Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Seismic Related Abstracts

28 Assessment of the Response of Seismic Refraction Tomography and Resistivity Imaging to the Same Geologic Environment: A Case Study of Zaria Basement Complex in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke, I. B. Osazuwa, S. O. Ibe, G. N. Egwuonwu, C. D. Ani, E. C. Chii


The study area is Zaria, located in the basement complex of northern Nigeria. The rock type forming the major part of the Zaria batholith is granite. This research work was carried out to compare the responses of seismic refraction tomography and resistivity tomography in the same geologic environment and under the same conditions. Hence, the choice of the site that has a visible granitic outcrop that extends across a narrow stream channel and is flanked by unconsolidated overburden, a neutral profile that was covered by plain overburden and a site with thick lateritic cover became necessary. The results of the seismic and resistivity tomography models reveals that seismic velocity and resistivity does not always simultaneously increase with depth, but their responses in any geologic environment are determined by changes in the mechanical and chemical content of the rock types rather than depth.

Keywords: Environment, Seismic, response, resistivity, velocity

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27 Soil-Structure Interaction in Stiffness and Strength Degrading Systems

Authors: Sittipong Jarernprasert, Enrique Bazan-Zurita, Jacobo Bielak


We study the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the inelastic seismic response of a single-degree-of-freedom system whose hysteretic behaviour exhibits stiffness and/or strength degrading characteristics. Two sets of accelerograms are used as seismic input: the first comprising 87 record from stiff to medium stiff sites in California, and the second comprising 66 records from the soft lakebed of Mexico City. This study focuses in three seismic response parameters: ductility demand, inter-story drift, and total lateral displacement. The results allow quantitative estimates of changes in such parameters in an SSI system in comparison with those corresponding to the associated fixed-base system. We found that degrading features affect significantly both the response of fixed-base structures and the impact of soil-structure interaction. We propose a procedure to incorporate the results of this and similar studies in seismic design regulations for SSI system with anticipated nonlinear degrading behaviour.

Keywords: Building, Seismic, Interaction, inelastic, foundation

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26 Structural Performance of Mechanically Connected Stone Panels under Cyclic Loading: Application to Aesthetic and Environmental Building Skin Design

Authors: Michel Soto Chalhoub


Building designers in the Mediterranean region and other parts of the world utilize natural stone panels on the exterior façades as skin cover. This type of finishing is not only intended for aesthetic reasons but also environmental. The stone, since the earliest ages of civilization, has been used in construction and to-date some of the most appealing buildings owe their beauty to stone finishing. The stone also provides warmth in winter and freshness in summer as it moderates heat transfer and absorbs radiation. However, as structural codes became increasingly stringent about the dynamic performance of buildings, it became essential to study the performance of stone panels under cyclic loading – a condition that arises under the building is subjected to wind or earthquakes. The present paper studies the performance of stone panels using mechanical connectors when subjected to load reversal. In this paper, we present a theoretical model that addresses modes of failure in the steel connectors, by yield, and modes of failure in the stone, by fracture. Then we provide an experimental set-up and test results for rectangular stone panels of varying thickness. When the building is subjected to an earthquake, its rectangular panels within the structural system are subjected to shear deformations, which in turn impart stress into the stone cover. Rectangular stone panels, which typically range from 40cmx80cm to 60cmx120cm, need to be designed to withstand transverse loading from the direct application of lateral loads, and to withstand simultaneously in-plane loading (membrane stress) caused by inter-story drift and overall building lateral deflection. Results show correlation between the theoretical model which we derive from solid mechanics fundamentals and the experimental results, and lead to practical design recommendations. We find that for panel thickness below a certain threshold, it is more advantageous to utilize structural adhesive materials to connect stone panels to the main structural system of the building. For larger panel thicknesses, it is recommended to utilize mechanical connectors with special detailing to ensure a minimum level of ductility and energy dissipation.

