Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Self-Compacting Concrete Related Abstracts

17 Performance of Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Different Pozzolanic Materials

Authors: Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Nasir Shafiq, Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Ali Elheber Ahmed


Steel fiber adds to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) to enhance it is properties and achieves the requirement. This research work focus on the using of different percentage of steel fiber in SCC mixture contains fly ash and microwave incinerator rice husk ash (MIRHA) as supplementary material. Fibers affect several characteristics of SCC in the fresh and the hardened state. To optimize fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FSCC), The possible fiber content of a given mix composition is an essential input parameter. The aim of the research is to study the properties of fiber reinforced self–compacting (FRSCC) and to develop the expert system/computer program of mix proportion for calculating the steel fiber content and pozzolanic replacement that can be applied to investigate the compressive strength of FSCC mix.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh taste

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16 Flexural Fatigue Performance of Self-Compacting Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Surinder Pal Singh, Sanjay Goel


The paper presents results of an investigation conducted to study the flexural fatigue characteristics of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Self Compacting Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SCFRC). In total 360 flexural fatigue tests and 270 static flexural strength tests were conducted on SCC and SCFRC specimens to obtain the fatigue test data. The variability in the distribution of fatigue life of SCC and SCFRC have been analyzed and compared with that of NVC and NVFRC containing steel fibres of comparable size and shape. The experimental coefficients of fatigue equations have been estimated to represent relationship between stress level (S) and fatigue life (N) for SCC and SCFRC containing different fibre volume fractions. The probability of failure (Pf) has been incorporated in S-N relationships to obtain families of S-N-Pf relationships. A good agreement between the predicted curves and those obtained from the test data has been observed. The fatigue performance of SCC and SCFRC has been evaluated in terms of two-million cycles fatigue strength/endurance limit. The theoretic fatigue lives were also estimated using single-log fatigue equation for 10% probability of failure to estimate the enhanced extent of theoretic fatigue lives of SCFRC with reference to SCC and NVC. The reduction in variability in the fatigue life, increased endurance limit and increased theoretiac fatigue lives demonstrates an overall better fatigue performance for SCC and SCFRC.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, Fatigue Life, fibre, probability of failure

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15 A Study on the Influence of Internal Sulfate on the Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Abbas S. Al-Ameeri Rawaa H. Issa


The internal sulfate attack is considered as a very important problem of concrete manufacture in Iraq and Middle East countries. Sulfate drastically influences the properties of concrete. This experimental study is aimed at investigating the effect of internal sulfates on fresh and some of the hardened properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) made from locally available materials. Tests were conducted on five mixes, with five SO3 levels (3.9, 5, 6, 7 and 8) (% by wt. of cement). The last four SO3 levels are outside the limits of the Iraqi specifications (IQS NO.45/1984). The results indicated that sulfate passively influenced the fresh properties such as decreased workability, and effect on hardened properties of the self compacting concrete. Also, the result indicated the optimum SO3 content which gives maximum strength and little tendency to expanding, which showed up at a content equal to 5% (by wt of cement), is more than acceptable limits of Iraqi specifications. Further increase in sulfates content in concrete after this optimum value showed a considerable reduction in mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete, and increment in expansion of concrete. The percentages of reduction in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity at their later age were ranged between 10.89-36.14%, 12.90-33.33%, 7.98-36.35%, 16.36 -38.37% and 1.03-10.88% respectively.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, Sulfate Attack, internal sulfate attack, fresh properties, harden properties, optimum SO3 content

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14 The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concretes

Authors: Akram Salah Eddine Belaidi, Said Kenai, El-Hadj Kadri, Benchaâ Benabed, Hamza Soualhi


Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was developed in the middle of the 1980’s in Japan. SCC flows alone under its dead weight and consolidates itself without any entry of additional compaction energy and without segregation. As an integral part of a SCC, self-compacting mortars (SCM) may serve as a basis for the mix design of concrete since the measurement of the rheological properties of SCCs. This paper discusses the effect of using natural pozzolana (PZ) and marble powder (MP) in two alternative systems ratios PZ/MP = 1 and 1/3 of the performance of the SCC. A total of 11 SCC’s were prepared having a constant water-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.40 and total cementitious materials content of 475 kg/m3. Then, the fresh properties of the mortars were tested for mini-slump flow diameter and mini-V-funnel flow time for SCMs and Slumps flow test, L-Box height ratio, V-Funnel flow time and sieve stability for SCC. Moreover, the development in the compressive strength was determined at 3, 7, 28, 56, and 90 days. Test results have shown that using of ternary blends improved the fresh properties of the mixtures. The compressive strength of SCC at 90 days with 30% of PZ and MP was similar to those of ordinary concrete use in situ.

Keywords: Rheology, Self-Compacting Concrete, compressive strength, self-compacting mortar, natural pozzolana, marble powder

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13 Prediction Compressive Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Fly Ash Using Fuzzy Logic Inference System

Authors: Belalia Douma Omar, Bakhta Boukhatem, Mohamed Ghrici


Self-compacting concrete (SCC) developed in Japan in the late 80s has enabled the construction industry to reduce demand on the resources, improve the work condition and also reduce the impact of environment by elimination of the need for compaction. Fuzzy logic (FL) approaches has recently been used to model some of the human activities in many areas of civil engineering applications. Especially from these systems in the model experimental studies, very good results have been obtained. In the present study, a model for predicting compressive strength of SCC containing various proportions of fly ash, as partial replacement of cement has been developed by using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). For the purpose of building this model, a database of experimental data were gathered from the literature and used for training and testing the model. The used data as the inputs of fuzzy logic models are arranged in a format of five parameters that cover the total binder content, fly ash replacement percentage, water content, super plasticizer and age of specimens. The training and testing results in the fuzzy logic model have shown a strong potential for predicting the compressive strength of SCC containing fly ash in the considered range.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, fly ash, Self-Compacting Concrete, strength prediction

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12 Effect of Strength Class of Concrete and Curing Conditions on Capillary Water Absorption of Self-Compacting and Conventional Concrete

Authors: Remzi Sahin, E. Ebru Demirci


The purpose of this study is to compare Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Conventional Concrete (CC) in terms of their capillary water absorption. During the comparison of SCC and CC, the effects of two different factors were also investigated: concrete strength class and curing condition. In the study, both SCC and CC were produced in three different concrete classes (C25, C50 and C70) and the other parameter (i.e curing condition) was determined as two levels: moisture and air curing. It was observed that, for both curing environments and all strength classes of concrete, SCCs had lower capillary water absorption values than that of CCs. It was also detected that, for both SCC and CC, capillary water absorption values of samples kept in moisture curing were significantly lower than that of samples stored in air curing. Additionally, it was determined that capillary water absorption values for both SCC and CC decrease with increasing strength class of concrete for both curing environments.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, reinforced concrete beam, curing condition, capillary water absorption

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11 A Critical Study of the Performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) Using Locally Supplied Materials in Bahrain

Authors: A. Umar, A. Tamimi


Development of new types of concrete with improved performance is a very important issue for the whole building industry. The development is based on the optimization of the concrete mix design, with an emphasis not only on the workability and mechanical properties but also to the durability and the reliability of the concrete structure in general. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a high-performance material designed to flow into formwork under its own weight and without the aid of mechanical vibration. At the same time it is cohesive enough to fill spaces of almost any size and shape without segregation or bleeding. Construction time is shorter and production of SCC is environmentally friendly (no noise, no vibration). Furthermore, SCC produces a good surface finish. Despite these advantages, SCC has not gained much local acceptance though it has been promoted in the Middle East for the last ten to twelve years. The reluctance in utilizing the advantages of SCC, in Bahrain, may be due to lack of research or published data pertaining to locally produced SCC. Therefore, there is a need to conduct studies on SCC using locally available material supplies. From the literature, it has been observed that the use of viscosity modifying admixtures (VMA), micro silica and glass fibers have proved to be very effective in stabilizing the rheological properties and the strength of fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Therefore, in the present study, it is proposed to carry out investigations of SCC with combinations of various dosages of VMAs with and without micro silica and glass fibers and to study their influence on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete.

