Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

self-esteem Related Abstracts

38 Effects of Twitter Interactions on Self-Esteem and Narcissistic Behaviour

Authors: Leena-Maria Alyedreessy


Self-esteem is thought to be determined by ones’ own feeling of being included, liked and accepted by others. This research explores whether this concept may also be applied in the virtual world and assesses whether there is any relationship between Twitter users' self-esteem and the amount of interactions they receive. 20 female Arab participants were given a survey asking them about their Twitter interactions and their feelings of having an imagined audience to fill out and a Rosenberg Self-Esteem Assessment to complete. After completion and statistical analysis, results showed a significant correlation between the feeling of being Twitter elite, the feeling of having a lot of people listening to your tweets and having a lot of interactions with high self-esteem. However, no correlations were detected for low-self-esteem and low interactions.

Keywords: Social Media, Interactions, Narcissism, Twitter, self-esteem

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37 Antecedents to Leaders’ Empowering Behavior: A Study of Team Leaders and Their Subordinates

Authors: Manjari Srivastsva, Ruta Vyas


The research in the area of self leadership advocates employee/team empowerment. It is well understood that empowered employees would contribute more and better to their organizational outcomes. This research is a part of an ongoing larger research in the area of empowering leadership behavior. The present research aims to understand some of the antecedents to empowering behavior of leaders such that the organizations can focus on the right elements and invest in the appropriate areas during their leadership development activities. The research is exploratory field study. Sampling is purposive, employing triadic design i.e. a manager and two of his/her subordinates are selected for data collection. The total no. of respondents is 240, with 80 managers and 160 of their direct reports. Initially focus group interview was done and based on the inputs from focus group, quantitative data was collected personally by the researchers using questionnaire. The sample is drawn from seven professionally run organization including those of Indian origin as well as multi-national companies. This study proposes to explore the constituents of empowering behavior both from leaders’ and their subordinates’ perspective and also see the relationship between some of the personal variables of leaders as an antecedent to empowering behavior. Similarly, the study aims to explore the subordinates’ perspectives as an antecedent to empowering behavior. The relationship between antecedent variables and empowering behavior is tested for moderation employing organization culture. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was done to establish the validity of the questionnaires. Further hierarchical regression analysis results revealed that organization based self-esteem and global self-esteem impact leaders’ empowering behavior and this relationship is further moderated by organization culture. Team members’ perspective showed higher importance for task characteristics and members' readiness from the point of view of empowerment. The relation between task characteristics and members’ readiness was not moderated by culture. The finding from this research may be utilized by professionals to guide organizations desiring rapid and sustainable growth, to develop leaders who empower their teams such that they act as leaders themselves and become stimulants for the growth of organizations.

Keywords: self-esteem, empowering behavior, team leaders, subordinates, organization culture, task characteristics, team members readiness

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36 Impact of Work and Family Conflict on Employee Self Esteem

Authors: Romana P. Khokhar


The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of work-family conflict on self-esteem. On the basis of the literature reviewed, it was hypothesized that 1) work-family conflict has an impact on self- esteem, 2). There would be a gender difference on the variable of work family conflict. Data for this study was taken from a sample of 70 employees within the banking industry since this industry is generally associated with higher levels of work-family conflict. Statistical tests performed were regression and t-test. Self-esteem was assessed with the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Work-Family Conflict Scale (WFCS; Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. 1996) was used to assess the level of work –family conflict. The results indicated that an increase in work-family conflict resulted in lower self-esteem due to the various pressures evidenced in a complicated network of direct and indirect influences. It was also determined that there is less effect of work-family conflict on the female workers, as opposed to the male population, leading to the conclusion that in the case of the female workers the impact on self-esteem was not significant.

Keywords: employee, self-esteem, work and family conflict

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35 The Predictors of Self-Esteem among Business School Students

Authors: Suchitra Pal, Arjun Mitra


Objective: The purpose of this empirical study is to ascertain if gender, personality traits and social support predict the self-esteem amongst business school students. Method: The study was conducted through an online survey administered on 160 business school students of which equal-number of males and females were taken, with controls for education and family income status. The participants were contacted through emails. Data was gathered and statistically analyzed to determine the relationship between the variables. Results: The results showed that gender was not associated with self-esteem. Whilst all the personality and social support factors were found to be significantly inter-correlated with self-esteem, only extraversion, openness to new experiences, conscientiousness, emotional stability and total perceived social support were found to predict self-esteem. Conclusion: The findings were explained in the light of existing conceptualizations in the field of self-concept. Recommendations for early identification and interventions for a population with lower self-esteem levels have been made based on findings of the study. Major implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

Keywords: Gender, Personality, Social Support, self-concept, self-esteem

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34 The "Street Less Traveled": Body Image and Its Relationship with Eating Attitudes, Influence of Media and Self-Esteem among College Students

Authors: Aditya Soni, Nimesh Parikh, R. A. Thakrar


Background: A cross-sectional study looked to focus body image satisfaction, heretofore under investigated arena in our setting. This study additionally examined the relationship of body mass index, influence of media and self-esteem. Our second objective was to assess whether there was any relationship between body image dissatisfaction and gender. Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI), influence of media, self-esteem and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Convenience sampling was used to select participants of both genders aged from 17 to 32 on a sample size of 303 participants. Results : The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with Body mass index (P<0.001), eating attitude (P<0.001), influence of media (P<0.001) and self-esteem (P<0.001). Students with low weight had a significantly higher prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students had a significantly higher prevalence of dissatisfaction (P<0.001). Females showed more concern about body image as compared to males. Conclusions: Generally, this study reveals that the eating attitude, influence of the media and self-esteem is significantly related to the body image. On an empowering note, this level needs to be saved for overall mental and sound advancement of people. Proactive preventive measures could be started in foundations on identity improvement, acknowledgement of self and individual contrasts while keeping up ideal weight and dynamic life style.