Keywords: Wind, Solid Mechanics, Seismic, Building Skin, cyclic loading, mechanical connectors, natural stone

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25 Study the Dynamic Behavior of Irregular Buildings by the Analysis Method Accelerogram

Authors: Beciri Mohamed Walid


Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to make apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accelerogram) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: Code, Seismic, Structure, Method, Force, irregular, period

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24 Seismic Directionality Effects on In-Structure Response Spectra in Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment

Authors: Sittipong Jarernprasert, Enrique Bazan-Zurita, Paul C. Rizzo


Currently, seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRA) for nuclear facilities use In-Structure Response Spectra (ISRS) in the calculation of fragilities for systems and components. ISRS are calculated via dynamic analyses of the host building subjected to two orthogonal components of horizontal ground motion. Each component is defined as the median motion in any horizontal direction. Structural engineers applied the components along selected X and Y Cartesian axes. The ISRS at different locations in the building are also calculated in the X and Y directions. The choice of the directions of X and Y are not specified by the ground motion model with respect to geographic coordinates, and are rather arbitrarily selected by the structural engineer. Normally, X and Y coincide with the “principal” axes of the building, in the understanding that this practice is generally conservative. For SPRA purposes, however, it is desirable to remove any conservatism in the estimates of median ISRS. This paper examines the effects of the direction of horizontal seismic motion on the ISRS on typical nuclear structure. We also evaluate the variability of ISRS calculated along different horizontal directions. Our results indicate that some central measures of the ISRS provide robust estimates that are practically independent of the selection of the directions of the horizontal Cartesian axes.

Keywords: Seismic, directionality, in-structure response spectra, probabilistic risk assessment

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23 Effects of Ground Motion Characteristics on Damage of RC Buildings: A Detailed Investiagation

Authors: Mohamed Elassaly


The damage status of RC buildings is greatly influenced by the characteristics of the imposed ground motion. Peak Ground Acceleration and frequency contents are considered the main two factors that affect ground motion characteristics; hence, affecting the seismic response of RC structures and consequently their damage state. A detailed investigation on the combined effects of these two factors on damage assessment of RC buildings, is carried out. Twenty one earthquake records are analyzed and arranged into three groups, according to their frequency contents. These records are used in an investigation to define the expected damage state that would be attained by RC buildings, if subjected to varying ground motion characteristics. The damage assessment is conducted through examining drift ratios and damage indices of the overall structure and the significant structural components of RC building. Base and story shear of RC building model, are also investigated, for cases when the model is subjected to the chosen twenty one earthquake records. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed on a 2-dimensional model of a 12-story R.C. building.

Keywords: Seismic, Ground Motion, Damage, PGA, frequency content, RC building

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22 Seismic Inversion to Improve the Reservoir Characterization: Case Study in Central Blue Nile Basin, Sudan

Authors: Nuha E. Mohamed, Safwat E. Musa, Nuha A. Bagi


In this study, several crossplots of the P-impedance with the lithology logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, deep resistivity, water saturation and Vp/Vs curves) were made in three available wells, which were drilled in central part of the Blue Nile basin in depths varies from 1460 m to 1600 m. These crossplots were successful to discriminate between sand and shale when using P-Impedance values, and between the wet sand and the pay sand when using both P-impedance and Vp/Vs together. Also, some impedance sections were converted to porosity sections using linear formula to characterize the reservoir in terms of porosity. The used crossplots were created on log resolution, while the seismic resolution can identify only the reservoir, unless a 3D seismic angle stacks were available; then it would be easier to identify the pay sand with great confidence; through high resolution seismic inversion and geostatistical approach when using P-impedance and Vp/Vs volumes.

Keywords: Seismic, basin, Blue Nile, inversion

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21 Comparative Study of the Distribution of Seismic Loads of Buildings with Asymmetries Plan

Authors: Ahmed Hamza Yache


The main purpose of this study is to estimate the distribution of shear forces in building structures with asymmetries in the plan submitted to seismic forces can cause, in this case, simultaneous deformations of translation and torsion. To this end, the distribution of shear forces is obtained by seismic forces calculated from the equivalent static method of the Algerian earthquake code RPA 99 (2003 version) and spectral modal analysis for an irregular building plan without kinks. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods used to highlight the difference in terms of distributions of shear forces in such structures.

