used. Despite ordinarily used reinforcement in concrete to eliminate shrinkage it is possible to look at this specific problematic from the beginning by itself concrete mix composition. There are many secondary raw materials, which are helpful in reduction of hydration heat and also with shrinkage of concrete during curing. The new science shows the possibilities of shrinkage reduction also by the controlled formation of hydration products, which could act by itself morphology as a traditionally used dispersed reinforcement. This contribution deals with the possibility of controlled formation of mono- and tri-sulfate which are considered like degradation minerals. Mono- and tri- sulfate's controlled formation in a cementitious composite can be classified as a self-healing ability. Its crystal’s growth acts directly against the shrinking tension – this reduces the risk of cracks development. Controlled formation means that these crystals start to grow in the fresh state of the material (e.g. concrete) but stop right before it could cause any damage to the hardened material. Waste materials with the suitable chemical composition are very attractive precursors because of their added value in the form of landscape pollution’s reduction and, of course, low cost. In this experiment, the possibilities of using the fly ash from fluidized bed combustion as a mono- and tri-sulphate formation additive were investigated. The experiment itself was conducted on cement paste and concrete and specimens were subjected to a thorough analysis of physicomechanical properties as well as microstructure from the moment of mixing up to 180 days. In cement composites, were monitored the process of hydration and shrinkage. In a mixture with the used admixture of fluidized bed combustion fly ash, possible failures were specified by electronic microscopy and dynamic modulus of elasticity. The results of experiments show the possibility of shrinkage concrete reduction without using traditionally dispersed reinforcement.

Keywords: Self-Healing, shrinkage, monosulphates, trisulphates, fluidized fly ash

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4 Effect of Mineral Admixture on Self-Healing Performance in Concrete

Authors: Young-Cheol Choi, Sung-Won Yoo, Bong Chun Lee, Byoungsun Park, Sang-Hwa Jung


Cracks in concrete commonly provide the passages of ingresses of aggressive and harmful ions into concrete inside and thus reduce the durability of concrete members. In order to solve this problem, self-healing concrete based on mineral admixture has become a major issue. Self-healing materials are those which have the ability of autonomously repairing some damages or small cracks in concrete structures. Concrete has an inherent healing potential, called natural healing, which can take place in ordinary concrete elements but its power is limited and is not predictable. The main mechanism of self-healing in cracked concrete is the continued hydration of unreacted binder and the crystallization of calcium carbonate. Some mineral admixtures have been found to promote the self-healing of cementitious materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of mineral admixture on the self-healing performances of high strength concrete. The potential capability of self-healing of cementitious materials was evaluated using isothermal conduction calorimeter. The self-healing efficiencies were studied by means of water flow tests on cracked concrete specimens. The results show a different healing behaviour depending on presence of the crystalline admixture.

Keywords: Crystallization, Self-Healing, mineral admixture, water flow test

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3 Distributed Cost-Based Scheduling in Cloud Computing Environment

Authors: Rupali, Anil Kumar Jaiswal


Cloud computing can be defined as one of the prominent technologies that lets a user change, configure and access the services online. it can be said that this is a prototype of computing that helps in saving cost and time of a user practically the use of cloud computing can be found in various fields like education, health, banking etc.  Cloud computing is an internet dependent technology thus it is the major responsibility of Cloud Service Providers(CSPs) to care of data stored by user at data centers. Scheduling in cloud computing environment plays a vital role as to achieve maximum utilization and user satisfaction cloud providers need to schedule resources effectively.  Job scheduling for cloud computing is analyzed in the following work. To complete, recreate the task calculation, and conveyed scheduling methods CloudSim3.0.3 is utilized. This research work discusses the job scheduling for circulated processing condition also by exploring on this issue we find it works with minimum time and less cost. In this work two load balancing techniques have been employed: ‘Throttled stack adjustment policy’ and ‘Active VM load balancing policy’ with two brokerage services ‘Advanced Response Time’ and ‘Reconfigure Dynamically’ to evaluate the VM_Cost, DC_Cost, Response Time, and Data Processing Time. The proposed techniques are compared with Round Robin scheduling policy.

