Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Selective Laser Melting Related Abstracts

14 Influence of Internal Topologies on Components Produced by Selective Laser Melting: Numerical Analysis

Authors: C. Malça, P. Gonçalves, N. Alves, A. Mateus

Abstract:

Regardless of the manufacturing process used, subtractive or additive, material, purpose and application, produced components are conventionally solid mass with more or less complex shape depending on the production technology selected. Aspects such as reducing the weight of components, associated with the low volume of material required and the almost non-existent material waste, speed and flexibility of production and, primarily, a high mechanical strength combined with high structural performance, are competitive advantages in any industrial sector, from automotive, molds, aviation, aerospace, construction, pharmaceuticals, medicine and more recently in human tissue engineering. Such features, properties and functionalities are attained in metal components produced using the additive technique of Rapid Prototyping from metal powders commonly known as Selective Laser Melting (SLM), with optimized internal topologies and varying densities. In order to produce components with high strength and high structural and functional performance, regardless of the type of application, three different internal topologies were developed and analyzed using numerical computational tools. The developed topologies were numerically submitted to mechanical compression and four point bending testing. Finite Element Analysis results demonstrate how different internal topologies can contribute to improve mechanical properties, even with a high degree of porosity relatively to fully dense components. Results are very promising not only from the point of view of mechanical resistance, but especially through the achievement of considerable variation in density without loss of structural and functional high performance.

Keywords: Rapid prototyping, Additive manufacturing, Selective Laser Melting, porosity, internal topologies

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13 Wear Behavior and Microstructure of Eutectic Al - Si Alloys Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Nan KANG, Pierre Coddet, Hanlin Liao, Christian Coddet

Abstract:

In this study, the almost dense eutectic Al-12Si alloys were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) from the powder mixture of pure Aluminum and pure Silicon, which show the mean particle sizes of 30 μm and 5μm respectively, under the argon environment. The image analysis shows that the highest value of relative density (95 %) was measured for the part obtained at the laser power of 280 W. X ray diffraction (XRD), Optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to determine the microstructures of the SLM-processed Al-Si alloy, which illustrate that the SLM samples present the ultra-fine microstructure. The XRD results indicate that no clearly phase transformation happened during the SLM process. Additionally, the vaporization behavior of Aluminum was detected for the parts obtained at high laser power. Besides, the maximum microhardness value, about 95 Hv, was measured for the samples obtained at laser power of 280 W, and which shows the highest wear resistance.

Keywords: Microstructure, Selective Laser Melting, wear behavior, al-Si alloy

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12 TA6V Selective Laser Melting as an Innovative Method Produce Complex Shapes

Authors: Rafał Kamiński, Joel Rech, Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Desrayaud

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing is a hot topic for industry. Among the additive techniques, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) becomes even more popular, especially for making parts for aerospace applications, thanks to its design freedom (customized and light structures) and its reduced time to market. However, some functional surfaces have to be machined to achieve small tolerances and low surface roughness to fulfill industry specifications. The complex shapes designed for SLM (ex: titanium turbine blades) necessitate the use of ball end milling operations like in the conventional process after forging. However, the metallurgical state of TA6V is very different from the one obtained usually from forging, because of the laser sintering layer by layer. So this paper aims to investigate the influence of new TA6V metallurgies produced by SLM on the machinability in ball end milling. Machinability is considered as the property of a material to obtain easily and by a cheap way a functional surface. This means, for instance, the property to limit cutting tool wear rate and to get smooth surfaces. So as to reach this objective, SLM parts have been produced and heat treated with various conditions leading to various metallurgies that are compared with a standard equiaxed α+β wrought microstructure. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, tool wear and cutting forces for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut 'ap', feed per tooth 'fz', spindle speed 'N') in accordance with industrial practices. This work has revealed that TA6V produced by SLM can lead to a better machinability that standard wrought alloys.