Keywords: Media, Body image, body mass index, self-esteem

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33 Supportive Group Therapy: Its Effects on Depression, Self-Esteem and Quality of Life Among Institutionalized Elderly

Authors: Hannah Patricia S., Louise Margarrette R., Josking Oliver L., Denisse Katrina C., Justine Kali O.


Aims: In the Philippines, there has been an astronomical increase in the population of elderly sent to nursing home facilities which has been studied to induce despair and loss of self-worth. Nurses in institutionalized facilities generally care for the elderly. Although supportive group therapy has been explored to mend this psychological disparity, nursing research has limited published studies about this in the institutionalized setting. Hence, the study determined the effectiveness of supportive group therapy in depression, self-esteem and quality of life among institutionalized elderly. Methodology: A one-group pre-test-post-test design was conducted among 20-purposively selected institutionalized elderly after the Ethics Research Board approval. All eligible participants underwent the supportive group therapy after being subdivided into session groups. The Geriatric Depression Scale, which has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.90; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem, which has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = 0.84; and the Older People Quality of Life, which has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient =0.88, were utilized to measure depression, self-esteem, and quality of life, respectively. Descriptive statistics and Repeated Measures-Multivariate Analysis of Variance (RM-MANOVA) analyzed gathered data. Results: Results showed that the supportive group therapy significantly decreased post-test depression scores (F(1,19)=78.69,p=0.0001,partial η2=0.805), significantly improved post-test self-esteem score (F(1,19)=28.07,p=0.0001,partial η2=0.596), and significantly increased the post-test quality of life (F(1,19)=79.73,p=0.0001,partial η2=0.808) after the intervention has been rendered. Conclusion: Supportive group therapy is effective in alleviating depression and in improving self-esteem and quality of life among institutionalized elderly and can be utilized by nursing homes as an intervention to improve the over-all psychosocial status of elderly patients.

Keywords: Depression, Quality of Life, self-esteem, supportive group therapy, institutionalized elderly

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32 The Effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual's Self-Esteem (PRIDE) Therapy on the Level of Self-Esteem of Physically Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Khiara Claudine C. Carbonel, Patricia Joy A. Canapi, Tracy Gabriella M. Canlas, Teresa Zaine C. Canseco, Reena Marie A. Capistrano, Vernon A. Carandang, Carlo G. Ranoco


Research problem: The main problem of the study was to determine the effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual’s Self-esteem (PRIDE) therapy on the level of self-esteem of physically challenged adolescents. Objectives of the Study: The study determined the effect of PRIDE (Projecting the Reflection of the Individuals Self-esteem) therapy on the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescents. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study was used which involved 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. The Projecting the reflection of the Individuals’ Self-Esteem (PRDIE) therapy was administered to the experimental group. The researchers utilized the Sorensen Self-Esteem test tool as a pretest and posttest questionnaire and yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of .912. Paired T-test was used to analyze the gathered data. Results: The results showed that after the administration of PRIDE therapy, there was an increase on the level of self-esteem. The experimental group had a value of 3.590, which was significant and meant that the level of self-esteem is significantly increased. On the other hand, the control group, had a value of -2.207 which was also significant, therefore, the level of self esteem significantly decreased. Conclusion: the PRIDE Therapy is effective in increasing the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescent. Recommendations: The researchers recommend the use of PRIDE Therapy as an intervention in handling physically challenged patients, especially adolescents, in order to enhance their self-esteem. Also, the researchers recommend that nursing students be informed on the efficacy of PRIDE Therapy in enhancing the self-esteem of physically challenged patients. Furthermore, the inclusion of a psychologist during the implementation of PRIDE Therapy, specifically art therapy, to be able to have a more focused interpretation of the drawings and really be able to see the projection of their self-esteem is also recommended.

Keywords: self-esteem, PRIDE therapy, physically challenged adolescents, art therapy

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31 The Effects of Pride Therapy on the Level of Self-Esteem among Physically Challenged Adolescents

Authors: Canapi Patricia Joy, Canlas Tracy Gabriella, Canseco Teresa, Capistrano Reena Marie, Carandang Vernon, Carbonel Khiara Claudine


Research problem: The main problem of the study was to determine the effect of Projecting the Reflection of the Individual’s Self-esteem (PRIDE) therapy on the level of self-esteem of physically challenged adolescents. Objectives of the Study: The study determined the effect of PRIDE (Projecting the Reflection of the Individuals Self-esteem) therapy on the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescents. Methodology: A quasi-experimental study was used which involved 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. The Projecting the reflection of the Individuals’ Self-Esteem (PRDIE) therapy was administered to the experimental group. The researchers utilized the Sorensen Self-Esteem test tool as a pretest and posttest questionnaire and yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of .912. Paired T-test was used to analyze the gathered data. Results: The results showed that after the administration of PRIDE therapy, there was an increase on the level of self-esteem. The experimental group had a value of 3.590, which was significant and meant that the level of self-esteem is significantly increased. On the other hand, the control group, had a value of -2.207 which was also significant, therefore, the level of self esteem significantly decreased. Conclusion: the PRIDE Therapy is effective in increasing the level of self-esteem among physically challenged adolescent. Recommendations: The researchers recommend the use of PRIDE Therapy as an intervention in handling physically challenged patients, especially adolescents, in order to enhance their self-esteem. Also, the researchers recommend that nursing students be informed on the efficacy of PRIDE Therapy in enhancing the self-esteem of physically challenged patients. Furthermore, the inclusion of a psychologist during the implementation of PRIDE Therapy, specifically art therapy, to be able to have a more focused interpretation of the drawings and really be able to see the projection of their self-esteem is also recommended.

