Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Self-efficacy Related Abstracts

81 A South African Perspective on Self-Leadership Development for Women Engineering Students – A Pilot Study

Authors: A. S. Lourens, B. Du Plooy

Abstract:

Across the world, initiatives have been introduced to encourage women to enter into and remain in engineering fields. However, research has shown that many women leave engineering or suffer a loss of self-esteem and self-confidence compared to their male counterparts. To address this problem, a South African comprehensive university developed a self-leadership intervention pilot study in 2013, aimed at improving the self-efficacy of its female engineering students and increasing retention rates. This paper is a qualitative, descriptive, and interpretive study of the rationale and operational aspects of the Women in Engineering Leadership Association’s (WELA) self-leadership workshop. The objectives of this paper are to provide a framework for the design of a self-leadership workshop and to provide insight into the process of developing such a workshop specifically for women engineering students at a South African university. Finally, the paper proposes an evaluation process for the pilot workshop, which also provides a framework to improve future workshops. It is anticipated that the self-leadership development framework will be applicable to other higher education institutions wishing to improve women engineering student’s feelings of self-efficacy and therefore retention rates of women in engineering.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, co-curricular interventions, self-leadership, women in engineering

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80 The Relationship between School Belonging, Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Tabriz High School Students

Authors: F. Pari, E. Fathiazar, T. Hashemi, M. Pari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to examine the role of self-efficacy and school belonging in the academic achievement of Tabriz high school students in grade 11. Therefore, using a random cluster method, 377 subjects were selected from the whole students of Tabriz high schools. They filled in the School Belonging Questionnaire (SBQ) and General Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were analyzed using correlational as well as multiple regression methods. Findings demonstrate self-efficacy and school belonging have significant roles in the prediction of academic achievement. On the other hand, the results suggest that considering the gender variable there is no significant difference between self-efficacy and school belonging. On the whole, cognitive approaches could be effective in the explanation of academic achievement.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Self-efficacy, school belonging, high school

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
79 A South African Perspective on Self-Leadership Development for Women Engineering Students

Authors: A. S. Lourens, B. Du Plooy

Abstract:

Across the world, initiatives have been introduced to encourage women to enter into and remain in engineering fields. However, research has shown that many women leave engineering or suffer a loss of self-esteem and self-confidence compared to their male counterparts. To address this problem, a South African comprehensive university developed a self-leadership intervention pilot study in 2013, aimed at improving the self-efficacy of its female engineering students and increasing retention rates. This paper is a qualitative, descriptive and interpretive study of the rationale and operational aspects of the Women in Engineering Leadership Association’s (WELA) self-leadership workshop. The objectives of this paper are to provide a framework for the design of a self-leadership workshop and to provide insight into the process of developing such a workshop specifically for women engineering students at a South African university. Finally, the paper proposes an evaluation process for the pilot workshop, which also provides a framework to improve future workshops. It is anticipated that the self-leadership development framework will be applicable to other higher education institutions wishing to improve women engineering student’s feelings of self-efficacy and therefore retention rates of women in engineering.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, co-curricular interventions, self-leadership, women in engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
78 Factors Predicting Preventive Behavior for Osteoporosis in University Students

Authors: Thachamon Sinsoongsud, Noppawan Piaseu

Abstract:

This predictive study was aimed to 1) describe self efficacy for risk reduction and preventive behavior for osteoporosis, and 2) examine factors predicting preventive behavior for osteoporosis in nursing students. Through purposive sampling, the sample included 746 nursing students in a public university in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire on self efficacy and preventive behavior for osteoporosis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis with stepwise method. Results revealed that majority of the students were female (98.3%) with mean age of 19.86 + 1.26 years. The students had self efficacy and preventive behavior for osteoporosis at moderate level. Self efficacy and level of education could together predicted 35.2% variance of preventive behavior for osteoporosis (p< .001). Results suggest approaches for promoting preventive behavior for osteoporosis through enhancing self efficacy among nursing students in a public university in Bangkok, Thailand.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Self-efficacy, nursing students, preventive behavior

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77 To Assess Variables Related to Self-Efficacy for Increasing Physical Activity in Advanced-Stage Cancer Patients

Authors: S. Nikpour, S. Vahidi, H. Haghani

Abstract:

Introduction: Exercise has mental and physical health benefits for patients with advanced stage cancer who actively receive chemotherapy, yet little is known about patients’ levels of interest in becoming more active or their confidence in increasing their activity level. Methods and materials: A convenience sample of 200 patients with advanced-stage cancer who were receiving chemotherapy completed self-report measures assessing physical activity level, mood, and quality-of-life variables. Qualitative data on patient-perceived benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity also were collected, coded by independent raters, and organized by predominant themes. Results: Current physical activity level, physical activity outcome expectations, and positive mood were significantly associated with self-efficacy. Fatigue was the most frequently listed barrier to physical activity; improved physical strength and health were the most commonly listed benefits. Participants identified benefits related to both general health and cancer-symptom management that were related to exercise. 59.5% of participants reported that they were seriously planning to increase or maintain their physical activity level, and over 40% reported having interest in receiving an intervention to become more active. Conclusion: These results suggested that many advanced-stage cancer patients who receive chemotherapy are interested in maintaining or increasing their physical activity level and in receiving professional support for exercise. In addition, these individuals identified general health and cancer-specific benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity. Future research will investigate how these findings may be incorporated into physical activity interventions for advanced-stage oncology patients receiving medical treatment.