Keywords: Glass Fibers, Self-Compacting Concrete, viscosity modifying admixture, micro silica

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10 Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Mixed with Fly Ash

Authors: Abhinandan Singh Gill, Gurbir Kaur Jawanda


Since the introduction of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in Japan during the late 1980’s, acceptance and usage of this concrete in the construction industry has been steadily gaining momentum. In the United States, the usage of SCC has been spearheaded by the precast concrete industry. Good SCC must possess the following key fresh properties: filling ability, passing ability, and resistance to segregation. Self-compacting concrete is one of 'the most revolutionary developments' in concrete research; this concrete is able to flow and to fill the most restocked places of the form work without vibration. There are several methods for testing its properties. In the fresh state: the most frequently used are slump flow test, L box and V-funnel. This work presents properties of self-compacting concrete, mixed with fly ash. The test results for acceptance characteristics of self-compacting concrete such as slump flow; V-funnel and L-Box are presented. Further, the compressive strength at the ages of 7, 28 days was also determined and results are included here.

Keywords: fly ash, Self-Compacting Concrete, compressive strength, super plasticizer, slump flow test

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9 Compressive and Torsional Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Moosa Mazloom, Morteza Mehrvand


The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of silica fume and super plasticizer dosages on compressive and torsional properties of SCC. This work concentrated on concrete mixes having water/binder ratios of 0.45 and 0.35, which contained constant total binder contents of 400 kg/m3 and 500 kg/m3, respectively. The percentages of silica fume that replaced cement were 0 % and 10 %. The super plasticizer dosages utilized in the mixtures were 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.2 % and 1.6 % of the weight of cement. Prism dimensions used in this test were 10 × 10 × 40 cm3. The results of this research indicated that torsional strength of SCC prisms can be calculated using the equations presented in Canadian and American concrete building codes.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, rectangular prism, torsional strength

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8 Evaluation of the Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Sustainable Concrete Exposed to Acid Solution

Authors: Adil Tamimi


Limestone powder is a natural material that is available in many parts of the world. In this research self-compacting concrete was designed and prepared using limestone powder. The resulted concrete was exposed to the hydrochloric acid solution and compared with reference concrete. Mechanical properties of both fresh and hardened concrete have been evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscopy “SEM” has been unitized to analyse the morphological development of the hydration products. In sulphuric acid solution, a large formation of gypsum was detected in both samples of self-compacting concrete and conventional concrete. The Higher amount of thaumasite and ettringite was also detected in the SCC sample. In hydrochloric acid solution, monochloroaluminate was detected.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Mechanical Properties, acid solution

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7 Formulation and Physico-Mechanical Characterization of a Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Seashells as an Addition Material

Authors: Brahim Safi, Mohammed Saidi, A. Benmounah, Jozef Mitterpach


The aim of this work is to study the rheological and physico-mechanical properties of a self-compacting concrete elaborated with sea shells as an addition cementitious (total replacement of limestone fillers) and sand (partial and total substitution fine aggregate). Also, this present study is registered in the context of sustainable development by using this waste type which caused environmental problems. After preparation the crushed shells (obtaining fine aggregate) and finely crushed shells (obtaining end powder), concretes were manufactured using these two products. Rheological characterization tests (fluidity, filling capacity and segregation) and physico-mechanical properties (density and strength) were carried on these concretes. The results obtained show that it can be used as fin addition (by total replacement of limestone) or also used as sand by total substitution of natural sand.