Keywords: Titanium, Wear, Selective Laser Melting, surface roughness, ball milling

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11 Optimising Post-Process Heat Treatments of Selective Laser Melting-Produced Ti-6Al-4V Parts to Achieve Superior Mechanical Properties

Authors: Gerrit Ter Haar, Thorsten Becker, Deborah Blaine

Abstract:

The Additive Manufacturing (AM) process of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) has seen an exponential growth in sales and development in the past fifteen years. Whereas the capability of SLM was initially limited to rapid prototyping, progress in research and development (R&D) has allowed SLM to be capable of fully functional parts. This technology is still at a primitive stage and technical knowledge of the vast number of variables influencing final part quality is limited. Ongoing research and development of the sensitive printing process and post processes is of utmost importance in order to qualify SLM parts to meet international standards. Quality concerns in Ti-6Al-4V manufactured through SLM has been identified, which include: high residual stresses, part porosity, low ductility and anisotropic mechanical properties. Whereas significant quality improvements have been made through optimising printing parameters, research indicates as-produced part ductility to be a major limiting factor when compared to its wrought counterpart. This study aims at achieving an in-depth understanding of the underlining links between SLM produced Ti-6Al-4V microstructure and its mechanical properties. Knowledge of microstructural transformation kinetics of Ti-6Al-4V allows for the optimisation of post-process heat treatments thereby achieving the required process route to manufacture high quality SLM produced Ti-6Al-4V parts. Experimental methods used to evaluate the kinematics of microstructural transformation of SLM Ti-6Al-4V are: optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Results show that a low-temperature heat treatment is capable of transforming the as-produced, martensitic microstructure into a duel-phase microstructure exhibiting both a high strength and improved ductility. Furthermore, isotropy of mechanical properties can be achieved through certain annealing routes. Mechanical properties identical to that of wrought Ti-6Al-4V can, therefore, be achieved through an optimised process route.

Keywords: Microstructural characterisation, Tensile Behaviour, Selective Laser Melting, heat treatments, Ti-6Al-4V, EBSD analysis

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10 FEM Simulations to Study the Effects of Laser Power and Scan Speed on Molten Pool Size in Additive Manufacturing

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, Yee-Ting Lee, Jyun-Rong Zhuang

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly crucial in biomedical and aerospace industries. As a recently developed AM technique, selective laser melting (SLM) has become a commercial method for various manufacturing processes. However, the molten pool configuration during SLM of metal powders is a decisive issue for the product quality. It is very important to investigate the heat transfer characteristics during the laser heating process. In this work, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS® (work bench module 16.0) was used to predict the unsteady temperature distribution for resolving molten pool dimensions with consideration of temperature-dependent thermal physical properties of TiAl6V4 at different laser powers and scanning speeds. The simulated results of the temperature distributions illustrated that the ratio of laser power to scanning speed can greatly influence the size of molten pool of titanium alloy powder for SLM development.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Finite Element Method, Selective Laser Melting, molten pool dimensions

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9 Study and Fine Characterization of the SS 316L Microstructures Obtained by Laser Beam Melting Process

Authors: Christophe Desrayaud, Sebastien Relave, Aurelien Vilani, Alexey Sova

Abstract:

Laser beam melting (LBM) is an additive manufacturing process that enables complex 3D parts to be designed. This process is now commonly employed for various applications such as chemistry or energy, requiring the use of stainless steel grades. LBM can offer comparable and sometimes superior mechanical properties to those of wrought materials. However, we observed an anisotropic microstructure which results from the process, caused by the very high thermal gradients along the building axis. This microstructure can be harmful depending on the application. For this reason, control and prediction of the microstructure are important to ensure the improvement and reproducibility of the mechanical properties. This study is focused on the 316L SS grade and aims at understanding the solidification and transformation mechanisms during process. Experiments to analyse the nucleation and growth of the microstructure obtained by the LBM process according to several conditions. These samples have been designed on different type of support bulk and lattice. Samples are produced on ProX DMP 200 LBM device. For the two conditions the analysis of microstructures, thanks to SEM and EBSD, revealed a single phase Austenite with preferential crystallite growth along the (100) plane. The microstructure was presented a hierarchical structure consisting columnar grains sizes in the range of 20-100 µm and sub grains structure of size 0.5 μm. These sub-grains were found in different shapes (columnar and cellular). This difference can be explained by a variation of the thermal gradient and cooling rate or element segregation while no sign of element segregation was found at the sub-grain boundaries. A high dislocation concentration was observed at sub-grain boundaries. These sub-grains are separated by very low misorientation walls ( < 2°) this causes a lattice of curvature inside large grain. A discussion is proposed on the occurrence of these microstructures formation, in regard of the LBM process conditions.