Keywords: Cancer, Physical Activity, Self-efficacy

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76 The Relationship among EFL Learners’ Creativity, Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Behdoukht Mall Amiri, Zohreh Gheydar

Abstract:

The thrust of the current study was to investigate the relationship among EFL learners' creativity (CR), emotional intelligence (EI), and self-efficacy (SE). To this end, a group of 120 male and female learners, between the ages of 19 and 35 studying BA in English Translation and MA in Teaching English at Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran were selected using convenient sampling and were given three questionnaires: Bar-On’s EQ-I questionnaire by Bar-On (1997), the General Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire (SGSES) by Sherer et al. (1982), and a questionnaire of creativity (CR) by O'Neil, Abedi, and Spielberger (1992). Analysis of the results through Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient showed that there was not a significant relationship between students’ CR and EI, and EI and SE. In addition, CR and SE were correlated significantly but negatively. Multiple regressions revealed that CR could significantly predict SE. Regarding the findings of the study, the obtained results may help EFL teachers, teacher trainers, materials developers, and educational policy makers to possess a broader perspective and heightened degree knowledge toward the TEFL practice and to take practical steps toward the attainments of the desired objectives of the profession.

Keywords: Learning, Creativity, Self-efficacy, Emotional Intelligence

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75 Investigating the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy of Physical Education Teachers in Ilam Province

Authors: Ali Heyrani, Maryam Saidyousefi

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and Self-Efficacy of physical education teachers in Ilam province. The research method is descriptive correlational. The study participants were of 170 physical education teachers (90 males, 80 females) with an age range of 20 to 50 years, who were selected randomly. The instruments for data collection were Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Bar-on (1997) to assess the Emotional Intelligence teachers and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire to measure their Self-Efficacy. The questionnaires used in the interior are reliable and valid. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and inferential tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression) at a significance level of P <0/ 05 were used. The Results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between totall emotional intelligence and Self-Efficacy of teachers, so the more emotional intelligence of physical education teachers the better the extent of Self-Efficacy. Also, the results arising from regression analysis gradually showed that among components of emotional intelligence, three components, the General Mood, Adaptability, and Interpersonal Communication to Self-Efficacy are of a significant positive relationship and are able to predict the Self-Efficacy of physical education teachers. It seems the application of this study ҆s results can help to education authorities to promote the level of teachers’ emotional intelligence and therefore the improvement of their Self-Efficacy and success in learners’ teaching and training.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, physical education teachers, Ilam province

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74 Health Status, Perception of Self-Efficacy and Social Support of Thailand Aging

Authors: Wipakon Sonsnam, Kanya Napapongsa

Abstract:

The quantitative aim of the study; 1) health conditions, to examine the state of health of the aging, 2) perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging ,3) perceived of social support of the aging, 4) to examine factors associated with self-efficacy in enhancing the health and self-care when illness. 100 samples selected from communities in Dusit, Bangkok, 2014 by random sampling. The questionnaires were used to collect data have 5-point rating scale, consisting of strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, and strongly disagree; approved content valid by 3 experts, reliability coefficients alpha was .784 for perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging and .827 for perceived of social support of the aging. ST-5, 2Q used for collect mental health. The ability to engage in a daily routine was collected by Barthel ADL index. Founding, the sample group were female (68%). (33%) of them were in the age of 60-65. Most of them were married and still live with their spouse (55%) and do not work (38%). The average annual income was less than 10,000 baht supported by child. Most people think that income was adequate (49.0%) and Satisfaction (61.0%). Most of aging caring them-self, followed by them spouse (26%). Welfare of the public had supported, living for the aging (100%), followed by Join and health volunteers in communities (23%). In terms of health, (53%) of the sample group feels health was fair, hypertension was the most common health condition among sample group (68%), following by diabetes (55%). About eyesight, (42%) have visual acuity. (59.0%) do not need hearing aids. 84% have more than 20 teeth remaining, and have no problem with chewing (61%). In terms of Ability to engage in a daily routine, most of people (84%) in sample group are in type 1. (91%) of the participants don’t have bladder incontinence. For mental condition, (82%) do not have insomnia. (87%) do not have anxiety. (96%) do not have depression. However, (77%) of the sample group is facing stress. In terms of environment in home, bathroom in the home (90.0%) and floor of bathroom was slippery (91.0%). (48%) of the sample group has the skills of how to look after themselves while being sick, and how to keep up healthy lifestyle. Besides, some other factors, such as gender, age and educational background are related to the health perception. The statistical significance was <0.05. Suggestion: The instruments available to national standards such as ST-5, 2Q and Barthel ADL index. Reliability coefficients alpha was .784 for perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging and .827 for perceived of social support of the aging. The instrument used to collect perceived of social support must be further developed to study level of influence of social support that affect the health of elderly.