Keywords: Code, Seismic, Structure, Method, Force, irregular, period

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20 MARTI and MRSD: Newly Developed Isolation-Damping Devices with Adaptive Hardening for Seismic Protection of Structures

Authors: Murast Dicleli, Ali SalemMilani


In this paper, a summary of analytical and experimental studies into the behavior of a new hysteretic damper, designed for seismic protection of structures is presented. The Multi-directional Torsional Hysteretic Damper (MRSD) is a patented invention in which a symmetrical arrangement of identical cylindrical steel cores is so configured as to yield in torsion while the structure experiences planar movements due to earthquake shakings. The new device has certain desirable properties. Notably, it is characterized by a variable and controllable-via-design post-elastic stiffness. The mentioned property is a result of MRSD’s kinematic configuration which produces this geometric hardening, rather than being a secondary large-displacement effect. Additionally, the new system is capable of reaching high force and displacement capacities, shows high levels of damping, and very stable cyclic response. The device has gone through many stages of design refinement, multiple prototype verification tests and development of design guide-lines and computer codes to facilitate its implementation in practice. Practicality of the new device, as offspring of an academic sphere, is assured through extensive collaboration with industry in its final design stages, prototyping and verification test programs.

Keywords: Seismic, Isolation, damper, adaptive stiffness

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19 Foundation Settlement Determination: A Simplified Approach

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Emmanuel O. Joshua, Marvel L. Akinyemi


The heterogeneous nature of the subsurface requires the use of factual information to deal with rather than assumptions or generalized equations. Therefore, there is need to determine the actual rate of settlement possible in the soil before structures are built on it. This information will help in determining the type of foundation design and the kind of reinforcement that will be necessary in constructions. This paper presents a simplified and a faster approach for determining foundation settlement in any type of soil using real field data acquired from seismic refraction techniques and cone penetration tests. This approach was also able to determine the depth of settlement of each strata of soil. The results obtained revealed the different settlement time and depth of settlement possible.

Keywords: Seismic, Heterogeneous, Settlement, Technique, foundation

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18 Influence of Irregularities in Plan and Elevation on the Dynamic Behavior of the Building

Authors: Yassine Sadji


Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities, and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to make apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accélérogramme) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: Seismic, Structure, response, Ductility, irregularity

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17 Influence of Irregularities in Plan and Elevation

Authors: Houmame Benbouali


Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accelerogram) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: Seismic, Structure, response, Ductility, irregularity

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16 A Study on Holosen-Pleistosen Sedimentology of Morphotectonic Structure and Seismicity of Gökova Bay

Authors: Ebru Aktepe Erkoç, Atilla Uluğ


In this research which has been prepared to show the relationship between Gökova Bay’s morphotectonic structure and seismicity, it is clear that there are many active faults in the region. The existence of a thick sedimentary accumulation since Late Quaternary times is obvious as a result of the geophysical workings in the region and the interpretation of seismic data which has been planning to be taken from the Bay. In the regions which have been tectonically active according to the interpretation of the taken data, the existence of the successive earthquakes in the last few years is remarkable. By analyzing large earthquakes affecting the areas remaining inside the sediments in West Anatolian Collapse System, this paper aims to reveal the fault systems constituting earthquakes with the information obtained from this study and to determine seismicity of the present residential areas right next to them. It is also aimed to anticipate the measures to be taken against possible earthquake hazards, to identify these areas posing a risk in terms of residential and urban planning and to determine at least partly the characteristics of the basin.

Keywords: Seismic, Sedimentation, Gökova Bay, West Anatolian

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15 Influence of Nonlinearity of Concrete and Reinforcement Using Micropiles on the Seismic Interaction of Soil-Piles-Bridge

Authors: Mohanad Alfach, Amjad Al Helwani


Post-seismic observations of recent devastating earthquakes have shown that the behavior of the soil-pile-structure shows strong nonlinearity of soil and concrete under intensive seismic loading. Many of pile ruptures recently observed after the strong earthquake due to structural reasons (development of plastic hinges in the piles). The most likely reason for this rupture is the exceeding of maximum bending moment supported by the pile at several points. An analysis of these problems is necessary to take into account the nonlinearity of concrete, the strategy of strengthening the damaged piles and the interaction of these piles with the proposed strengthening by using micropiles. This study aims to investigate the interaction aspects for soil-piles- micropiles-structure using a global approach with a three dimensional finite difference code Flac 3D (Fast lagrangian analysis of continua in 3 dimensions).