Keywords: Adolescents, self-esteem, PRIDE therapy, physically challenged

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30 The Need for Career Education Based on Self-Esteem in Japanese Youths

Authors: Kumiko Inagaki


Because of the rapidly changing social and industrial world, career education in Japan has recently gained in popularity with the government’s support. However, it has not fostered proactive mindsets and attitudes in the youths. This paper first provides a background of career education in Japan. Next, based on the International Survey of Youth Attitude, Japanese youths’ views of themselves and their future were identified and then compared to the views of youths in six other countries. Assessments of the feelings of self-satisfaction and future hopes of Japanese youths returned very low scores. Suggestions were offered on career education in order to promote a positive self-image.

Keywords: Career Education, self-image, self-esteem, youth attitude

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29 Self-Esteem on University Students by Gender and Branch of Study

Authors: Antonio Casero Martínez, María de Lluch Rayo Llinas


This work is part of an investigation into the relationship between romantic love and self-esteem in college students, performed by the students of matter "methods and techniques of social research", of the Master Gender at the University of Balearic Islands, during 2014-2015. In particular, we have investigated the relationships that may exist between self-esteem, gender and field of study. They are known as gender differences in self-esteem, and the relationship between gender and branch of study observed annually by the distribution of enrolment in universities. Therefore, in this part of the study, we focused the spotlight on the differences in self-esteem between the sexes through the various branches of study. The study sample consists of 726 individuals (304 men and 422 women) from 30 undergraduate degrees that the University of the Balearic Islands offers on its campus in 2014-2015, academic year. The average age of men was 21.9 years and 21.7 years for women. The sampling procedure used was random sampling stratified by degree, simple affixation, giving a sampling error of 3.6% for the whole sample, with a confidence level of 95% under the most unfavorable situation (p = q). The Spanish translation of the Rosenberg Self-Esteen Scale (RSE), by Atienza, Moreno and Balaguer was applied. The psychometric properties of translation reach a test-retest reliability of 0.80 and an internal consistency between 0.76 and 0.87. In this paper we have obtained an internal consistency of 0.82. The results confirm the expected differences in self-esteem by gender, although not in all branches of study. Mean levels of self-esteem in women are lower in all branches of study, reaching statistical significance in the field of Science, Social Sciences and Law, and Engineering and Architecture. However, analysed the variability of self-esteem by the branch of study within each gender, the results show independence in the case of men, whereas in the case of women find statistically significant differences, arising from lower self-esteem of Arts and Humanities students vs. the Social and legal Sciences students. These findings confirm the results of numerous investigations in which the levels of female self-esteem appears always below the male, suggesting that perhaps we should consider separately the two populations rather than continually emphasize the difference. The branch of study, for its part has not appeared as an explanatory factor of relevance, beyond detected the largest absolute difference between gender in the technical branch, one in which women are historically a minority, ergo, are no disciplinary or academic characteristics which would explain the differences, but the differentiated social context that occurs within it.

Keywords: Gender, Applied Psychology, self-esteem, study branch

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28 The Relationship between Selfesteem, Social Support, and Mental Health among High School Students in Iran

Authors: Mohsen Shahbakhti


The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem, social support and mental health in a sample of government high school students in Eshtehard city in Alborz Province in Iran. Three hundred and eleven students (boys) were included in this study. All participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS -12), and Self-Esteem Scale (SS-10). The results revealed that self-esteem was positively associated with social support. Self-esteem and social support negatively associated with psychological distress. Self-esteem and social support to influence on mental health.

Keywords: Mental Health, Social Support, high school students, self-esteem

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27 The Effectiveness of Psychodrama on Self-esteem Enhancement in Adolescent Boys

Authors: Saeed Dehnavi, Zahra Dehnavi


Background: Psychodrama, as a form of art therapy, helps people to enact and use role-plays for a specific problem, rather than just talking about it, in an effort to review the problem, gain feedback from group members, find appropriate solutions, and practice them for their life. This paper evaluated the effectiveness of psychodrama on enhancing self-esteem of young adolescent boys. Methodology: This is aquasi-experimental research study, using a pre-post testing plan with control group.From four secondary schools in Kermanshah – Iran, 210 adolescent boys (aged 13 and 14 years) were asked to complete Koper Smith's self-esteem measure scale. Given the low self-esteem scores (less than the cut-off of 23), a number of 20 individuals were selected and randomly placed into two control and experimental groups. The experimental group participated in a twelve-session psychodrama therapy plan for 6 weeks, while the control group received no intervention. Data analysis was carried out by the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: The results of ANCOVA analysis showed an increase in the post-test scores for self-esteem, and such increase was statistically significant. Conclusion: The findings indicated the effectiveness of psychodrama on self-esteem enhancement of young boys. During psychodrama sessions, the adolescents learned to take the initiative, communicate with others in an excited state, and improve their self-esteem with positive and constructive experiences.