Keywords: Microstructure, Selective Laser Melting, stainless steel

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8 Corrosion Resistance of 17-4 Precipitation Hardenable Stainless Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Michella Alnajjar, Frederic Christien, Krzysztof Wolski, Cedric Bosch

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) has gained more interest in the past few years because it allows 3D parts often having a complex geometry to be directly fabricated, layer by layer according to a CAD model. One of the AM techniques is the selective laser melting (SLM) which is based on powder bed fusion. In this work, the corrosion resistance of 17-4 PH steel obtained by SLM is investigated. Wrought 17-4 PH steel is a martensitic precipitation hardenable stainless steel. It is widely used in a variety of applications such as aerospace, medical and food industries, due to its high strength and relatively good corrosion resistance. However, the combined findings of X-Ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) proved that SLM-ed 17-4 PH steel has a fully ferritic microstructure, more specifically δ ferrite. The microstructure consists of coarse ferritic grains elongated along the build direction, with a pronounced solidification crystallographic texture. These results were associated with the high cooling and heating rates experienced throughout the SLM process (10⁵-10⁶ K/s) that suppressed the austenite formation and produced a 'by-passing' phenomenon of this phase during the numerous thermal cycles. Furthermore, EDS measurements revealed a uniform distribution of elements without any dendritic structure. The extremely high cooling kinetics induced a diffusionless solidification, resulting in a homogeneous elemental composition. Consequently, the corrosion properties of this steel are altered from that of conventional ones. By using electrochemical means, it was found that SLM-ed 17-4 PH is more resistant to general corrosion than the wrought steel. However, the SLM-ed material exhibits metastable pitting due to its high porosity density. In addition, the hydrogen embrittlement of SLM-ed 17-4 PH steel is investigated, and a correlation between its behavior and the observed microstructure is made.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, Selective Laser Melting, Hydrogen embrittlement

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7 Investigation on the Cooling Performance of Cooling Channels Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting for Injection Molding

Authors: Feng Xu, Changyong Liu, Junda Tong, Ninggui Huang

Abstract:

In the injection molding process, the performance of cooling channels is crucial to the part quality. Through the application of conformal cooling channels fabricated via metal additive manufacturing, part distortion, warpage can be greatly reduced and cycle time can be greatly shortened. However, the properties of additively manufactured conformal cooling channels are quite different from conventional drilling processes such as the poorer dimensional accuracy and larger surface roughness. These features have significant influences on its cooling performance. In this study, test molds with the cooling channel diameters of φ2 mm, φ3 mm and φ4 mm were fabricated via selective laser melting and conventional drilling process respectively. A test system was designed and manufactured to measure the pressure difference between the channel inlet and outlet, the coolant flow rate and the temperature variation during the heating process. It was found that the cooling performance of SLM-fabricated channels was poorer than drilled cooling channels due to the smaller sectional area of cooling channels resulted from the low dimensional accuracy and the unmolten particles adhered to the channel surface. Theoretical models were established to determine the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient of SLM-fabricated cooling channels. These findings may provide guidance to the design of conformal cooling channels.

Keywords: Selective Laser Melting, injection molding, cooling performance, conformal cooling channels

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6 Production of Metal Powder Using Twin Arc Spraying Process for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: H. Daoud, D. Chen, C. Kreiner, U. Glatzel

Abstract:

Additive Manufacturing (AM) provides promising opportunities to optimize and to produce tooling by integrating near-contour tempering channels for more efficient cooling. To enhance the properties of the produced tooling using additive manufacturing, prototypes should be produced in short periods. Thereby, this requires a small amount of tailored powders, which either has a high production cost or is commercially unavailable. Hence, in this study, an arc spray atomization approach to produce a tailored metal powder at a lower cost and even in small quantities, in comparison to the conventional powder production methods, was proposed. This approach involves converting commercially available metal wire into powder by modifying the wire arc spraying process. The influences of spray medium and gas pressure on the powder properties were investigated. As a result, particles with smooth surface and lower porosity were obtained, when nonoxidizing gases are used for thermal spraying. The particle size decreased with increasing of the gas pressure, and the particles sizes are in the range from 10 to 70 µm, which is desirable for selective laser melting (SLM). A comparison of microstructure and mechanical behavior of SLM generated parts using arc sprayed powders (alloy: X5CrNiCuNb 16-4) and commercial powder (alloy: X5CrNiCuNb 16-4) was also conducted.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Powder Production, Selective Laser Melting, arc spraying