Keywords: Sand, Self-Compacting Concrete, compressive strength, flexural strength, limestone, fluidity, seashells

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6 Incorporation of Coarse Rubber Aggregates in the Formulation of Self-Compacting Concrete: Optimization and Characterization

Authors: Zaoiai Said, Makani Abdelkadir, Tafraoui Ahmed


Concrete material suffers from a relatively low tensile strength and deformation capacity is limited. Such defects of the concrete are very fragile and sensitive to shrinkage cracking materials. The Self- Compacting Concrete (SCC) are highly fluid concretes whose implementation without vibration. This material replaces traditional vibrated concrete mainly seen techno-economic interest it presents. The SCC has several advantages which are at the origin of their development crunching. The research is therefore to conduct a comparison in terms of rheological and mechanical performance between different formulations to find the optimal dosage for rubber granulates. Through this research, we demonstrated that it is possible to make different settings SCC composition having good rheological and mechanical properties. This study also showed that the substitution of natural coarse aggregates (NA) by coarse rubber aggregates (RA) in the composition of the SCC, contributes to a slight variation of workability in the fresh state parameters still remaining in the field of SCC required by the AFGC recommendations. The experimental results show that the compressive strengths of SCC decreased slightly by substituting NA by RA. Finally, the decrease in free shrinkage is proportional to the percentage of RA incorporated into the composition of concrete. This reduction is mainly due to the improvement of the deformability of these materials.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, shrinkage, mechanical performance, rheological characterization, coarse rubber aggregate

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5 The Investigation of Fiber Reinforcement Self-Compacting Concrete and Fiber Reinforcement Concrete

Authors: Orod Zarrin, Mohesn Ramezan Shirazi, Hassan Moniri


The use of pile foundations technique is developed to support structures and buildings on soft soil. The most important dynamic load that can affect the pile structure is earthquake vibrations. From the 1960s the comprehensive investigation of pile foundations during earthquake excitation indicate that, piles are subject to damage by affecting the superstructure integrity and serviceability. The main part of these research has been focused on the behavior of liquefiable soil and lateral spreading load on piles. During an earthquake, two types of stresses can damage the pile head, inertial load that is caused by superstructure and deformation which caused by the surrounding soil. Soil deformation and inertial load are associated with the acceleration developed in an earthquake. The acceleration amplitude at the ground surface depends on the magnitude of earthquakes, soil properties and seismic source distance. According to the investigation, the damage is between the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers and also soft and stiff layers. This damage crushes the pile head by increasing the inertial load which is applied by the superstructure. On the other hand, the cracks on the piles due to the surrounding soil are directly related to the soil profile and causes cracks from small to large. And researchers have been listed the large cracks reason such as liquefaction, lateral spreading and inertial load. In the field of designing, elastic response of piles are always a challenge for designer in liquefaction soil, by allowing deflection at top of piles. Moreover, absence of plastic hinges in piles should be insured, because the damage in the piles is not observed directly. In this study, the performance and behavior of pile foundations during liquefaction and lateral spreading are investigated. And emphasize on the soil behavior in the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers by different aspect of piles damage such as ranking, location and degree of damage are going to discuss.

Keywords: Fiber, Self-Compacting Concrete, Tensile Strength, post-cracking, direct and inverse technique

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4 An Experimental Study on Service Life Prediction of Self: Compacting Concrete Using Sorptivity as a Durability Index

Authors: S. Girish, N. Ajay


Permeation properties have been widely used to quantify durability characteristics of concrete for assessing long term performance and sustainability. The processes of deterioration in concrete are mediated largely by water. There is a strong interest in finding a better way of assessing the material properties of concrete in terms of durability. Water sorptivity is a useful single material property which can be one of the measures of durability useful in service life planning and prediction, especially in severe environmental conditions. This paper presents the results of the comparative study of sorptivity of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) with conventionally vibrated concrete. SCC is a new, special type of concrete mixture, characterized by high resistance to segregation that can flow through intricate geometrical configuration in the presence of reinforcement, under its own mass, without vibration and compaction. SCC mixes were developed for the paste contents of 0.38, 0.41 and 0.43 with fly ash as the filler for different cement contents ranging from 300 to 450 kg/m3. The study shows better performance by SCC in terms of capillary absorption. The sorptivity value decreased as the volume of paste increased. The use of higher paste content in SCC can make the concrete robust with better densification of the micro-structure, improving the durability and making the concrete more sustainable with improved long term performance. The sorptivity based on secondary absorption can be effectively used as a durability index to predict the time duration required for the ingress of water to penetrate the concrete, which has practical significance.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, Service Life Prediction, sorptivity, volume of paste