Keywords: self-esteem, psychodrama, young adolescents, boys

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26 Associations between Game Users and Life Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Esteem, Self- Efficacy and Social Capital

Authors: Hye Rim Lee, Eui Jun Jeong, Ji Hye Yoo


This study makes an integrated investigation on how life satisfaction is associated with the Korean game users' psychological variables (self-esteem, game and life self- efficacy), social variables (bonding and bridging social capital), and demographic variables (age, gender). The data used for the empirical analysis came from a representative sample survey conducted in South Korea. Results show that self-esteem and game efficacy were an important antecedent to the degree of users’ life satisfaction. Both bonding social capital and bridging social capital enhance the level of the users’ life satisfaction. The importance of perspectives as well as their implications for the game users and further associated research, are explored.

Keywords: Social Capital, Life Satisfaction, self-esteem, game efficacy, life-efficacy

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25 Environmental Problems (with Examples from Georgia)

Authors: Ana Asratashvili


One of the main issues of state’s economic policy is the environmental problems. The development of society is implementing by the connection with nature. A human being needs different material resources which must be got by the influence on the nature. This relationship between nature and society is complicated and controversial and it was changing from time to time according to human’s evolution. The imprudent and unreasonable usage of natural resources, scientific-technological revolution and the hard pollution of nature related to it caused the disruption of environmental balance between nature and society which has been made for ages and destructively acted on society and environment. Environmental protection is one of the major issues of the European Union all over the world. The aim of EU environmental policy is to improve ecological conditions. Besides, it aims encouraging of careful and rational usage of natural resources. At the same time, the union tries to raise problems related to environmental protection at the international level. After that when scientists concluded anthropogenic impact of human on the nature causes climate changes, the special attention was paid to the environmental protection by developed countries. Global warming will cause floods, storms, draughts and desertification and to solve these results presumably will cost 20% of World GDP by 2050 for developed countries, if, of course, it does not make strict environmental policy. EU member countries have pretty strict environmental standards. Their defense is observed by different state institutions. According to impacts on nature throughout the world the most polluted fumes are made by electricity facilities (44%), transport (20%), industry (18%), domestic and service sector (17%). The special concern to the issues related to the importance of environment by environmentalists is caused by low self-esteem of population about the problems of environment. According to their mind, population is engaged with daily difficulties so that they don’t react much on environmental problems. Correspondingly, the main task for environmental organizations is to inform population and raise self-esteem about environmental issues.

Keywords: Standards, Environment, Pollution, Environmental, Economic Policy, self-esteem, technological revolution

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24 Impacts of Social Support on Perceived Level of Stress and Self-Esteem among Students of Private Universities of Karachi-Pakistan

Authors: Sheeba Farhan


This study is conducted to explore the predictive relationship of perceived stress and self-esteem with social support of students and to explore the factors, which contribute to develop or enhance the level of stress in students of private universities in Karachi-Pakistan. After literature review following hypotheses were formulated; 1)social support would predict perceived stress of students of business administration of private organizations of Higher education, 2) social support would predict the self-esteem of students of private organizations of Higher education, 3) there will be a relationship of perceived stress and self-esteem of students of private organizations of Higher education, 4) there will be a relationship of self esteem and social support of students of private organizations of Higher education. Sample of the study is comprise of 100 students of private organizations of Higher education in Karachi- Pakistan (i.e. males= 50 & females= 50). The age range of participants is 18-26 years. The measures, used in the study are: Demographic information form, a semi structured interview form, Rosenberg self esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and perceived stress scale (Cohen, Kamarck, and Mermelstein, 1983) and multidimensional scale of perceived social support (Zimet, 1988) Descriptive statistics is used for getting a better statistical view of characteristics of sample. Regression analysis is used to explore the predictive relationship of study related stress and self esteem with academic achievement of students of private organizations of Higher education. Percentages and ratios were calculated to explore the level of perceived stress with respect to Socio-demographic characteristics in students of private organizations of Higher education. Finding shows that social support is significantly associated with the higher level of self-esteem among students of graduation but insignificantly associated with stress that has been experienced by them. These results are correlated with a wide variety of studies in which social support has proposed to be a predictor of well being for the students.

Keywords: stress, Social Support, self-esteem, private universities of Karachi-Pakistan

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23 Designing Program for Developing Self-Esteem of Gifted Children

Authors: Mohammad Jamalallail


Self-esteem implies a person’s overall self-worth, self-respect, and self-value. It helps a person to maintain good mental health, personality, and achievement. Gifted students face some emotional problems, sometimes, which cause decreases in their self-esteem. Such emotional problems include loneliness, anxiety, and depression as examples. For this reason, designing a counseling program is necessary for gifted students who need a high level of self-esteem. The available counseling programs focused on developmental aspect only to the best of the writer’s knowledge. While the proposed program focuses on both clinical and developmental counseling by applying psychoanalytic play therapy. The proposed program consists of; Theoretical background such as; Behavior, and RET. It also consists of counseling procedures and therapeutic interventions.

Keywords: Design, Program, self-esteem, gifted

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22 Psychological Security and Its Relationship with Self-Esteem among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability

Authors: Muneera Abdul Haleem Bukhari, Maryam I. Alshirawi, Elsayed S. Elkhamisi


This study aimed at understanding the relationship between psychological security and self-esteem among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability, exploring the levels of psychological security and self-esteem, as well as determining the differences between genders in psychological security and self-esteem. The sample of the study contained (60) Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability, (34) males and (26) females who are enrolled in the Vocational and Social Rehabilitation Center and Hope Institute in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Their ages are between (15-23) years old. The Psychological Security Scale and self-Esteem Scale (prepared by James Battle) were used by the researcher. Results showed that levels of psychological security and self-esteem among Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability was above average; results also showed the order of the psychological security dimensions in the following manner (future outlook – mood - family security – social security) and the order of the dimensions of self-esteem in the following manner (social self-esteem – personal self-esteem – general self-esteem) among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability; as for the differences between genders, the study showed that there was an increased level of psychological security among males. However, there was no difference in self-esteem between both sexes.

