Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

seismicity Related Abstracts

10 Reservoir-Triggered Seismicity of Water Level Variation in the Lake Aswan

Authors: Abdel-Monem Sayed Mohamed


Lake Aswan is one of the largest man-made reservoirs in the world. The reservoir began to fill in 1964 and the level rose gradually, with annual irrigation cycles, until it reached a maximum water level of 181.5 m in November 1999, with a capacity of 160 km3. The filling of such large reservoir changes the stress system either through increasing vertical compressional stress by loading and/or increased pore pressure through the decrease of the effective normal stress. The resulted effect on fault zones changes stability depending strongly on the orientation of pre-existing stress and geometry of the reservoir/fault system. The main earthquake occurred on November 14, 1981, with magnitude 5.5. This event occurred after 17 years of the reservoir began to fill, along the active part of the Kalabsha fault and located not far from the High Dam. Numerous of small earthquakes follow this earthquake and continue till now. For this reason, 13 seismograph stations (radio-telemetry network short-period seismometers) were installed around the northern part of Lake Aswan. The main purpose of the network is to monitor the earthquake activity continuously within Aswan region. The data described here are obtained from the continuous record of earthquake activity and lake-water level variation through the period from 1982 to 2015. The seismicity is concentrated in the Kalabsha area, where there is an intersection of the easterly trending Kalabsha fault with the northerly trending faults. The earthquake foci are distributed in two seismic zones, shallow and deep in the crust. Shallow events have focal depths of less than 12 km while deep events extend from 12 to 28 km. Correlation between the seismicity and the water level variation in the lake provides great suggestion to distinguish the micro-earthquakes, particularly, those in shallow seismic zone in the reservoir–triggered seismicity category. The water loading is one factor from several factors, as an activating medium in triggering earthquakes. The common factors for all cases of induced seismicity seem to be the presence of specific geological conditions, the tectonic setting and water loading. The role of the water loading is as a supplementary source of earthquake events. So, the earthquake activity in the area originated tectonically (ML ≥ 4) and the water factor works as an activating medium in triggering small earthquakes (ML ≤ 3). Study of the inducing seismicity from the water level variation in Aswan Lake is of great importance and play great roles necessity for the safety of the High Dam body and its economic resources.

Keywords: seismicity, Aswan lake, Aswan seismic network, water level variation

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9 Seismic Activity and Groundwater Behavior at Kalabsha Area, Aswan, Egypt

Authors: S. M. Moustafa, A. Ezzat, Y. S. Taha, G. H. Hassib, S. Hamada


After the occurrence of 14, Nov, 1981 earthquake (M = 5.3), on Kalabska fault, south of Egypt, seismic stations distributed in and around the Kalabsha area, in order to monitoring, recording and studying the seismic activity in the area. In addition of that, from 1989 a number of piezometer wells drilled in the same area, distribed on at the both side of the active faults area and in different water bearing formations, in order to measuring the groundwater parameters (level, temperature, ph, and conductivity) to monitoring the relationship between those parameters and the seismic activity at Kalabsha area. The behavior of groundwater due to seismic activity over the world studied by several scientists i.e. H. Wakita (1979) on Izu-Oshima earthquake (M= 7.0) at Japan, M. E. Contadakis & G.asteriadis (1972), and Evans (1966), they found an anomalies on groundwater measurements prior, co, and post the occurrence of bigger earthquakes, referring to the probability of precursory evidence of impending earthquakes. In Kalabsha area south of Egypt, this study has been done using recorded seismic data, and the measurements of underground water parameters. same phenomena of anomalies founded on groundwater measurements pre, co. and post the occurrence of earthquakes with magnitude bigger than 3, and no systematic regularity exists for epicenter distance, duration of anomalies or time lag between anomalies appear and occurrence of events. Also the results found present strong relation between the groundwater in the upper unconfined aquifer Nubian Sandstone formation, and Kalabsha seismic activity, otherwise no relation between the seismic activities in the area with the deep groundwater in the lower confined aquifer Sandstone.