Keywords: Social Support, Self-efficacy, health status, perception of aging

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73 Using the Transtheoretical Model to Investigate Stages of Change in Regular Volunteer Service among Seniors in Community

Authors: Pei-Ti Hsu, I-Ju Chen, Jeu-Jung Chen, Cheng-Fen Chang, Shiu-Yan Yang

Abstract:

Taiwan now is an aging society Research on the elderly should not be confined to caring for seniors, but should also be focused on ways to improve health and the quality of life. Senior citizens who participate in volunteer services could become less lonely, have new growth opportunities, and regain a sense of accomplishment. Thus, the question of how to get the elderly to participate in volunteer service is worth exploring. Apply the Transtheoretical Model to understand stages of change in regular volunteer service and voluntary service behaviour among the seniors. 1525 adults over the age of 65 from the Renai district of Keelung City were interviewed. The research tool was a self-constructed questionnaire and individual interviews were conducted to collect data. Then the data was processed and analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 (Windows version) statistical software program. In the past six months, research subjects averaged 9.92 days of volunteer services. A majority of these elderly individuals had no intention to change their regular volunteer services. We discovered that during the maintenance stage, the self-efficacy for volunteer services was higher than during all other stages, but self-perceived barriers were less during the preparation stage and action stage. Self-perceived benefits were found to have an important predictive power for those with regular volunteer service behaviors in the previous stage, and self-efficacy was found to have an important predictive power for those with regular volunteer service behaviors in later stages. The research results support the conclusion that community nursing staff should group elders based on their regular volunteer services change stages and design appropriate behavioral change strategies.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, seniors, stages of change in regular volunteer services, volunteer service behavior, self-perceived benefits

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72 Household Food Insecurity, Maternal Mental Health and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Nahid Salarkia, Nasrin Omidvar, Erfan Ghassemi, Vahideh Arab-Salari, Tirang Reza Neyestani

Abstract:

Background: Household food insecurity has an adverse impact on the maternal mental health. This study was carried out to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, maternal depression and mother’s self-efficacy in Varamin, Iran, in 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 423 mothers with children under 2 years old, with mean age 28.1±5.2 year; weight 66.3±13.4 kg; height 160.3± 5.7 cm and BMI 25.7±4.8 kg/m2 were selected by a multistage random sampling scheme. The instruments were: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-III) and mother’s self-efficacy questionnaire. Data was analyzed using χ2 test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: Mildly, moderately and severely food insecure households were 39.5, 9.7 and 3.1%, respectively. Mild, moderate and sever depression was: 18.7, 13.9 and 5.7%. Mean score of depression in moderate and severe food insecure (8.6±5.3) was more than mild food insecure (4.8±4.7) and food secure (3.1±3.6) mothers. Frequency of very good, good and low mother’s self-efficacy were 62.8, 36.5, and 0.7%, respectively. Very good mother’s self-efficacy in food secure mothers (33.4%) was more than mild (25.4%) and moderate-sever food insecure groups (4%). There was a negative significant association between household food insecurity and mother’s self-efficacy (r= -0.297, p<0.01), and between mother’s depression and self-efficacy (r= -0.309, p=0.001). Conclusion: Empowerment of mothers with educational programs and social support can decrease mothers’ depression and increase self-efficacy that lead to improve maternal practices in food insecure households.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Mothers, Iran, Household food insecurity, physiological characteristics

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71 Comparison of Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction in Normal Users and Users with Internet Addiction

Authors: Mansour Abdi, Hadi Molaei Yasavoli

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to comparison of self- efficacy and life satisfaction in normal users and users with internet addiction. The present study was descriptive and causal-comparative. Therefore, 304 students were selected random sampling method from students of Semnan University and completed questionnaires of internet addiction (young), Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and Life Satisfaction (SWIS). For data analysis was used the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The results showed that internet addiction users have lower levels of self-efficacy and life satisfaction in comparison with normal users and the difference in p=0/0005 significantly. The findings showed that 78 percent of the variance in the dependent variables of self-efficacy and life satisfaction by grouping variables (internet addiction users and normal) is determined. Finally, considering that the rate of self-efficacy and life satisfaction is effective in the incidence of Internet addiction, it is proposed required measures are taken to enhance self-efficacy and life satisfaction in Internet users.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Internet Addiction, Life Satisfaction, users, normal users

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70 The Role of Psychological Factors in Prediction Academic Performance of Students

Authors: Hadi Molaei, Yasavoli Davoud, Keshavarz, Mozhde Poordana

Abstract:

The present study aimed was to prediction the academic performance based on academic motivation, self-efficacy and Resiliency in the students. The present study was descriptive and correlational. Population of the study consisted of all students in Arak schools in year 1393-94. For this purpose, the number of 304 schools students in Arak was selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. They all questionnaires, self-efficacy, Resiliency and academic motivation Questionnaire completed. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regressions. Pearson correlation showed academic motivation, self-efficacy, and Resiliency with academic performance had a positive and significant relationship. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed that the academic motivation, self-efficacy and Resiliency were predicted academic performance. Based on the findings could be conclude that in order to increase the academic performance and further progress of students must provide the ground to strengthen academic motivation, self-efficacy and Resiliency act on them.