Keywords: Adolescent, Intellectual Disability, self-esteem, psychological security, the Kingdom of Bahrain

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21 Teachers’ Perceptions of the Negative Impact of Tobephobia on Their Emotions and Job Satisfaction

Authors: Prakash Singh


The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of teachers’ experiences of tobephobia (TBP) in their heterogeneous classrooms and what impact this had on their emotions and job satisfaction. The expansive and continuously changing demands for quality and equal education for all students in educational organisations that have limited resources connotes that the negative effects of TBP cannot be simply ignored as being non-existent in the educational environment. As this quantitative study reveals, teachers disliking their job with low expectations, lack of motivation in their workplace and pessimism, result in their low self-esteem. When there is pessimism in the workplace, then the employees’ self-esteem will inevitably be low, as pointed out by 97.1% of the respondents in this study. Self-esteem is a reliable indicator of whether employees are happy or not in their jobs and the majority of the respondents in this study agreed that their experiences of TBP negatively impacted on their self-esteem. Hence, this exploratory study strongly indicates that productivity in the workplace is directly linked to the employees’ expectations, self-confidence and their self-esteem. It is therefore inconceivable for teachers to be productive in their regular classrooms if their genuine professional concerns, anxieties, and curriculum challenges are not adequately addressed. This empirical study contributes to our knowledge on TBP because it clearly outlines some of the teaching problems that we are grappling with and constantly experience in our schools in this century. Therefore, it is imperative that the tobephobic experiences of teachers are not merely documented, but appropriately addressed with relevant action by every stakeholder associated with education so that our teachers’ emotions and job satisfaction needs are fully taken care of.

Keywords: self-esteem, tobephobia, demotivated teachers' pessimism, low expectations of teachers' job satisfaction

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20 Psychological Well-Being and Human Rights of Teenage Mothers Attending One Secondary School in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Jabulani Gilford Kheswa, Veliswa Nonfundo Hoho


This paper reports on teenage motherhood and its adverse outcomes on the academic performance, emotional well-being and sexual relationships that adolescent females encounter. Drawing from Ryff’s six dimensions of psychological well-being and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model which underpinned this study, teenage motherhood has been found to link with multiple factors such as poverty, negative self-esteem, substance abuse, cohabitation, intimate partner violence and ill-health. Furthermore, research indicates that in schools where educators fail to perform their duties as loco-parentis to motivate adolescent females learners who are mothers, absenteeism, poor academic performance and learned helplessness, are likely. The aim of this research was two-fold, namely; (i) to determine the impact of teenage motherhood on the psychological well-being of the teenage mothers and (ii) to investigate the policies which protect the human rights of teenage mothers attending secondary schools. In a qualitative study conducted in one secondary school, Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape, South Africa, fifteen Xhosa-speaking teenage mothers, aged 15-18 years old, were interviewed. The sample was recruited by means of snow-ball sampling. To safeguard the human dignity of the respondents, informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity and privacy of the respondents were assured. For trustworthiness, this research ensured that credibility, neutrality, and transferability, are met. Following an axial and open coding of responses, five themes were identified; Health issues of teenage mothers, lack of support, violation of human rights, impaired sense of purpose in life and intimate partner-violence. From these findings, it is clear that teenage mothers lack resilience and are susceptible to contract sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS because they are submissive and hopeless. Furthermore, owing to stigma that the teenage mothers' experience from family members, they resort to alcohol and drug abuse, and feel demotivated to bond with their babies. In conclusion, the recommendations are that the Health and Social Development departments collaborate to empower the psychological well-being of teenage mothers. Furthermore, school policies on discrimination should be enacted and consistently implemented.

Keywords: Depression, Discrimination, self-esteem, teenage mothers

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19 A Cross-Sectional Study on the Correlation between Body Mass Index and Self-Esteem among Children Ages 9-12 Years Old in a Public Elementary School in Makati, Philippines

Authors: Jerickson Abbie Flores, Jana Fragante, Jan Paolo Dipasupil, Jan Jorge Francisco


Malnutrition is one of the rapidly growing health problems affecting the world at present. Children affected are not only at risk for significant health problems, but are also faced with psychological and social consequences, including low self-esteem. School-age children are specifically vulnerable to develop poor self-esteem especially when their peers find them physically unattractive. Thus, malnutrition, whether obesity or undernourishment, contributes a significant role to a developing child’s health and behavior. This research aims to determine if there is a significant difference on the level of self-esteem among Filipino children ages 9-12 years old with abnormal body mass index (BMI) and those children with desirable BMI. Using a cross-sectional study design, the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and self-esteem was observed among children ages 9-12 years old. Participants took the Hare self esteem questionnaire, which is specifically designed to measure self-esteem in school age children. The lowest possible score is 15 and the highest possible score is 45. A total of 1140 students with ages 9-12 years old from Cembo Elementary School (public school) participated in the study. Among the participants, 239 out of the 1140 have desirable body mass index, 878 are underweight, and 23 are overweight. Using the test questionnaire, the computed mean scores were 36.599, 36.045 and 36.583 for normal, underweight and overweight categories respectively. Using Pearson’s Correlation Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient Test, the study showed positive correlation (p value of 0.047 and 0.004 respectively) between BMI and Self-esteem scores which indicates that the higher the BMI, the higher the self-esteem of the participants.