Keywords: Concrete, Seismic, Interaction, Nonlinear, Piles, micropiles, three-dimensional

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14 Seismic Safety Evaluation of Weir Structures Using the Finite and Infinite Element Method

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung, Ho Young Son


This study presents the seismic safety evaluation of weir structure subjected to strong earthquake ground motions, as a flood defense structure in civil engineering structures. The seismic safety analysis procedure was illustrated through development of Finite Element (FE) and InFinite Element (IFE) method in ABAQUS platform. The IFE model was generated by CINPS4, 4-node linear one-way infinite model as a sold continuum infinite element in foundation areas of the weir structure and then nonlinear FE model using friction model for soil-structure interactions was applied in this study. In order to understand the complex behavior of weir structures, nonlinear time history analysis was carried out. Consequently, it was interesting to note that the compressive stress gave more vulnerability to the weir structure, in comparison to the tensile stress, during an earthquake. The stress concentration of the weir structure was shown at the connection area between the weir body and stilling basin area. The stress both tension and compression was reduced in IFE model rather than FE model of weir structures.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Seismic, FEM, weir, boundary condition

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13 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung


This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Seismic, Evaluation, Bridge, FEM

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12 Examination of the Influence of the Near-Surface Geology on the Initial Infrastructural Development Using High-Resolution Seismic Method

Authors: Collins Chiemeke, Stephen Ibe, Godwin Onyedim


This research work on high-resolution seismic tomography method was carried out with the aim of investigating how near-surface geology influences the initial distribution of infrastructural development in an area like Otuoke and its environs. To achieve this objective, seismic tomography method was employed. The result revealed that the overburden (highly-weathered layer) thickness ranges from 27 m to 50 m within the survey area, with an average value of 37 m. The 3D surface analysis for the overburden thickness distribution within the survey area showed that the thickness of the overburden is more in regions with less infrastructural development, and least in built-up areas. The range of velocity distribution from the surface to within a depth of 5 m is about 660 m/s to 1160 m/s, with an average value of 946 m/s. The 3D surface analysis of the velocity distribution also revealed that the areas with large infrastructural development are characterized with large velocity values compared with the undeveloped regions that has average low-velocity values. Hence, one can conclusively say that the initial settlement of Otuoke and its environs and the subsequent infrastructural development was influenced by the underlying near surface geology (rigid earth), among other factors.

Keywords: Geology, Seismic, infrastructural, near-surface

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11 Evaluation of the Need for Seismic Retrofitting of the Foundation of a Five Story Steel Building Because of Adding of a New Story

Authors: Mohammadreza Baradaran, F. Hamzezarghani


Every year in different points of the world it occurs with different strengths and thousands of people lose their lives because of this natural phenomenon. One of the reasons for destruction of buildings because of earthquake in addition to the passing of time and the effect of environmental conditions and the wearing-out of a building is changing the uses of the building and change the structure and skeleton of the building. A large number of structures that are located in earthquake bearing areas have been designed according to the old quake design regulations which are out dated. In addition, many of the major earthquakes which have occurred in recent years, emphasize retrofitting to decrease the dangers of quakes. Retrofitting structural quakes available is one of the most effective methods for reducing dangers and compensating lack of resistance caused by the weaknesses existing. In this article the foundation of a five-floor steel building with the moment frame system has been evaluated for quakes and the effect of adding a floor to this five-floor steel building has been evaluated and analyzed. The considered building is with a metallic skeleton and a piled roof and clayed block which after addition of a floor has increased to a six-floor foundation of 1416 square meters, and the height of the sixth floor from ground state has increased 18.95 meters. After analysis of the foundation model, the behavior of the soil under the foundation and also the behavior of the body or element of the foundation has been evaluated and the model of the foundation and its type of change in form and the amount of stress of the soil under the foundation for some of the composition has been determined many times in the SAFE software modeling and finally the need for retrofitting of the building's foundation has been determined.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Seismic, Steel Building, foundation

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10 Tectogenesis Around Kalaat Es Senan, Northwest of Tunisia: Structural, Geophysical and Gravimetric Study

