Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

selective catalytic reduction Related Abstracts

7 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam

Abstract:

The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

Keywords: NOx, microkinetic modelling, platinum on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reduction

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6 Numerical Simulation of Urea Water Solution Evaporation Behavior inside the Diesel Selective Catalytic Reduction System

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) converts the nitrogen oxides with the aid of a catalyst by adding aqueous urea into the exhaust stream. In this work, the urea water droplets are sprayed over the exhaust gases by treating with Lagrangian particle tracking. The evaporation of ammonia from a single droplet of urea water solution is investigated computationally by convection-diffusion controlled model. The conversion to ammonia due to thermolysis of urea water droplets is measured downstream at different sections using finite rate/eddy dissipation model. In this paper, the mixer installed at the upstream enhances the distribution of ammonia over the entire domain which is calculated for different time steps. Calculations are made within the respective duration such that the complete decomposition of urea is possible at a much shorter residence time.

Keywords: thermolysis, selective catalytic reduction, convection-diffusion controlled model, lagrangian particle tracking

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5 Effect of Swirling Mixer on the Exhaust Flow in a Diesel SCR Aftertreatment System

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim, In Jae Song

Abstract:

The widespread utilization of mixer in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system marks a remarkable advantage in diesel engines. In the automotive selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, the de-NOX efficiency can be improved by highly uniform flow with effective turbulent mixing. In this paper, the exhaust pipe is complemented with the swirling mixers of three different vane angles installed at the upstream of the SCR reactor. The attributes of the mixer are established by the variation in flow behavior followed by the drawback owing to the absence of mixer. In particular, the information pertaining to the selection of proper static mixer is provided based on the correlation between the uniformity index (UI) and the pressure drop. The uniform distribution of the flow at the entrance of the SCR reactor aids to determine the configuration which gives high mixing performance and comprehend the function of the mixer.

Keywords: pressure drop, selective catalytic reduction, static mixer, turbulent mixing, uniformity index

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4 Numerical Investigation of Flow Characteristics inside the External Gear Pump Using Urea Liquid Medium

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

In selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, the injection system is provided with unique dosing pump to govern the urea injection phenomenon. The urea based operating liquid from the AdBlue tank links up directly with the dosing pump unit to furnish appropriate high pressure for examining the flow characteristics inside the liquid pump. This work aims in demonstrating the importance of external gear pump to provide pertinent high pressure and respective mass flow rate for each rotation. Numerical simulations are conducted using immersed solid method technique for better understanding of unsteady flow characteristics within the pump. Parametric analyses have been carried out for the gear speed and mass flow rate to find the behavior of pressure fluctuations. In the simulation results, the outlet pressure achieves maximum magnitude with the increase in rotational speed and the fluctuations grow higher.

Keywords: selective catalytic reduction, AdBlue tank, external gear pump, immersed solid method

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3 Promotional Effects of Zn in Cu-Zn/Core-Shell Al-MCM-41 for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3: Acidic Properties, NOx Adsorption Properties, and Nature of Copper

Authors: Thidarat Imyen, Paisan Kongkachuichay

Abstract:

Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst with various copper species, prepared by a combination of three methods—substitution, ion-exchange, and impregnation, was studied for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at 300 °C for 150 min. In order to investigate the effects of Zn introduction on the nature of the catalyst, Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 and Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalysts were also studied. The roles of Zn promoter in the acidity and the NOx adsorption properties of the catalysts were investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of NH3 and NOx adsorption, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of NH3 and NOx. The results demonstrated that the acidity of the catalyst was enhanced by the Zn introduction, as exchanged Zn(II) cations loosely bonded with Al-O-Si framework could create Brønsted acid sites by interacting with OH groups. Moreover, Zn species also provided the additional sites for NO adsorption in the form of nitrite (NO2–) and nitrate (NO3–) species, which are the key intermediates for SCR reaction. In addition, the effect of Zn on the nature of copper was studied by in situ FTIR of CO adsorption and in situ X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES). It was found that Zn species hindered the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(0), resulting in higher Cu(I) species in the Zn promoted catalyst. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with that of the Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 for the whole reaction time, as it possesses the highest amount of Cu(I) sites, which are responsible for SCR catalytic activity. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst also reached the maximum NO conversion of 100% with the average NO conversion of 76 %. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was further improved by using Zn promoter in the form of ZnO instead of reduced Zn species. The Cu-ZnO/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst showed better catalytic performance with longer working reaction time, and achieved the average NO conversion of 81%.

Keywords: Copper, zinc, nitrogen oxide, selective catalytic reduction, Al-MCM-41

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2 NOx Abatement by CO with the Use of Grain Catalysts with Active Coating Made of Transition Metal (Cu, Mn, Nb) Oxides Prepared by Electroless Chemical Deposition Method

Authors: Davyd Urbanas, Pranas Baltrenas

Abstract:

It is well-known that, despite the constant increase of alternative energy sources usage, today combustible fuels are still widely used in power engineering. As a result of fuel combustion, significant amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO is a product of incomplete combustion) are supplied to the atmosphere. Also, these pollutants are formed in industry (chemical production, refining, and metal production). In this work, the investigation of nitrogen oxides CO-selective catalytic reduction using new grain load-type catalysts was carried out. The catalysts containing the substrate and a thin active coating made of transition metal (Mn, Cu, and Nb) oxides were prepared with the use of electroless chemical deposition method. Chemical composition, chemical state, and morphology of the formed active coating were investigated using ICP-OES, EDX, SEM, and XPS techniques. The obtained results revealed that the prepared catalysts (Cu-Mn-oxide and Cu-Mn-Nb-oxide) have rough and developed surface and can be successfully used for the flue gas catalytic purification. The significant advantage of prepared catalysts is their suitability from technological application point of view, which differs this work from others dedicated to gas purification by SCR.

Keywords: flue gas, selective catalytic reduction, nitrogen oxides, transition metal oxides

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1 Linear Parameter-Varying Control for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

Authors: Jihoon Lim, Patrick Kirchen, Ryozo Nagamune

Abstract:

This paper proposes a linear parameter-varying (LPV) controller capable of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions with low ammonia (NH3) slip downstream of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. SCR systems are widely adopted in diesel engines due to high NOx conversion efficiency. However, the nonlinearity of the SCR system and sensor uncertainty result in a challenging control problem. In order to overcome the control challenges, an LPV controller is proposed based on gain-scheduling parameters, that is, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust gas flow rate. Based on experimentally obtained data under the non-road transient driving cycle (NRTC), the simulations firstly show that the proposed controller yields high NOx conversion efficiency with a desired low NH3 slip. The performance of the proposed LPV controller is then compared with other controllers, including a gain-scheduling PID controller and a sliding mode controller. Additionally, the robustness is also demonstrated using the uncertainties ranging from 10 to 30%. The results show that the proposed controller is robustly stable under uncertainties.

Keywords: Diesel Engine, selective catalytic reduction, gain-scheduling control, linear parameter-varying

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