Keywords: Malnutrition, body mass index, school-age children, self-esteem

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18 Locus of Control and Sense of Happiness: A Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

Authors: Ivanna Shubina


Background/Objectives and Goals: Recent interest in positive psychology is reflected in a plenty of studies conducted on its basic constructs (e.g. self-esteem and happiness) in interrelation with personality features, social rules, business and technology development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of self-esteem, exploring the relationships between self-esteem and happiness, self-esteem and locus of control (LOC). It hypothesizes that self-esteem may be interpreted as a predictor of happiness and mediator in the locus of control establishment. A plenty of various empirical studies results have been analyzed in order to collect data for this theoretical study, and some of the analysed results can be considered as arguable or incoherent. However, the majority of results indicate a strong relationship between three considered concepts: self-esteem, happiness, the locus of control. Methods: In particular, this study addresses the following broad research questions: i) Is self-esteem just an index of global happiness? ii) May happiness be possible or realizable without a healthy self-confidence and self-acceptance? iii) To what extent does self-esteem influence on the level of happiness? iv) Is high self-esteem a sufficient condition for happiness? v) Is self-esteem is a strong predictor of internal locus of control maintenance? vi) Is high self-esteem related to internal LOC, while low self-esteem to external LOC? In order to find the answers for listed questions, 60 reliable sources have been analyzed, results of what are discussed more detailed below. Expected Results/Conclusion/Contribution:It is recognized that the relationship between self-esteem, happiness, locus of control is complex: internal LOC is contributing to happiness, but it is not directly related to it; self-esteem is a powerful and important psychological factor in mental health and well-being; the feelings of being worthy and empowered are associated with significant achievements and high self-esteem; strong and appropriate self-esteem (when the discrepancy between “ideal” and “real” self is balanced) is correlated with more internal LOC (when the individual tends to believe that personal achievements depend on possessed features, vigor, and persistence). Despite the special attention paid to happiness, the locus of control and self-esteem, independently, theoretical and empirical equivocations within each literature foreclose many obvious predictions about the nature of their empirical distinction. In terms of theoretical framework, no model has achieved consensus as an ultimate theoretical background for any of the mentioned constructs. To be able to clarify the relationship between self-esteem, happiness, and locus of control more interdisciplinary studies have to take place in order to get data on heterogeneous samples, provided from various countries, cultures, and social groups.

Keywords: Mediation, Happiness, self-esteem, locus of control

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17 Death Anxiety, Quality of Life, and Self-Esteem of the Elderly in Surat Thani Province, Thailand

Authors: W. Phokhwang-Just, A. Saraketrin, P. Thongpet, J. Udomkitpipat, J. Kaewsakulthong


The more people get older and live longer, the more health problems they may have. This cross-sectional study aims to study a correlation between death anxiety, quality of life, and self-esteem as well as factors affecting these variables in the elderly living in Surat Thani Province, Thailand. Of 382 elderly people, who were proportionally sampled from 19 districts in Surat Thani Province, 256 (67%) already returned the questionnaires. The Thai version of Templer’s Death Anxiety, Quality of Life (WHO-BREF), and of Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Questionnaires were employed. The result showed that the samples had a mean age of 72 years old, 53% were female, 62% were married, 61% graduated with primary-school, and 61% had at least one chronic disease Approximately, 19% of them had 3 diseases. The quality of life (QOL), self-esteem (SE), and death anxiety (DA) of samples were in moderate (n= 91, mean = 86.89, SD = 15.47), high (n = 138, mean = 29.33, SD=4.77), and low level (n= 85, mean = 6.23, SD= 3.65), respectively. The QOL was not significantly different between male and female as well as among different marital status. The female elderly had more DA and less SE than male (t= 2.095, df = 83; t =-3.258, df =135, respectively, p < 0.05). The female elderly, who were separated or widow, had a higher level of DA than did the married elderly (LSD: p < 0.05). The married elderly had a higher level of SE than did the separated, widowed (Tukey HSD, LSD: p < 0.05), or single elderly (LSD: p < 0.05). The more diseases the elderly got, the lower level of QOL they had (r = -0.335, p < 0.05). The QOL was significantly correlated with SE (r =0.434, p < 0.05), but not significantly related to DA (r = -0.200, p = 0.069). The lower level of SE the elderly had, the higher level of DA they become (r = -2.71, p < 0.05). In order to promote the QOL, the SE of the elderly should be enhanced. Consequently, the DA can be minimized. Healthcare providers should provide care that promotes QOL, SE, and reduces DA of the elderly, especially those, who are female, single, and separated or widowed as well as those, who have more diseases than the others

Keywords: Quality of Life, Elderly, self-esteem, death anxiety

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16 An Evaluation of Self-Esteem in Physically Disabled Adults Who Particapated in Sports

Authors: Sehmus Aslan, Ummuhan Bas Aslan


Objective: Physical disability includes impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Individuals with physical disabilities have lower self-esteem compared non-disabled people. Self-esteem is widely accepted as a key indicator of emotional stability and adjustment to life demands. There is very limited study to investigate the effect of sports on self-esteem in physically disabled people. The aim of the present study was to evaluate of self-esteem in physically disabled adults who participated in sports. Methods: Fifty physically disabled adults who participated in sports aged between 18 to 35 years participated in the study. Self-esteem of the participants was assessed by Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The scale is a 10-item measure of global self-esteem. The higher score on the scale indicates greater self-esteem. Scores between 15 and 25 are the normal range of and scores below 15 suggest low self-esteem. Results: Average age of participants was 25.18±6.20 years. 58% of the participants were 23 (46.0%) of the participants were wheelchair users, 8 (16.0%) were mobile with a walking aid and 19 (38.0%) were mobile without a walking aid. The length of physically disabled adults had been participating in their sports (basketball: 54%, athleticism: 32%, volleyball: 6%, cycling: 6%) was 4.94±3.86 years. The average Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale score of the participants was 21.88 ±4.34. Conclusions: Our results suggest that physically disabled adults who participated in sports have the healthy level of self-esteem. Participating in sports could have positive effects on self-esteem in that physically, disabled people. There is needed future comparative studies on this topic.