Authors: Tahar AIFA, Amira Rjiba, Mohamed Ghanmi, Achref Boulares


This study, involving the interpretation of geological outcrops data (structures, and lithostratigraphiec colones) and subsurface structures (seismic and gravimetric data) help us to identify and precise (i) the lithology of the sedimentary formations between the Aptian and the recent formations, (ii) to differentiate the sedimentary formations it from the salt-bearing Triassic (iii) and to specify the major structures though the tectonics effects having affected the region during its geological evolution. By placing our study area placed in the context of Tunisia, located on the southern margin of the Tethys show us through tectonic traces and structural analysis conducted, that this area was submitted during the Triassic perio at an active rifting triggered extensional tectonic events and extensive respectively in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Lithostratigraphic correlations between outcrops and seismic data sets on those of six oil wells conducted in the region have allowed us to better understand the structural complexity and the role of different tectonic faults having contributed to the current configuration, and marked by the current rifts. Indeed, three directions of NW-SE faults, NNW-SSE to NS and NE-SW to EW had a major role in the genesis of folds and open ditches collapse of NW-SE direction. These results were complemented by seismic reflection data to clarify the geometry of the southern and western areas of Kalaa Khasba ditch. The eight selected seismic lines for this study allowed to characterize the main structures, with isochronous maps, contour and isovitesse of Serdj horizon that presents the main reservoir in the region. The line L2, keyed by the well 6, helped highlight the NW-SE compression that has resulted in persistent discrepancies widely identifiable in its lithostratigraphic column. The gravity survey has confirmed the extension of most of the accidents deep subsurface whose activity seems to go far. Gravimetry also reinforced seismic interpretation confirming, at the L2 well, that both SW and NE flank of the moat are two opposite faults and trace the boundaries of NNW-SSE direction graben whose sedimentation of Mio-Pliocene age and Quaternary.

Keywords: Seismic, Gravity, graben, graben collapse, Kalat Es Senan, tectogenesis

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9 Experimental Simulation of Soil Boundary Condition for Dynamic Studies

Authors: T. T. Sabbagh, Omar S. Qaftan


This paper studies the free-field response by adopting a flexible membrane container as soil boundary for experimental shaking table tests. The influence of the soil container boundary on the soil behaviour and the dynamic soil properties under seismic effect were examined. A flexible container with 1/50 scale factor was adopted in the experimental tests, including construction, instrumentation, and determination of the results of dynamic tests on a shaking table. Horizontal face displacements and accelerations were analysed to determine the influence of the container boundary on the performance of the soil. The outputs results show that the flexible boundary container allows more displacement and larger accelerations. The soil in a rigid wall container cannot deform as similar as the soil in the real field does. Therefore, the response of flexible container tested is believed to be more reliable for soil boundary than that in the rigid container.

Keywords: Earthquake, Seismic, Interaction, Soil

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8 Performance of Reinforced Concrete Wall with Opening Using Analytical Model

Authors: Alaa Morsy, Youssef Ibrahim


Earthquake is one of the most catastrophic events, which makes enormous harm to properties and human lives. As a piece of a safe building configuration, reinforced concrete walls are given in structures to decrease horizontal displacements under seismic load. Shear walls are additionally used to oppose the horizontal loads that might be incited by the impact of wind. Reinforced concrete walls in residential buildings might have openings that are required for windows in outside walls or for doors in inside walls or different states of openings due to architectural purposes. The size, position, and area of openings may fluctuate from an engineering perspective. Shear walls can encounter harm around corners of entryways and windows because of advancement of stress concentration under the impact of vertical or horizontal loads. The openings cause a diminishing in shear wall capacity. It might have an unfavorable impact on the stiffness of reinforced concrete wall and on the seismic reaction of structures. Finite Element Method using software package ‘ANSYS ver. 12’ becomes an essential approach in analyzing civil engineering problems numerically. Now we can make various models with different parameters in short time by using ANSYS instead of doing it experimentally, which consumes a lot of time and money. Finite element modeling approach has been conducted to study the effect of opening shape, size and position in RC wall with different thicknesses under axial and lateral static loads. The proposed finite element approach has been verified with experimental programme conducted by the researchers and validated by their variables. A very good correlation has been observed between the model and experimental results including load capacity, failure mode, and lateral displacement. A parametric study is applied to investigate the effect of opening size, shape, position on different reinforced concrete wall thicknesses. The results may be useful for improving existing design models and to be applied in practice, as it satisfies both the architectural and the structural requirements.