Keywords: Self-Healing, Virtual Machines, physical machines, support for repetition, highly scalable programming model

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2 Development of Bilayer Coating System for Mitigating Corrosion of Offshore Wind Turbines

Authors: Adamantini Loukodimou, David Weston, Shiladitya Paul


Offshore structures are subjected to harsh environments. It is documented that carbon steel needs protection from corrosion. The combined effect of UV radiation, seawater splash, and fluctuating temperatures diminish the integrity of these structures. In addition, the possibility of damage caused by floating ice, seaborne debris, and maintenance boats make them even more vulnerable. Their inspection and maintenance when far out in the sea are difficult, risky, and expensive. The most known method of mitigating corrosion of offshore structures is the use of cathodic protection. There are several zones in an offshore wind turbine. In the atmospheric zone, due to the lack of a continuous electrolyte (seawater) layer between the structure and the anode at all times, this method proves inefficient. Thus, the use of protective coatings becomes indispensable. This research focuses on the atmospheric zone. The conversion of commercially available and conventional paint (epoxy) system to an autonomous self-healing paint system via the addition of suitable encapsulated healing agents and catalyst is investigated in this work. These coating systems, which can self-heal when damaged, can provide a cost-effective engineering solution to corrosion and related problems. When the damage of the paint coating occurs, the microcapsules are designed to rupture and release the self-healing liquid (monomer), which then will react in the presence of the catalyst and solidify (polymerization), resulting in healing. The catalyst should be compatible with the system because otherwise, the self-healing process will not occur. The carbon steel substrate will be exposed to a corrosive environment, so the use of a sacrificial layer of Zn is also investigated. More specifically, the first layer of this new coating system will be TSZA (Thermally Sprayed Zn85/Al15) and will be applied on carbon steel samples with dimensions 100 x 150 mm after being blasted with alumina (size F24) as part of the surface preparation. Based on the literature, it corrodes readily, so one additional paint layer enriched with microcapsules will be added. Also, the reaction and the curing time are of high importance in order for this bilayer system of coating to work successfully. For the first experiments, polystyrene microcapsules loaded with 3-octanoyltio-1-propyltriethoxysilane were conducted. Electrochemical experiments such as Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed the corrosion inhibiting properties of the silane. The diameter of the microcapsules was about 150-200 microns. Further experiments were conducted with different reagents and methods in order to obtain diameters of about 50 microns, and their self-healing properties were tested in synthetic seawater using electrochemical techniques. The use of combined paint/electrodeposited coatings allows for further novel development of composite coating systems. The potential for the application of these coatings in offshore structures will be discussed.

Keywords: Microcapsules, Offshore Wind Turbines, Self-Healing, corrosion mitigation

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1 Preparation and Properties of Self-Healing Polyurethanes Utilizing the Host-Guest Interaction between Cyclodextrin and Adamantane Moieties

Authors: Kaito Sugane, Mitsuhiro Shibata


Self-healing polymers have attracted attention because their physical damage and cracks can be effectively repaired, thereby extending the lifetime of the materials. Self-healing polymers using host-guest interaction have the advantage that they are quickly repaired under mild temperature conditions when compared with self-healing polymer using dynamic covalent bonds such as Diels-Alder (DA)/retro-DA and disulfide metathesis reactions. Especially, it is known that hydrogels utilizing the host-guest interaction between cyclodextrin and various guest molecules are repeatedly self-repaired at room temperature. However, most of the works deal with hydrogels, and little attention has been paid for thermosetting resins as polyurethane, epoxy and unsaturated polyester resins. In this study, polyetherurethane networks (PUN-CD-Ads) incorporating cyclodextrin and adamantane moieties were prepared by the crosslinking reactions of β-cyclodextrin (CD), 1-adamantanol (AdOH), glycerol ethoxylate (GCE) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and thermal, mechanical and self-healing properties of the polymer network films were investigated. Our attention was focused on the influences of molar ratio of CD/AdOH, GCE/CD and OH/NCO on the properties. The FT-IR, and gel fraction analysis revealed that the urethanization reaction smoothly progress to form polyurethane networks. When two cut pieces of the films were contacted at the cross-section at room temperature for 30 seconds, the two pieces adhered to produce a self-healed film. Especially, the PUN-CD-Ad prepared at GCE/CD = 5/1, CD/AdOH = 1/1, and OH/NCO = 1/1 film exhibited the highest healing efficiency for tensile strength. Most of the PUN-CD-Ads were successfully self-healed at room temperature.

Keywords: Self-Healing, polyurethane, host-guest interaction, network polymer

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