Keywords: Groundwater, seismicity, Egypt, Aswan

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8 Seismicity and Source Parameter of Some Events in Abu Dabbab Area, Red Sea Coast

Authors: Hamed Mohamed Haggag


Prior to 12 November 1955, no earthquakes have been reported from the Abu Dabbab area in the International Seismological Center catalogue (ISC). The largest earthquake in Abu Dabbab area occurred on November 12, 1955 with magnitude Mb 6.0. The closest station from the epicenter was at Helwan (about 700 km to the north), so the depth of this event is not constrained and no foreshocks or aftershocks were recorded. Two other earthquakes of magnitude Mb 4.5 and 5.2 took place in the same area on March 02, 1982 and July 02, 1984, respectively. Since the installation of Aswan Seismic Network stations in 1982, (250-300 km to the south-west of Abu Dabbab area) then the Egyptian Natoinal Seismic Network stations, it was possible to record some activity from Abu Dabbab area. The recorded earthquakes at Abu Dabbab area as recorded from 1982 to 2014 shows that the earthquake epicenters are distributed in the same direction of the main trends of the faults in the area, which is parallel to the Red Sea coast. The spectral analysis was made for some earthquakes. The source parameters, seismic moment (Mo), source dimension (r), stress drop (Δδ), and apparent stress (δ) are determined for these events. The spectral analysis technique was completed using MAG software program.

Keywords: seismicity, Abu Dabbab, seismic moment, source parameter

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7 Variations in the Frequency-Magnitude Distribution with Depth in Kalabsha Area, Aswan, South Egypt

Authors: Ezzat Mohamed El-Amin


Mapping the earthquake-size distribution in various tectonic regimes on a local to regional scale reveals statistically significant variations in the range of at least 0.4 to 2.0 for the b-value in the frequency-magnitude distribution. We map the earthquake frequency–magnitude distribution (b value) as a function of depth in the Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS) region in Kalabsha region, in south Egypt. About 1680 well-located events recorded during 1981–2014 in the Kalabsha region are selected for the analysis. The earthquake data sets are separated in 5 km zones from 0 to 25 km depth. The result shows a systematic decrease in b value up to 12 km followed by an increase. The increase in b value is interpreted to be caused by the presence of fluids. We also investigate the spatial distribution of b value with depth. Significant variations in the b value are detected, with b ranging from b 0.7 to 1.19. Low b value areas at 5 km depth indicate localized high stresses which are favorable for future rupture.

Keywords: Earthquake, seismicity, b-value, frequency-magnitude

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6 Seismic Active Zones and Mechanism of Earthquakes in Northern Egypt

Authors: Mohamed Dahy, Awad Hassoup, Sayed Abdallah


Northern Egypt is known to be seismically active from the past several thousand years, based on the historical records and documents of eyewitnesses on one- hand and instrumental records on the other hand. Instrumental, historical and pre- historical seismicity data indicate that large destructive earthquakes have occurred quite frequently in the investigated area. The interaction of the African, Arabian, Eurasian plates and Sinai sub-plate is the main factor behind the seismicity of northern part of Egypt. All earthquakes occur at shallow depth and are concentrated at four seismic zones, these zones including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, around the entrance of the Gulf of Suez and the fourth one is located at the south- west of great Cairo (Dahshour area). The seismicity map of the previous zones shows that the activity is coincide with the major tectonic trends of the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez- Cairo- Alexandria trend. On the other hand, the focal mechanisms of some earthquakes occurred inside the studied area and having small to moderate size show a variety of patterns. The most predominant type is normal faulting.

Keywords: seismicity, Northern Egypt, seismic active zone, focal mechanism

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5 Earthquake Relocations and Constraints on the Lateral Velocity Variations along the Gulf of Suez, Using the Modified Joint Hypocenter Method Determination