Keywords: Seismic, ANSYS, shear wall, concrete walls, openings, out of plane behavior

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7 A Numerical Study on Semi-Active Control of a Bridge Deck under Seismic Excitation

Authors: A. Yanik, U. Aldemir


This study investigates the benefits of implementing the semi-active devices in relation to passive viscous damping in the context of seismically isolated bridge structures. Since the intrinsically nonlinear nature of semi-active devices prevents the direct evaluation of Laplace transforms, frequency response functions are compiled from the computed time history response to sinusoidal and pulse-like seismic excitation. A simple semi-active control policy is used in regard to passive linear viscous damping and an optimal non-causal semi-active control strategy. The control strategy requires optimization. Euler-Lagrange equations are solved numerically during this procedure. The optimal closed-loop performance is evaluated for an idealized controllable dash-pot. A simplified single-degree-of-freedom model of an isolated bridge is used as numerical example. Two bridge cases are investigated. These cases are; bridge deck without the isolation bearing and bridge deck with the isolation bearing. To compare the performances of the passive and semi-active control cases, frequency dependent acceleration, velocity and displacement response transmissibility ratios Ta(w), Tv(w), and Td(w) are defined. To fully investigate the behavior of the structure subjected to the sinusoidal and pulse type excitations, different damping levels are considered. Numerical results showed that, under the effect of external excitation, bridge deck with semi-active control showed better structural performance than the passive bridge deck case.

Keywords: Seismic, Bridge Structures, Passive Control, viscous damping, semi-active control

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6 Seismic Fragility of Base-Isolated Multi-Story Piping System in Critical Facilities

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Ho Young Son, Yong Hee Ryu


This study is focused on the evaluation of seismic fragility of multi-story piping system installed in critical structures, isolated with triple friction pendulum bearing. The concept of this study is to isolate the critical building structure as well as nonstructural component, especially piping system in order to mitigate the earthquake damage and achieve the reliable seismic design. Then, the building system and multi-story piping system was modeled in OpenSees. In particular, the triple friction pendulum isolator was accounted for the vertical and horizontal coupling behavior in the building system subjected to seismic ground motions. Consequently, in order to generate the seismic fragility of base-isolated multi-story piping system, 21 selected seismic ground motions were carried out, by using Monte Carlo Simulation accounted for the uncertainties in demand. Finally, the system-level fragility curves corresponding to the limit state of the piping system was conducted at each T-joint system, which was commonly failure points in piping systems during and after an earthquake. Additionally, the system-level fragilities were performed to the first floor and second floor level in critical structures.

Keywords: Seismic, fragility, friction pendulum bearing, nonstructural component

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5 High School Students’ Seismic Risk Perception and Preparedness in Shavar, Dhaka

Authors: Mohammad Lutfur Rahman


School students of Dhaka are in extreme risk of natural disasters. However, the study on assessment of the real scenario of high school students about perceptions of earthquake is very little. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the seismic risk perception and preparedness levels about earthquake among high school students in Shavar, Dhaka. A questionnaire was developed, and data collection was done about a group of high school students in seven classrooms. The author uses a method of surveying high school students to identify and describe the factors that influence their knowledge and perceptions about earthquake. This study examines gender and grade differences in perceived risk and communication behavior in response to the earthquake. Female students’ preparation, participation, and communication with family are more frequent than that of male students. Female students have been found to be more likely to learn about a disaster than male students. Higher grade students have more awareness but less preparedness about earthquake than that of the younger one. This research concludes that irrespective of grades, high school students are vulnerable to earthquake due to the lack of a seismic education program.