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5 Non-Destructive Testing of Selective Laser Melting Products

Authors: Luca Collini, Michele Antolotti, Diego Schiavi

Abstract:

At present, complex geometries within production time shrinkage, rapidly increasing demand, and high-quality standard requirement make the non-destructive (ND) control of additively manufactured components indispensable means. On the other hand, a technology gap and the lack of standards regulating the methods and the acceptance criteria indicate the NDT of these components a stimulating field to be still fully explored. Up to date, penetrant testing, acoustic wave, tomography, radiography, and semi-automated ultrasound methods have been tested on metal powder based products so far. External defects, distortion, surface porosity, roughness, texture, internal porosity, and inclusions are the typical defects in the focus of testing. Detection of density and layers compactness are also been tried on stainless steels by the ultrasonic scattering method. In this work, the authors want to present and discuss the radiographic and the ultrasound ND testing on additively manufactured Ti₆Al₄V and inconel parts obtained by the selective laser melting (SLM) technology. In order to test the possibilities given by the radiographic method, both X-Rays and γ-Rays are tried on a set of specifically designed specimens realized by the SLM. The specimens contain a family of defectology, which represent the most commonly found, as cracks and lack of fusion. The tests are also applied to real parts of various complexity and thickness. A set of practical indications and of acceptance criteria is finally drawn.

Keywords: Radiography, Non-Destructive Testing, Selective Laser Melting, UT method

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4 Influence of Selected Finishing Technologies on the Roughness Parameters of Stainless Steel Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Method

Authors: J. Kratochvil, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, J. Hajnys, P. Stefek, J. Mesicek

Abstract:

The new progressive method of 3D metal printing SLM (Selective Laser Melting) is increasingly expanded into the normal operation. As a result, greater demands are placed on the surface quality of the parts produced in this way. The article deals with research of selected finishing methods (tumbling, face milling, sandblasting, shot peening and brushing) and their impact on the final surface roughness. The 20 x 20 x 7 mm produced specimens using SLM additive technology on the Renishaw AM400 were subjected to testing of these finishing methods by adjusting various parameters. Surface parameters of roughness Sa, Sz were chosen as the evaluation criteria and profile parameters Ra, Rz were used as additional measurements. Optical measurement of surface roughness was performed on Alicona Infinite Focus 5. An experiment conducted to optimize the surface roughness revealed, as expected, that the best roughness parameters were achieved through a face milling operation. Tumbling is particularly suitable for 3D printing components, as tumbling media are able to reach even complex shapes and, after changing to polishing bodies, achieve a high surface gloss. Surface quality after tumbling depends on the process time. Other methods with satisfactory results are shot peening and tumbling, which should be the focus of further research.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Selective Laser Melting, surface roughness, stainless steel, SLM

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3 Macroscopic Support Structure Design for the Tool-Free Support Removal of Laser Powder Bed Fusion-Manufactured Parts Made of AlSi10Mg

Authors: Tobias Schmithuesen, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum

Abstract:

The additive manufacturing process laser powder bed fusion offers many advantages over conventional manufacturing processes. For example, almost any complex part can be produced, such as topologically optimized lightweight parts, which would be inconceivable with conventional manufacturing processes. A major challenge posed by the LPBF process, however, is, in most cases, the need to use and remove support structures on critically inclined part surfaces (α < 45 ° regarding substrate plate). These are mainly used for dimensionally accurate mapping of part contours and to reduce distortion by absorbing process-related internal stresses. Furthermore, they serve to transfer the process heat to the substrate plate and are, therefore, indispensable for the LPBF process. A major challenge for the economical use of the LPBF process in industrial process chains is currently still the high manual effort involved in removing support structures. According to the state of the art (SoA), the parts are usually treated by simple hand tools (e.g., pliers, chisels) or by machining (e.g., milling, turning). New automatable approaches are the removal of support structures by means of wet chemical ablation and thermal deburring. According to the state of the art, the support structures are essentially adapted to the LPBF process and not to potential post-processing steps. The aim of this study is the determination of support structure designs that are adapted to the mentioned post-processing approaches. In the first step, the essential boundary conditions for complete removal by means of the respective approaches are identified. Afterward, a representative demonstrator part with various macroscopic support structure designs will be LPBF-manufactured and tested with regard to a complete powder and support removability. Finally, based on the results, potentially suitable support structure designs for the respective approaches will be derived. The investigations are carried out on the example of the aluminum alloy AlSi10Mg.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Selective Laser Melting, Aluminum Alloy, laser powder bed fusion, laser beam melting, post processing, tool-free, wet chemical ablation, thermal deburring, AlSi10Mg