Authors: Abu Bakr Ahmed Shater


Hypocenters of 250 earthquakes recorded by more than 5 stations from the Egyptian seismic network around the Gulf of Suez were relocated and the seismic stations correction for the P-wave is estimated, using the modified joint hypocenter method determination. Five stations TR1, SHR, GRB, ZAF and ZET have minus signs in the station P-wave travel time corrections and their values are -0.235, -0.366, -0.288, -0.366 and -0.058, respectively. It is possible to assume that, the underground model in this area has a particular characteristic of high velocity structure in which the other stations TR2, RDS, SUZ, HRG and ZNM have positive signs and their values are 0.024, 0.187, 0.314, 0.645 and 0.145, respectively. It is possible to assume that, the underground model in this area has particular characteristic of low velocity structure. The hypocenteral location determined by the Modified joint hypocenter method is more precise than those determined by the other routine work program. This method simultaneously solves the earthquake locations and station corrections. The station corrections reflect, not only the different crustal conditions in the vicinity of the stations, but also the difference between the actual and modeled seismic velocities along each of the earthquake - station ray paths. The stations correction obtained is correlated with the major surface geological features in the study area. As a result of the relocation, the low velocity area appears in the northeastern and southwestern sides of the Gulf of Suez, while the southeastern and northwestern parts are of high velocity area.

Keywords: seismicity, gulf of Suez, relocation of hypocenter, joint hypocenter determination

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4 Further Development in Predicting Post-Earthquake Fire Ignition Hazard

Authors: Pegah Farshadmanesh, Jamshid Mohammadi, Mehdi Modares


In nearly all earthquakes of the past century that resulted in moderate to significant damage, the occurrence of postearthquake fire ignition (PEFI) has imposed a serious hazard and caused severe damage, especially in urban areas. In order to reduce the loss of life and property caused by post-earthquake fires, there is a crucial need for predictive models to estimate the PEFI risk. The parameters affecting PEFI risk can be categorized as: 1) factors influencing fire ignition in normal (non-earthquake) condition, including floor area, building category, ignitability, type of appliance, and prevention devices, and 2) earthquake related factors contributing to the PEFI risk, including building vulnerability and earthquake characteristics such as intensity, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. State-of-the-art statistical PEFI risk models are solely based on limited available earthquake data, and therefore they cannot predict the PEFI risk for areas with insufficient earthquake records since such records are needed in estimating the PEFI model parameters. In this paper, the correlation between normal condition ignition risk, peak ground acceleration, and PEFI risk is examined in an effort to offer a means for predicting post-earthquake ignition events. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate how such correlation can be employed in a seismic area to predict PEFI hazard.

Keywords: Risk management, seismicity, Fire Risk, post-earthquake fire ignition (PEFI)

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3 Delineation of Different Geological Interfaces Beneath the Bengal Basin: Spectrum Analysis and 2D Density Modeling of Gravity Data

Authors: Md. Afroz Ansari


The Bengal basin is a spectacular example of a peripheral foreland basin formed by the convergence of the Indian plate beneath the Eurasian and Burmese plates. The basin is embraced on three sides; north, west and east by different fault-controlled tectonic features whereas released in the south where the rivers are drained into the Bay of Bengal. The Bengal basin in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent constitutes the largest fluvio-deltaic to shallow marine sedimentary basin in the world today. This continental basin coupled with the offshore Bengal Fan under the Bay of Bengal forms the biggest sediment dispersal system. The continental basin is continuously receiving the sediments by the two major rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra (known as Jamuna in Bengal), and Meghna (emerging from the point of conflux of the Ganga and Brahmaputra) and large number of rain-fed, small tributaries originating from the eastern Indian Shield. The drained sediments are ultimately delivered into the Bengal fan. The significance of the present study is to delineate the variations in thicknesses of the sediments, different crustal structures, and the mantle lithosphere throughout the onshore-offshore Bengal basin. In the present study, the different crustal/geological units and the shallower mantle lithosphere were delineated by analyzing the Bouguer Gravity Anomaly (BGA) data along two long traverses South-North (running from Bengal fan cutting across the transition offshore-onshore of the Bengal basin and intersecting the Main Frontal Thrust of India-Himalaya collision zone in Sikkim-Bhutan Himalaya) and West-East (running from the Peninsular Indian Shield across the Bengal basin to the Chittagong–Tripura Fold Belt). The BGA map was derived from the analysis of topex data after incorporating Bouguer correction and all terrain corrections. The anomaly map was compared with the available ground gravity data in the western Bengal basin and the sub-continents of India for consistency of the data used. Initially, the anisotropy associated with the thicknesses of the different crustal units, crustal interfaces and moho boundary was estimated through spectral analysis of the gravity data with varying window size over the study area. The 2D density sections along the traverses were finalized after a number of iterations with the acceptable root mean square (RMS) errors. The estimated thicknesses of the different crustal units and dips of the Moho boundary along both the profiles are consistent with the earlier results. Further the results were encouraged by examining the earthquake database and focal mechanism solutions for better understanding the geodynamics. The earthquake data were taken from the catalogue of US Geological Survey, and the focal mechanism solutions were compiled from the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor Catalogue. The concentrations of seismic events at different depth levels are not uncommon. The occurrences of earthquakes may be due to stress accumulation as a result of resistance from three sides.