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3 Evaluation of Fresh, Strength and Durability Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Bagasse Ash

Authors: Abdul Haseeb Wani, Shruti Sharma, Rafat Siddique


Self-compacting concrete is an engineered concrete that flows and de-airs without additional energy input. Such concrete requires a high slump which can be achieved by the addition of superplasticizers to the concrete mix. In the present work, bagasse ash is utilised as a replacement of cement in self-compacting concrete. This serves the purpose of both land disposal and environmental concerns related to the disposal of bagasse ash. Further, an experimental program was carried out to study the fresh, strength, and durability properties of self-compacting concrete made with bagasse ash. The mixes were prepared with four percentages (0, 5, 10 and 15) of bagasse ash as partial replacement of cement. Properties investigated were; Slump-flow, V-funnel and L-box, Compressive strength, Splitting tensile strength, Chloride-ion penetration resistance and Water absorption. Compressive and splitting tensile strength tests were conducted at the age of 7 and 28 days. Rapid chloride-ion permeability test was carried at the age of 28 days and water absorption test was carried out at the age of 7 days after initial curing of 28 days. Test results showed that there is an increase in the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete specimens having up to 10% replacement level, however, there is a slight decrease at 15% level of replacement. Resistance to chloride-ion penetration of the specimens increased as the percentage of replacement was increased. The charge passed in all the specimens containing bagasse ash was lower than that of the specimen without bagasse ash. Water absorption of the specimens decreased up to 10% replacement level and increased at 15% level of replacement. Hence, it can be concluded that optimum level of replacement of cement with bagasse ash in self-compacting concrete comes out to be 10%; at which the self-compacting concrete has satisfactory flow characteristics (as per the European guidelines), improved compressive and splitting tensile strength and better durability properties as compared to the control mix.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, bagasse ash

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2 Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Replacing 20% Cement by Fly Ash

Authors: Suman Kumar Adhikary, Zymantus Rudzionis, Arvind Balakrishnan


This paper deals with the behavior of concrete’s workability in a fresh state and compressive and flexural strength in a hardened state with the addition of polyolefin macro fibers. Four different amounts (3kg/m3, 4.5kg/m3, 6kg/m3 and 9kg/m3) of polyolefin macro fibers mixed in concrete mixture to observe the workability and strength properties difference between the concrete specimens. 20% class C type fly ash added is the concrete as replacement of cement. The water-cement ratio(W/C) of those concrete mix was 0.35. Masterglenium SKY 700 superplasticizer was added to the concrete mixture for better results. Slump test was carried out for determining the flowability. On 7th, 14th and 28th day of curing process compression strength tests were done and on 28th day flexural strength test and CMOD test were carried to differentiate the strength properties and post-cracking behavior of concrete samples.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, polyolefin fibers, CMOD test of concrete

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1 Optimization in the Compressive Strength of Iron Slag Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Luis E. Zapata, Sergio Ruiz, María F. Mantilla, Jhon A. Villamizar


Sand as fine aggregate for concrete production needs a feasible substitute due to several environmental issues. In this work, a study of the behavior of self-compacting concrete mixtures under replacement of sand by iron slag from 0.0% to 50.0% of weight and variations of water/cementitious material ratio between 0.3 and 0.5 is presented. Control fresh state tests of Slump flow, T500, J-ring and L-box were determined. In the hardened state, compressive strength was determined and optimization from response surface analysis was performed. The study of the variables in the hardened state was developed based on inferential statistical analyses using central composite design methodology and posterior analyses of variance (ANOVA). An increase in the compressive strength up to 50% higher than control mixtures at 7, 14, and 28 days of maturity was the most relevant result regarding the presence of iron slag as replacement of natural sand. Considering the obtained result, it is possible to infer that iron slag is an acceptable alternative replacement material of the natural fine aggregate to be used in structural concrete.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, ANOVA, response surface analysis, iron slag

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