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2 Investigation of Mechanical and Tribological Property of Graphene Reinforced SS-316L Matrix Composite Prepared by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Ajay Mandal, A. K. Srivastava, Jitendar Kumar Tiwari, N. Sathish

Abstract:

A fundamental investigation is performed on the development of graphene (Gr) reinforced stainless steel 316L (SS 316L) metal matrix composite via selective laser melting (SLM) in order to improve specific strength and wear resistance property of SS 316L. Firstly, SS 316L powder and graphene were mixed in a fixed ratio using low energy planetary ball milling. The milled powder is then subjected to the SLM process to fabricate composite samples at a laser power of 320 W and exposure time of 100 µs. The prepared composite was mechanically tested (hardness and tensile test) at ambient temperature, and obtained results indicate that the properties of the composite increased significantly with the addition of 0.2 wt. % Gr. Increment of about 25% (from 194 to 242 HV) and 70% (from 502 to 850 MPa) is obtained in hardness and yield strength of composite, respectively. Raman mapping and XRD were performed to see the distribution of Gr in the matrix and its effect on the formation of carbide, respectively. Results of Raman mapping show the uniform distribution of graphene inside the matrix. Electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) map of the prepared composite was analyzed under FESEM in order to understand the microstructure and grain orientation. Due to thermal gradient, elongated grains were observed along the building direction, and grains get finer with the addition of Gr. Most of the mechanical components are subjected to several types of wear conditions. Therefore, it is very necessary to improve the wear property of the component, and hence apart from strength and hardness, a tribological property of composite was also measured under dry sliding condition. Solid lubrication property of Gr plays an important role during the sliding process due to which the wear rate of composite reduces up to 58%. Also, the surface roughness of worn surface reduces up to 70% as measured by 3D surface profilometry. Finally, it can be concluded that SLM is an efficient method of fabricating cutting edge metal matrix nano-composite having Gr like reinforcement, which was very difficult to fabricate through conventional manufacturing techniques. Prepared composite has superior mechanical and tribological properties and can be used for a wide variety of engineering applications. However, due to the unavailability of a considerable amount of literature in a similar domain, more experimental works need to perform, such as thermal property analysis, and is a part of ongoing study.

Keywords: Graphene, Composite, Selective Laser Melting, mechanical property, tribological property

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1 Microstructure of Ti – AlN Composite Produced by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Jaroslaw Mizera, Pawel Wisniewski, Ryszard Sitek

Abstract:

Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an advanced additive manufacturing technique used for producing parts made of wide range of materials such as: austenitic steel, titanium, nickel etc. In the our experiment we produced a Ti-AlN composite from a mixture of titanium and aluminum nitride respectively 70% at. and 30% at. using SLM technique. In order to define the size of powder particles, laser diffraction tests were performed on HORIBA LA-950 device. The microstructure and chemical composition of the composite was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition in micro areas of the obtained samples was determined by of EDS. The phase composition was analyzed by X-ray phase analysis (XRD). Microhardness Vickers tests were performed using Zwick/Roell microhardness machine under the load of 0.2kG (HV0.2). Hardness measurements were made along the building (xy) and along the plane of the lateral side of the cuboid (xz). The powder used for manufacturing of the samples had a mean particle size of 41μm. It was homogenous with a spherical shape. The specimens were built chiefly from Ti, TiN and AlN. The dendritic microstructure was porous and fine-grained. Some of the aluminum nitride remained unmelted but no porosity was observed in the interface. The formed material was characterized by high hardness exceeding 700 HV0.2 over the entire cross-section.

Keywords: Composite, Microhardness, Selective Laser Melting, SEM

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