Keywords: Earthquake, Seismic, awareness, Risk Perception

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4 A Comparative Study on the Performance of Viscous and Friction Dampers under Seismic Excitation

Authors: Apetsi K. Ampiah, Zhao Xin


Earthquakes over the years have been known to cause devastating damage on buildings and induced huge loss on human life and properties. It is for this reason that engineers have devised means of protecting buildings and thus protecting human life. Since the invention of devices such as the viscous and friction dampers, scientists/researchers have been able to incorporate these devices into buildings and other engineering structures. The viscous damper is a hydraulic device which dissipates the seismic forces by pushing fluid through an orifice, producing a damping pressure which creates a force. In the friction damper, the force is mainly resisted by converting the kinetic energy into heat by friction. Devices such as viscous and friction dampers are able to absorb almost all the earthquake energy, allowing the structure to remain undamaged (or with some amount of damage) and ready for immediate reuse (with some repair works). Comparing these two devices presents the engineer with adequate information on the merits and demerits of these devices and in which circumstances their use would be highly favorable. This paper examines the performance of both viscous and friction dampers under different ground motions. A two-storey frame installed with both devices under investigation are modeled in commercial computer software and analyzed under different ground motions. The results of the performance of the structure are then tabulated and compared. Also included in this study is the ease of installation and maintenance of these devices.

Keywords: Seismic, viscous damper, slip load, friction damper

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3 Reinforced Concrete, Problems and Solutions: A Literature Review

Authors: Omar Alhamad, Waleed Eid


Reinforced concrete is a concrete lined with steel so that the materials work together in the resistance forces. Reinforcement rods or mesh are used for tensile, shear, and sometimes intense pressure in a concrete structure. Reinforced concrete is subject to many natural problems or industrial errors. The result of these problems is that it reduces the efficiency of the reinforced concrete or its usefulness. Some of these problems are cracks, earthquakes, high temperatures or fires, as well as corrosion of reinforced iron inside reinforced concrete. There are also factors of ancient buildings or monuments that require some techniques to preserve them. This research presents some general information about reinforced concrete, the pros and cons of reinforced concrete, and then presents a series of literary studies of some of the late published researches on the subject of reinforced concrete and how to preserve it, propose solutions or treatments for the treatment of reinforced concrete problems, raise efficiency and quality for a longer period. These studies have provided advanced and modern methods and techniques in the field of reinforced concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Seismic, treatment, Corrosion, Reinforced Concrete, Cracks

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2 Screening Methodology for Seismic Risk Assessment of Aging Structures in Oil and Gas Plants

Authors: Mohammad Nazri Mustafa, Pedram Hatami Abdullah, M. Fakhrur Razi Ahmad Faizul


With the issuance of Malaysian National Annex 2017 as a part of MS EN 1998-1:2015, the seismic mapping of Malaysian Peninsular including Sabah and Sarawak has undergone some changes in terms of the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) value. The revision to the PGA has raised a concern on the safety of oil and gas onshore structures as these structures were not designed to accommodate the new PGA values which are much higher than the previous values used in the original design. In view of the high numbers of structures and buildings to be re-assessed, a risk assessment methodology has been developed to prioritize and rank the assets in terms of their criticality against the new seismic loading. To-date such risk assessment method for oil and gas onshore structures is lacking, and it is the main intention of this technical paper to share the risk assessment methodology and risk elements scoring finalized via Delphi Method. The finalized methodology and the values used to rank the risk elements have been established based on years of relevant experience on the subject matter and based on a series of rigorous discussions with professionals in the industry. The risk scoring is mapped against the risk matrix (i.e., the LOF versus COF) and hence, the overall risk for the assets can be obtained. The overall risk can be used to prioritize and optimize integrity assessment, repair and strengthening work against the new seismic mapping of the country.

Keywords: Seismic, Methodology, Risk, PGA

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1 Seismic Retrofit of Existing Bridge Foundations with Micropiles: 3D Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mohanad Talal Alfach


This paper concerns the seismic behaviour of soil-piles-bridge reinforced by additional micropiles. The analysis carried out by three-dimensional finite element modelling using the FE software ABAQUS. The soil behaviour is assumed to be elastic with Rayleigh damping, while the micropiles are modeled as 3D elastic beam elements. The bridge deck slab was represented by a concentrated mass at the top of the pier column. The interaction between the added micropiles and the existing piles as well as the performance of the retrofitted soil-pile-superstructure system were investigated for different configurations of additional micropiles (number, position, inclination). Numerical simulation results show that additional micropiles constitute an efficient retrofitting solution. Analysis of results also shows that spacing between existing piles and retrofitting micropiles has little effect; while it is observed a substantial improvement (in case of weak piles/micropiles - soil interface) with reducing the inclination angle of retrofitting micropiles.

Keywords: Seismic, retrofitting, finite element, elastic, micropiles

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