Keywords: Resiliency, Self-efficacy, Academic Performance, academic motivation

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69 Relative Influence of Self-Regulation, Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, and Goal Orientation on School Engagement among Public Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Ogunremi Beatrice, Oluwole David Adebayo

Abstract:

Public secondary school students are face with some challenges from the parents, government and teachers in school. Some of the challenges that arises from the parents are lack of attention and adequate communication. From the government are unavailability of useful instructional materials, competent and professionally trained teachers for each subject the students do in school. The challenges that arise from the teachers most often are mismanagement of time, inability to understand the capacity of the student and lack class management and follow up. This study investigated self-regulation, emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and goal orientation as predictors of school engagement among public secondary school students in Ibadan. A structured questionnaire was administered on 258 students from six mixed secondary schools in Ibadan. Pearson Product Moment Correlation method was used for data analysis. Four hypothesis were raised and answered, the results showed there is positive and significant relationships between school engagement among public secondary school students and each of the independent variable: Self-regulation, Emotional intelligence, Self-efficacy, Goal orientation. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that the parents have to encourage their children on how to be goal oriented ,build their self-efficacy skill, to be self-regulated and emotionally intelligent in order to be effective in school and be able to increase their intellectual ability.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, Emotional Intelligence, Goal Orientation, school engagement

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68 Students’ Willingness to Use Public Computing Facilities at a Library

Authors: Norbayah Mohd Suki, Norazah Mohd Suki

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This study aims to examine relationships between attitude, self-efficacy, and subjective norm with students’ behavioural intention to use public computing facilities at a library. Data was collected from 200 undergraduate students enrolled at a higher learning institution in the Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia via a structured questionnaire comprising closed-ended questions. Data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The results show that students’ behavioural intention to use public computing facilities at the library is widely affected by subjective norm factor i.e. influence of the support of family members, friends and neighbours. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of factors likely to influence students’ behavioural intention to use public computing facilities at a library. It also offers valuable insights into factors which university librarians need to focus on to improve students’ behavioural intention to actively use public computing facilities at a library for quality information retrieval. Direction for future research is also presented.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, attitude, subjective norm, behavioural intention

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67 Addictive Use Due to Personality: Focused on Big Five Personality Traits and Game Addiction

Authors: Eui Jun Jeong, Hye Rim Lee, Ji Hye Yoo

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Recent studies have verified the significant relationship of user personality with Internet use. However, in game studies, little research has emphasized on the effects of personality traits on game addiction. This study examined whether big five personality traits affect game addiction with control of psychological, social, and demographic factors. Specifically, using data from a survey of 789 game users in Korea, we conducted a regression analysis to see the associations of psychological (loneliness/depression), social (activities with family/friends), self-efficacy (game/general), gaming (daily gaming time/perception), demographic (age/gender), and personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism conscientiousness, agreeableness, & openness) with the degree of game addiction. Results showed that neuroticism increase game addiction with no effect of extraversion on the addiction. General self-efficacy negatively affected game addiction, whereas game self-efficacy increased the degree of game addiction. Loneliness enhanced game addiction while depression showed a negative effect on the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.

Keywords: Depression, Self-efficacy, social activities, big five personality, game addiction, loneliness

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66 Instructional Leadership and Competency in Capacity Development among Principals: A Mediation with Self Efficacy in Moderate Performing Schools

Authors: Mohd Ibrahim K. Azeez, Mohammed Sani Ibrahim, Rosemawati Mustapa, Maisarah A. Malik, Chandrakala Varatharajoo, Wee Akina Sia Seng Lee

Abstract:

The leadership of the principals is known to be a key indicator in development and school performance. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the extent of the influence of instructional leadership in the field of supervision and curriculum focus on capacity development competence in the field of communication and teamwork. In addition, this study also examines self-efficacy mediator school leadership in the field of self-improvement and self-management of school principals. The study involved 383 guest teachers from 55 secondary schools for leadership in schools. Data was analyzed using SEM aid program AMOS 21. The final result shows partial mediation model was the best model fit to obtain the best goodness of fit of (X2/df = 4.663, CFI = 0.922, GFI = 0.778, TLI = 0914, NFI = 0.903, and RMSEA = 0.098) compared to the direct effect model of the findings (X2/df = 5.319, CFI = 0.908, GFI = 0755, TLI = 0.899, NFI = 0.889, and RMSEA = 0.106). While the findings of the fully mediator model with a self-efficacy refers principals as a mediator as follows (X2/df = 4.838, CFI = 0918, GFI = 0772, TLI = 0.910, NFI = 0.899, and RMSEA = 0.100). Therefore, it can be concluded that the findings clearly demonstrate self-efficacy variables principals become a mediator in the relationship between instructional leadership capacity and competency development.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Competency, capacity development, instructional leadership