Keywords: Sport, self-esteem, adult, physical disability

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15 Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy and Psychological Distress among the High School Teachers in Afghanistan

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara


The purpose of the research was to study the relationship between self-esteem, self-Efficacy with psychological distress in the high school teachers. A total of 245 teachers (92 male and 153 female) in the high school of Kabul and Mazar-e-Sharif from Afghanistan completed inventories General Self-Efficacy, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire-12 and that assessed their Self-Efficacy, self-esteem with psychological distress. Correlational analysis showed that self-efficacy and self-esteem were significantly and positively correlated with each other. The results of the study indicated that psychological distress is negatively related to self-esteem, and self-efficacy. However, the findings suggest that self-esteem, and self-efficacy could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Psychological distress, Self-efficacy, self-esteem, high school teachers

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14 The Association between Attachment Styles, Satisfaction of Life, Alexithymia, and Psychological Resilience: The Mediational Role of Self-Esteem

Authors: Zahide Tepeli Temiz, Itir Tari Comert


Attachment patterns based on early emotional interactions between infant and primary caregiver continue to be influential in adult life, in terms of mental health and behaviors of individuals. Several studies reveal that infant-caregiver relationships have impressed the affect regulation, coping with stressful and negative situations, general satisfaction of life, and self image in adulthood, besides the attachment styles. The present study aims to examine the relationships between university students’ attachment style and their self-esteem, alexithymic features, satisfaction of life, and level of resilience. In line with this aim, the hypothesis of the prediction of attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) over life satisfaction, self-esteem, alexithymia, and psychological resilience was tested. Additionally, in this study Structural Equational Modeling was conducted to investigate the mediational role of self-esteem in the relationship between attachment styles and alexithymia, life satisfaction, and resilience. This model was examined with path analysis. The sample of the research consists of 425 university students who take education from several region of Turkey. The participants who sign the informed consent completed the Demographic Information Form, Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, The Satisfaction with Life Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Resilience Scale for Adults. According to results, anxious, and avoidant dimensions of insecure attachment predicted the self-esteem score and alexithymia in positive direction. On the other hand, these dimensions of attachment predicted life satisfaction in negative direction. The results of linear regression analysis indicated that anxious and avoidant attachment styles didn’t predict the resilience. This result doesn’t support the theory and research indicating the relationship between attachment style and psychological resilience. The results of path analysis revealed the mediational role self esteem in the relation between anxious, and avoidant attachment styles and life satisfaction. In addition, SEM analysis indicated the indirect effect of attachment styles over alexithymia and resilience besides their direct effect. These findings support the hypothesis of this research relation to mediating role of self-esteem. Attachment theorists suggest that early attachment experiences, including supportive and responsive family interactions, have an effect on resilience to harmful situations in adult life, ability to identify, describe, and regulate emotions and also general satisfaction with life. Several studies examining the relationship between attachment styles and life satisfaction, alexithymia, and psychological resilience draw attention to mediational role of self-esteem. Results of this study support the theory of attachment patterns with the mediation of self-image influence the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation of person throughout the adulthood. Therefore, it is thought that any intervention intended for recovery in attachment relationship will increase the self-esteem, life satisfaction, and resilience level, on the one side, decrease the alexithymic features, on the other side.

Keywords: Resilience, Path Analysis, Life Satisfaction, self-esteem, structural equation, alexithymia, anxious attachment, avoidant attachment

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13 The Relationships between the Feelings of Bullying, Self- Esteem, Employee Silence, Anger, Self- Blame and Shame

Authors: Şebnem Aslan, Demet Akarçay


The objective of this study is to investigate the feelings of health employees occurred by bullying and the relationships between these feelings at work place. In this context, the relationships between bullying and the feelings of self-esteem, employee silence, anger, self- blame and shame. This study was conducted among 512 health employees in three hospitals in Konya by using survey method and simple random sampling. The scales of bullying, self-esteem, employee silence, anger, self-blame, and shame were performed within the study. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive analysis, correlation, confirmative factor analysis, structural equation modeling and path analysis. The results of the study showed that while bullying had a positive effect on self-esteem (.61), employee silence (.41), anger (.18), a negative effect on self-blame and shame (-.26) was observed. Employee silence affected self-blame and shame (.83) as positively. Besides, self-esteem impacted on self- blame and shame (.18), employee silence (.62) positively and self-blame and shame was observed as negatively affecting on anger (-.20). Similarly, self-esteem was found as negatively affected on anger (-.13).