Keywords: interfaces, seismicity, anisotropy, spectrum analysis

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2 Seismicity and Ground Response Analysis for MP Tourism Office in Indore, India

Authors: Deepshikha Shukla, C. H. Solanki, Mayank Desai


In the last few years, it has been observed that earthquake is proving a threat to the scientist across the world. With a large number of earthquakes occurring in day to day life, the threat to life and property has increased manifolds which call for an urgent attention of all the researchers globally to carry out the research in the field of Earthquake Engineering. Any hazard related to the earthquake and seismicity is considered to be seismic hazards. The common forms of seismic hazards are Ground Shaking, Structure Damage, Structural Hazards, Liquefaction, Landslides, Tsunami to name a few. Among all the natural hazards, the most devastating and damaging is the earthquake as all other hazards are triggered only after the occurrence of an earthquake. In order to quantify and estimate the seismicity and seismic hazards, many methods and approaches have been proposed in the past few years. Such approaches are Mathematical, Conventional and Computational. Convex Set Theory, Empirical Green’s Function are some of the Mathematical Approaches whereas the Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches are the Conventional Approach for the estimation of the seismic Hazards. Ground response and Ground Shaking of a particular area or region plays an important role in the damage caused due to the earthquake. In this paper, seismic study using Deterministic Approach and 1 D Ground Response Analysis has been carried out for Madhya Pradesh Tourism Office in Indore Region in Madhya Pradesh in Central India. Indore lies in the seismic zone III (IS: 1893, 2002) in the Seismic Zoning map of India. There are various faults and lineament in this area and Narmada Some Fault and Gavilgadh fault are the active sources of earthquake in the study area. Deepsoil v6.1.7 has been used to perform the 1 D Linear Ground Response Analysis for the study area. The Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of the city ranges from 0.1g to 0.56g.

Keywords: seismicity, Deterministic, Probabilistic Methods, Seismic Hazards, Ground Response Analysis

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1 Development of Liquefaction-Induced Ground Damage Maps for the Wairau Plains, New Zealand

Authors: Omer Altaf, Liam Wotherspoon, Rolando Orense


The Wairau Plains are located in the north-east of the South Island of New Zealand in the region of Marlborough. The region is cut by many active crustal faults such as the Wairau, Awatere, and Clarence faults, which give rise to frequent seismic events. This paper presents the preliminary results of the overall project in which liquefaction-induced ground damage maps are developed in the Wairau Plains based on the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment NZ guidance. A suite of maps has been developed in relation to the level of details that was available to inform the liquefaction hazard mapping. Maps at the coarsest level of detail make use of regional geologic information, applying semi-quantitative criteria based on geological age, design peak ground accelerations and depth to the water table. The next level of detail incorporates higher resolution surface geomorphologic characteristics to better delineate potentially liquefiable and non-liquefiable deposits across the region. The most detailed assessment utilised CPT sounding data to develop ground damage response curves for areas across the region and provide a finer level of categorisation of liquefaction vulnerability. Linking these with design level earthquakes defined through NZGS guidelines will enable detailed classification to be carried out at CPT investigation locations, from very low through to high liquefaction vulnerability. To update classifications to these detailed levels, CPT investigations in geomorphic regions are grouped together to provide an indication of the representative performance of the soils in these areas making use of the geomorphic mapping outlined above.

Keywords: seismicity, Mapping, Liquefaction, Hazard

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