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65 The Association between Facebook Emotional Dependency with Psychological Well-Being in Eudaimonic Approach among Adolescents 13-16 Years Old

Authors: Somayyeh Naeemi, Ezhar Tamam

Abstract:

In most of the countries, Facebook allocated high rank of usage among other social network sites. Several studies have examined the effect of Facebook intensity on individuals’ psychological well-being. However, few studies have investigated its effect on eudaimonic well-being. The current study explored how emotional dependency to Facebook relates to psychological well-being in terms of eudaimonic well-being. The number of 402 adolescents 13-16 years old who studied in upper secondary school in Malaysia participated in this study. It was expected to find out a negative association between emotional dependency to Facebook and time spent on Facebook and psychological well-being. It also was examined the moderation effects of self-efficacy on psychological well-being. The results by Structural Equation Modeling revealed that emotional dependency to Facebook has a negative effect on adolescents’ psychological well-being. Surprisingly self-efficacy did not have moderation effect on the relationship between emotional dependency to Facebook and psychological well-being. Lastly, the emotional dependency to Facebook and not the time spent on Facebook lessen adolescents’ psychological well-being, suggesting the value of investigating Facebook usage among college students in future studies.

Keywords: Adolescent, Self-efficacy, psychological well-being, emotional dependency to facebook, eudaimonic well-being

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64 Do Formalization and Centralization Influence Self-Efficacy and Its Outcomes? A Study of Direct and Moderating Effects

Authors: Ghulam Mustafa, Richard Glavee-Geo

Abstract:

This study examined the relationship between traditional variables of organizational structure (formalization and centralization), employee work related self-efficacy and employee subjective performance. The study further explored the moderating role of formalization and centralization on the link between employee self-efficacy and job performance. Five hypotheses were tested using a sample of employees from a large public organization in Pakistan. The results indicated a significant positive relationship between employee self-efficacy and job performance. Regarding the direct effects of formalization and centralization on self-efficacy, the results showed that formalization relates positively while centralization has a negative impact on self-efficacy. However, the results revealed no empirical evidence to confirm the hypotheses that formalization and centralization strengthen or weaken the relationship between self-efficacy and job performance.

Keywords: Formalization, Self-efficacy, Job Performance, Centralization

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63 Investigating the Subjective Factors Related to the Need for Psychological Help of the College Students

Authors: Ismail Ay

Abstract:

In this study, it is aimed to analyze the relations of the factors such as the learned resourcefulness, self-efficacy, self-regulation and subjective well-being which are thought to affect the needs of the university students for psychological help and to determine if the subjective well-being mediates other factors in the prediction of the needs of the university students for psychological help. The population of the study is formed of undergraduates who get education in 16 faculties in the central campus of the University of Atatürk in the spring term of 2012-2013 academic years. The sample of the study is formed of 1205 undergraduates (female=666, 55,3 %; male=539, 44,7 %; average of age =21,49; Sd=2,18) selected from the mentioned universe by convenience sampling method. “Need for Psychological Help Scale” has been developed as a part of the study to determine the needs for psychological help. “Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire” has been adapted into Turkish to determine the self-regulation skills. Apart from these, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale and to determine subjective well-being; Satisfaction with Life Scale and Positive and Negative Affect Scale have been used within the study. SPSS 22.0 and LISREL 9.1 have been used in the analysis of the data. Pearson product-moment correlation, descriptive analysis, factor analysis and path analysis to test the research hypothesis has been used in the study. According to obtained data, the learned resourcefulness factor does not predict the subjective well-being; however, it highly predicts the self-regulation and self-efficacy factors. It has been determined that the self-regulation and self-efficacy factors predict the subjective well-being in a positive way and medium level, and subjective well-being mediates self-regulation and self-efficacy factors to predict the needs for psychological help. It was also determined that subjective well-being predicts the needs for psychological help in a negative way and fair level. All these results have been discussed in terms of the related theories and literature, and several suggestions have been made.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, subjective well-being, need for psychological help, learned resourcefulness, Maslow, psychological needs

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62 Examining EFL Teachers' Level of Self-Efficacy for Teaching English in Language Classrooms

Authors: Zahra Mirsanjari, Mohammad Reza Baradaran, Mehdi Rastegari Ghiri

Abstract:

Research in the field of education has widely documented that teachers’ sense of efficacy has strong impacts on various aspects of teaching and learning. The present study is an attempt to examine Iranian EFL teachers’ degree of self-efficacy for teaching English. The data required for the study was gathered from Iranian EFL teachers teaching English as a foreign language in different schools and language institutes in Iran. Data were collected using Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Results identified four dimensions of teachers’ English teaching-specific sense of efficacy: instructional strategies, classroom management, student engagement, and oral English language use. It was also found that teachers rated their self-efficacy in teaching English at a moderate level in the dimensions of instructional strategies, classroom management, and student engagement. Results have implications for language teachers and practitioners.