Keywords: Anger, Bullying, self-esteem, employee silence, shame and guilt, healthcare employee

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12 Analysis to the Characterization of Self-Esteem of Students in Eulogio 'Amang' Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology: A Foundation of Conceptualizing Substantial Plan of Action

Authors: Eriberto R. Astorga Jr., Herbert D. Vertucio, Evelyn M. Polison


This study was conducted in order to determine the analysis with regards to the Characterization of Self-Esteem of EARIST Students according to their origin of self-esteem and low self-esteem as well as its causes. The respondents of this study are three thousand three hundred twenty three (3,323) randomly selected students from eight colleges of EARIST such as Arts and Sciences, Education, Public Administration and Criminology, Business Administration, Hospitality Management, Architecture and Fine Arts, Engineering, and Industrial Technology. A survey was conducted by using a validated questionnaire for information gathering about respondents profile and different factors relating to self-esteem of students such as self-origin, familial and social relationship, financial situation and education. Frequency, percentage, ranking and standards deviation, standard t-test and ANOVA were applied to investigate the differences of the answers of the respondents to the origin of their self-esteem and the reasons for low self-esteem. The results revealed that there are no significant differences in the origin of their self-esteem and the reasons of low esteem as to the eight group of respondent’s. Moreover, most causes of low esteem are caused by hearing a comment or experiencing an incident that has a negative impact student mentally and emotionally, poor health, being bullied, lack of support from family, friends, and job loss, experiencing verbal and sexual abuse and are in a violent relationship, feelings of isolation, divorce, dysfunctional family, death and lack of achievement at work and at school, trying to conform to stereotypes and prove our independence from our parents.

Keywords: Characterization, profile, self-esteem, plan of action

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11 Study of the Optical Illusion Effects of Color Contrasts on Body Image Perception

Authors: A. Hadj Taieb, H. Ennouri


The current study aimed to investigate the effect that optical illusion garments have on a woman’s self-perception of her own body shape. First, we created different optical illusion garment by using color contrasts. Second, a short survey based on visual perception is addressed to women in order to compare the different optical illusion garments to determine if they met the established 'ideal' body shape. A ‘visual analysis method’ was used to investigate the clothing models with optical illusions. The theories in relation with the optical illusion were used through this method. The effects of the optical illusion of color contrast on body shape in the fashion sector were tried to be revealed.

Keywords: body image perception, self-esteem, optical illusion, color contrasts

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10 Self-Esteem in Troubled Gifted and Non-Gifted Children and Adolescents: Comparison within a French Population

Authors: Macarena-Paz Celume, Sylvie Tordjman


There is still no consensus regarding the differences between gifted and non-gifted students in relationship to their self-esteem and the impact that this might have on behavioral and emotional troubles. In fact, some studies present no difference between both groups or present gifted population having higher scores in self-esteem, while others indicate all the opposite, presenting lower self-esteem in gifted population, suggesting that self-esteem issues are probably due to the fact that gifted children who present low self-esteem might not consider their high Intellectual Quotient (IQ) as a positive characteristic, thus leading to behavioral or emotional troubles. According to the author's knowledge, there is poor evidence trying to understand self-esteem issues in troubled gifted and non-gifted students in France, also finding an important lack regarding the possible moderators that might influence self-esteem. This study aimed to validate the results of these samples, looking for age and sex moderators in order to present recent evidence for the study of self-esteem in troubled gifted students in France. This study analysed the data gathered in the past 12 years for troubled students attending to the National Centre for Assistance to High Potential of Children and Adolescents (CNAHP) in France comparing the results of gifted versus non-gifted population. Primary results showed no significant differences between the groups in global self-esteem (t=1,15 p < .25), consistent with correlation analysis that found no correlation between global self-esteem and total IQ for each of the groups (rgifted=.04, rnon-gifted=.-08). Nevertheless, an ANOVA analysis showed an important effect of giftedness over academic self-esteem even though no significant differences were found (t=1,8 p < .06). No significant differences between sex regarding global self-esteem in any of the groups were found. Nevertheless, non-gifted population showed a significant difference in physical self-esteem, being higher for boys than for girls (t=2.65 p < .01). Sex and age moderator analyses for self-esteem will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: Children and Adolescents, self-esteem, giftedness, troubled children and adolescents

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9 Promoting Self-Esteem and Social Integration in Secondary German Schools: An Evaluation Study

Authors: Uwe Berger, Bernhard Strauss, Susanne Manes, Anni Glaeser, Katharina Wick


Introduction: Over the last decades growing rates of mental health concerns among children and adolescents have been observed. At the same time, physical well-being of children and adolescents becomes increasingly impaired as well. Schools play an important role in preventing mental and physical disorders and in promoting well-being. Self-esteem, as well as social integration, are vital influence factors for mental and physical well-being. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the program 'VorteilJena' for secondary schools in Germany focusing on self-esteem and social integration to improve mental and physical well-being. Method: The school-based health promotion program was designed for students in 5th grade and higher. It consists of several short pedagogical exercises instructed by a teacher and were integrated into the regular class over the course of ten weeks. The exercises focused on fostering social integration using either tasks improving team spirit or exercises that increase tolerance and sense of belonging. Other exercises focused on strengthening the self-esteem of the students. Additionally, the program included a poster exhibition titled 'Belonging' which was put up in the school buildings. The exhibition comprised ten posters which addressed relevant risk factors and resources related to social integration and self-esteem. The study was a randomized controlled sequential study with a pre and post measurement conducted in ten German schools. A total of 1642 students (44% male) were recruited. Their age ranged from 9 to 21 years (M=12.93 years; SD= 2.11). The program was conducted in classes ranging from 5th to 12th grade. Results: The program improved wellbeing, self-esteem and social integration of the involved students compared to the control group. Differential effects depending on implementation rates or age of the students will be analyzed. Moreover, implications for future school-based health promotion programs targeting self-esteem and social integration will be discussed. Conclusion: Social integration considerably influences self-esteem and well-being of students and can be targeted by school-based programs including short and modest exercises. Since a sufficient implementation of health promotion programs is essential, the present program due to its practicability represents a good opportunity to install health promotion focusing on social integration in schools.

Keywords: Well-being, self-esteem, social integration, health promotion in schools

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