Keywords: Teaching, Teachers, Self-efficacy, EFL

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61 Happiness, Life Satisfaction, Self-Efficacy, Coping Strategies and Perceived Stress among High School Students

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara, Mohsen Shahbakhti

Abstract:

The current study examined the relationship between happiness, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, coping strategies and perceived stress among high school students, Eshtehard city, Alboez province, Iran. One hundred and sixty-seven high school students were asked to complete the Subjective Happiness scale (SHS), The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), General Self-efficacy (GSE), the Brief COPE, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results revealed a positive correlation between happiness with life satisfaction, self-efficacy, problem-focused coping, adopted coping and it was a negative correlation with stress. Self-efficacy is a significant positive correlated with life satisfaction, problem-focused coping and it is negative correlated with stress. However, the findings suggest that self-efficacy and problem-focused coping could influence on happiness and life satisfaction.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Happiness, Life Satisfaction, perceived stress and coping strategies

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60 The Association between Self-Efficacy and Hypertension Self-Care Behavior among Patients with Hypertension

Authors: Fazel Zinat Motlagh, Reza Chaman, Rashid Ghafari, Zahra Behzad, Ahmad Ali Eslami

Abstract:

Background: Chronic disease management requires the individual to perform several self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy, a widely used psychosocial concept, is associated with the ability to manage chronic disease. In this study, we examine the association between self-efficacy and self-care behaviors related to hypertension. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer Ahmad province, the south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients, were randomly selected and participated in the study. Self-care behavior was measured with using H-SCALE (Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects). Logistic regression conducted to detect correlation between self-efficacy and adherence to hypertension self-care behaviors. Results: Less than half (40.8%) of the participants reported that they have good self-efficacy to manage hypertension. Good self-efficacy was significantly associated with improve in adherence to medication (95% CI: 1.68, 1.83), eating a low-salt diet (95% CI: 1.44–1.73), physical activity (95% CI: 1.39–1.55), quit smoking (95% CI: 0.38–0.47), and weight management techniques (95% CI: 0.66–0.82). Conclusion: Hypertension self-efficacy was associated with adherence to self-care behaviors among adult with hypertension. According to our finding hypertension is a manageable condition. Self-efficacy is important factor in adherence with self-care behaviors related with hypertension.

Keywords: Hypertension, Self-efficacy, Self-Care, Iran

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59 The Effect of Multimedia Use on Students’ Academic Achievement and Course-Oriented Self-Efficacy

Authors: Hasan Coruk, Recep Cakir

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This study aimed at investigating the effect of multimedia containing ‘the structure and properties of matter’ unit on students’ academic achievement level and self-efficacy relating to science and technology course. The study used an experimental design with pre-test and post-test groups. The data collection tools were ‘Science and Technology Course Achievement Test’ and ‘Science and Technology Self-Efficacy Scale’. The sample of the study consisted of 8th grade students at a primary school in Tokat Province. The study was carried out with 42 students from two classes, 21 (8 males, 13 females) from experimental group and 21 (13 males and 8 females) from control group. The data were analyzed in SPSS.18 software. The findings of the study indicated that the use of multimedia increased the students’ academic achievement in science and technology course in comparison with traditional teaching methods. It was also determined that there was not a significant difference in students’ course-oriented self-efficacy levels regarding the two methods. Necessary and feasible suggestions were put forward for whom it concerns.

Keywords: Science and Technology, Academic Achievement, Self-efficacy, multimedia learning, the structure-properties of matter

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58 The Effects of Evidence-Based Nursing Training and Consultation Program on Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy of Evidence-Based Practice among Nurses

Authors: Yea-Pyng Lin

Abstract:

Evidence-based nursing (EBN) can improve quality of patient care and reduce medical expenses. Development of training and consultation program according to nurses’ needs and difficulties is essential to promote their competence and self-efficacy in EBN. However, limited research evaluated the effects of EBN program on EBN self-efficacy among nurses. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an EBN consultation program on self-efficacy and outcome expectancy of evidence-based practice (EBP) among nurses. A two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. A purposive sample of full-time nurses was recruited from a hospital. Experimental group (n=28) received the EBN consultation program including 18-hour EBN training courses, hand-on practices and group discussion by faculty mentors. Control group (n=33) received regular in-service education with no EBN program. All participants received baseline and post-test assessment using Chinese version of Self-Efficacy in EBP scale (SE-EBP) and Outcome Expectancy for EBP scale (OE-EBP). After receiving EBN consultation program, experimental group’s posttest scores of SE-EBP (t=-4.98, p<0.001) and OE-SEP (t=-3.65, p=0.001) were significantly higher than those of the pretests. By controlling the age and years of nursing work experience, the experimental group‘s SE-EBP(F=10.47, p=0.002) and OE-SEP(F=9.53, p=0.003) scores were significantly improved compared to those of the control group. EBN program focus on hand-on practice and group discussion by faculty mentors in addition to EBN training courses can improve EBP self-efficacy and outcome expectancy among nurses. EBN program focus on English literature reading, database searching, and appraisal practice according to nurses’ needs and difficulties can promote implementation of EBN.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Evidence-Based Nursing, Evidence-Based Practice, consultation program, outcome expectancy

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57 Examining EFL Teachers Level of Self-efficacy for Teaching English in Language Classrooms

Authors: Zahra Mirsanjari

Abstract:

Research in the field of education has widely documented that teachers’ sense of efficacy has strong impacts on various aspects of teaching and learning. The present study is an attempt to examine Iranian EFL teachers’ degree of self-efficacy for teaching English. The data required for the study was gathered from Iranian EFL teachers teaching English as a foreign language in different schools and language institutes in Iran. Data were collected using Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Results identified four dimensions of teachers’ English teaching-specific sense of efficacy: instructional strategies, classroom Management, Student Engagement, and Oral English Language Use.It was also found that teachers rated their self-efficacy in teaching English at a moderate level in the dimensions of instructional strategies, classroom management, and student engagement. Results have implications for language teachers and practitioners.

Keywords: English Language Teaching, Self-efficacy, EFL teachers, language teachers and practitioners

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56 Examining the Predicting Effect of Mindfulness on Psychological Well-Being among Undergraduate Students

Authors: Piyanee Klainin-Yobas, Debbie Ramirez, Zenaida Fernandez, Jenneth Sarmiento, Wareerat Thanoi, Jeanette Ignacio, Ying Lau

Abstract:

In many countries, university students experience various stressors that may negatively affect their psychological well-being (PWB). Hence, they are at risk for physical and mental problems. This research aimed to examine the predicting effects of mindfulness, self-efficacy, and social support on psychological well-being among undergraduate students. A non-experimental research was conducted at a university in the Philippines. All students enrolled in undergraduate programs were eligible for this study unless they had chronic medical or mental health problems. Power analysis was used to calculate an adequate sample size and a convenience sampling of 630 was recruited. Data were collected through online self-reported questionnaires from year 2013 to 2015. All self-reported scales used in this study had sound psychometric properties. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and structural equation modeling were performed to analyze the research data. Results showed that the participants were mostly Filipino, female, Christian, and in Schools of Nursing. Mindfulness, self-efficacy, support from family, support from friends, and support from significant others were significant predictors of psychological well-being. Mindfulness was the strongest predictor of positive psychological well-being whereas self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of negative psychological well-being. In conclusion, findings from this study add knowledge to the existing literature regarding the predictors of psychological well-being. Psychosocial interventions, with the focus on strengthening mindfulness and self-efficacy, could be delivered to undergraduate students to help them enhance psychological well-being. More studies can be undertaken to test the interventions and multi-centered research can be conducted to enhance generalizability of research findings.

Keywords: Social Support, Self-efficacy, Mindfulness, psychological wellbeing

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55 Glycemic Control on Self-Efficacy and Self-Care Behaviors among Omani Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Melba Sheila D'Souza, Anandhi Amirtharaj, Shreedevi Balachandran

Abstract:

Background: Type 2 diabetes has a significant impact on individuals’ health and well-being. Glycemic control may influence self-efficacy and self-care behaviors, and reduce the risk of complications among adults with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has substantial morbidity and mortality and 60% of adults’ poor self-care. Glycemic control is associated with reported self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Adults with type 2 diabetes with less information were less likely to take diabetes self-care. Aim: To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic factors, clinical factors on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors among Omani adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A correlational, descriptive study was used. Omani adults with type 2 diabetes (n=140) were recruited from a public hospital in Oman. The data were collected during January-March 2015. Ethical approval was given by the college research and ethics committee, College of Nursing, and the Hospital, Sultan Qaboos University Data was collected on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors and glycemic control. The study was approved by the Institution Ethics and Research Committee. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Most adults had a fasting blood glucose >7.2mmol/L (90.7%), with the majority demonstrating ‘uncontrolled or poor HbA1c of > 8%’ (65%). Variance of self-care behavior (20.6%) and 31.3% of the variance of the self-efficacy was explained by the age, duration of diabetes, medication, HbA1c and prevention of activities of living. Adults with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control were more likely to have poor self-efficacy and poor self-care behaviors. Conclusion: This study confirms that self-efficacy model on outcome predicts self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Higher understanding of diabetes, prevention of normal daily activities, higher ability to fit diabetes life in a positive manner and high patient-physician communication were significant with self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Hence, glycemic control has a high effect on improving self-care behaviors like diet, exercise, medication, foot care and self-efficacy among type 2 diabetes. Implications: Using these findings to improve self-efficacy, individualized self-care management is recommended for better self-efficacy and self-care behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Self-efficacy, nurse, glycemic control, self-care behaviors, self-care management

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54 The Effectiveness of a Self-Efficacy Psychoeducational Programme to Enhance Outcomes of Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

Authors: H. C. Chen, S. W. C. Chan, K. Cheng, A. Vathsala, H. K. Sran, H. He

Abstract:

Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. The numbers of patients with ESRD have increased worldwide due to the growing number of aging, diabetes and hypertension populations. Patients with ESRD suffer from physical illness and psychological distress due to complex treatment regimens, which often affect the patients’ social and psychological functioning. As a result, the patients may fail to perform daily self-care and self-management, and consequently experience worsening conditions. Aims: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a self-efficacy psychoeducational programme on primary outcome (self-efficacy) and secondary outcomes (psychological wellbeing, treatment adherence, and quality of life) in patients with ESRD and haemodialysis in Singapore. Methodology: A randomised controlled, two-group pretest and repeated posttests design will be carried out. A total of 154 participants (n=154) will be recruited. The participants in the control group will receive a routine treatment. The participants in the intervention group will receive a self-efficacy psychoeducational programme in addition to the routine treatment. The programme is a two-session of educational intervention in a week. A booklet, two consecutive sessions of face-to-face individual education, and an abdominal breathing exercise are adopted in the programme. Outcome measurements include Dialysis Specific Self-efficacy Scale, Kidney Disease Quality of Life- 36 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Renal Adherence Attitudes Questionnaire and Renal Adherence Behaviour Questionnaire. The questionnaires will be used to measure at baseline, 1- and 3- and 6-month follow-up periods. Process evaluation will be conducted with a semi-structured face to face interview. Quantitative data will be analysed using SPSS21.0 software. Qualitative data will be analysed by content analysis. Significance of the study: This study will identify a clinically useful and potentially effective approach to help patients with end-stage renal disease and haemodialysis by enhancing their self-efficacy in self-care behaviour, and therefore improving their psychological well-being, treatment adherence and quality of life. This study will provide information to develop clinical guidelines to improve patients’ disease self-management and to enhance health-related outcomes and it will help reducing disease burden.

Keywords: Psychoeducation, Self-efficacy, Haemodialysis, end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

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53 Self-Efficacy Psychoeducational Programme for Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease

Authors: H.C. Chen, S. W. C. Chan, K. Cheng, A. Vathsala, H. K. Sran, H. He

Abstract:

Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. The numbers of patients with ESRD have increased worldwide due to the growing number of aging, diabetes and hypertension populations. Patients with ESRD suffer from physical illness and psychological distress due to complex treatment regimens, which often affect the patients’ social and psychological functioning. As a result, the patients may fail to perform daily self-care and self-management, and consequently experience worsening conditions. Aims: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a self-efficacy psychoeducational programme on primary outcome (self-efficacy) and secondary outcomes (psychological wellbeing, treatment adherence, and quality of life) in patients with ESRD and haemodialysis in Singapore. Methodology: A randomised controlled, two-group pretest and repeated posttests design will be carried out. A total of 154 participants (n=154) will be recruited. The participants in the control group will receive a routine treatment. The participants in the intervention group will receive a self-efficacy psychoeducational programme in addition to the routine treatment. The programme is a two-session of educational intervention in a week. A booklet, two consecutive sessions of face-to-face individual education, and an abdominal breathing exercise are adopted in the programme. Outcome measurements include Dialysis Specific Self-efficacy Scale, Kidney Disease Quality of Life- 36 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Renal Adherence Attitudes Questionnaire and Renal Adherence Behaviour Questionnaire. The questionnaires will be used to measure at baseline, 1- and 3- and 6-month follow-up periods. Process evaluation will be conducted with a semi-structured face to face interview. Quantitative data will be analysed using SPSS21.0 software. Qualitative data will be analysed by content analysis. Significance of the study: This study will identify a clinically useful and potentially effective approach to help patients with end-stage renal disease and haemodialysis by enhancing their self-efficacy in self-care behaviour, and therefore improving their psychological wellbeing, treatment adherence and quality of life. This study will provide information to develop clinical guidelines to improve patients’ disease self-management and to enhance health-related outcomes. Hopefully it will help reducing disease burden.

Keywords: Psychoeducation, Self-efficacy, Haemodialysis, end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

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52 Self-Efficacy Perceptions and the Attitudes of Prospective Teachers towards Assessment and Evaluation

Authors: Münevver Başman, Ezel Tavşancıl

Abstract:

Making the right decisions about students depends on teachers’ use of the assessment and evaluation techniques effectively. In order to do that, teachers should have positive attitudes and adequate self-efficacy perception towards assessment and evaluation. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between self-efficacy perception and the attitudes of prospective teachers towards assessment and evaluation and what kind of differences these issues have in terms of a variety of demographic variables. The study group consisted of 277 prospective teachers who have been studying in different departments of Marmara University, Faculty of Education. In this study, ‘Personal Information Form’, ‘A Perceptual Scale for Measurement and Evaluation of Prospective Teachers Self-Efficacy in Education’ and ‘Attitudes toward Educational Measurement Inventory’ are applied. As a result, positive correlation was found between self-efficacy perceptions and the attitudes of prospective teachers towards assessment and evaluation. Considering different departments, there is a significant difference between the mean score of attitudes of prospective teachers and between the mean score of self-efficacy perceptions of them. However, considering variables of attending statistics class and the class types at the graduated high school, there is no significant difference between the mean score of attitudes of prospective teachers and between the mean score of self-efficacy perceptions of them.

Keywords: Perception, Self-efficacy, attitude, prospective teacher

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