Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Seismic Design Related Abstracts

17 SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths

Authors: Babak H. Mamaqani, Alimohammad Entezarmahdi


There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Analytical Modeling, Haunch connection, unequal beam depth

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16 Designing Offshore Pipelines Facing the Geohazard of Active Seismic Faults

Authors: Maria Trimintziou, Michael Sakellariou, Prodromos Psarropoulos


Nowadays, the exploitation of hydrocarbons reserves in deep seas and oceans, in combination with the need to transport hydrocarbons among countries, has made the design, construction and operation of offshore pipelines very significant. Under this perspective, it is evident that many more offshore pipelines are expected to be constructed in the near future. Since offshore pipelines are usually crossing extended areas, they may face a variety of geohazards that impose substantial permanent ground deformations (PGDs) to the pipeline and potentially threaten its integrity. In case of a geohazard area, there exist three options to proceed. The first option is to avoid the problematic area through rerouting, which is usually regarded as an unfavorable solution due to its high cost. The second is to apply (if possible) mitigation/protection measures in order to eliminate the geohazard itself. Finally, the last appealing option is to allow the pipeline crossing through the geohazard area, provided that the pipeline will have been verified against the expected PGDs. In areas with moderate or high seismicity the design of an offshore pipeline is more demanding due to the earthquake-related geohazards, such as landslides, soil liquefaction phenomena, and active faults. It is worthy to mention that although worldwide there is a great experience in offshore geotechnics and pipeline design, the experience in seismic design of offshore pipelines is rather limited due to the fact that most of the pipelines have been constructed in non-seismic regions (e.g. North Sea, West Australia, Gulf of Mexico, etc.). The current study focuses on the seismic design of offshore pipelines against active faults. After an extensive literature review of the provisions of the seismic norms worldwide and of the available analytical methods, the study simulates numerically (through finite-element modeling and strain-based criteria) the distress of offshore pipelines subjected to PGDs induced by active seismic faults at the seabed. Factors, such as the geometrical properties of the fault, the mechanical properties of the ruptured soil formations, and the pipeline characteristics, are examined. After some interesting conclusions regarding the seismic vulnerability of offshore pipelines, potential cost-effective mitigation measures are proposed taking into account constructability issues.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Active Faults, offhore pipelines, permanent ground deformations (PGDs)

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15 Seismic Assessment of RC Structures

Authors: Badla Oualid


A great number of existing buildings are designed without seismic design criteria and detailing rules for dissipative structural behavior. Thus, it is of critical importance that the structures that need seismic retrofitting are correctly identified, and an optimal retrofitting is conducted in a cost effective fashion. Among the retrofitting techniques available, steel braces can be considered as one of the most efficient solution among seismic performance upgrading methods of RC structures. This paper investigates the seismic behavior of RC buildings strengthened with different types of steel braces, X-braced, inverted V braced, ZX braced, and Zipper braced. Static non linear pushover analysis has been conducted to estimate the capacity of three story and six story buildings with different brace-frame systems and different cross sections for the braces. It is found that adding braces enhances the global capacity of the buildings compared to the case with no bracing and that the X and Zipper bracing systems performed better depending on the type and size of the cross section.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Strengthening, Pushover Analysis, RC frames, steel bracing

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14 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Infilled Frames under Seismic Loads

Authors: W. Badla


A significant portion of the buildings constructed in Algeria is structural frames with infill panels which are usually considered as non structural components and are neglected in the analysis. However, these masonry panels tend to influence the structural response. Thus, these structures can be regarded as seismic risk buildings, although in the Algerian seismic code there is little guidance on the seismic evaluation of infilled frame buildings. In this study, three RC frames with 2, 4, and 8 story and subjected to three recorded Algerian accelerograms are studied. The diagonal strut approach is adopted for modeling the infill panels and a fiber model is used to model RC members. This paper reports on the seismic evaluation of RC frames with brick infill panels. The results obtained show that the masonry panels enhance the load lateral capacity of the buildings and the infill panel configuration influences the response of the structures.

Keywords: Seismic Design, RC frames, infill panels, non linear dynamic analysis

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13 Optimal Load Factors for Seismic Design of Buildings

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Juan Bojorquez, Eden Bojórquez, David de León Escobedo


A life-cycle optimization procedure to establish the best load factors combinations for seismic design of buildings, is proposed. The expected cost of damage from future earthquakes within the life of the structure is estimated, and realistic cost functions are assumed. The functions include: Repair cost, cost of contents damage, cost associated with loss of life, cost of injuries and economic loss. The loads considered are dead, live and earthquake load. The study is performed for reinforced concrete buildings located in Mexico City. The buildings are modeled as multiple-degree-of-freedom frame structures. The parameter selected to measure the structural damage is the maximum inter-story drift. The structural models are subjected to 31 soft-soil ground motions recorded in the Lake Zone of Mexico City. In order to obtain the annual structural failure rates, a numerical integration method is applied.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Reinforced Concrete Buildings, Life-Cycle Analysis, load factors

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12 Review Paper on Structural Behaviour of Industrial Pallet Rack with Braced and Unbraced Frames

Authors: Sourabh R. Dinde, Rajshekar S. Talikoti


According to the structural point of view Industrial Pallet rack structure can be considered typical steel framed structure. This work presents a general analysis of an industrial pallet rack structure, evaluating the influence of each of the components on the global stability. An analytical study for the sensitivity of pallet rack configuration in linear static equivalent lateral loads. The aim is to braced/unbraced frames were design and their analytical models are to be built in software. The finite element analysis is used to determine axial forces in beam and column, maximum storey displacement and buckling loads on braced/unbraced pallet rack structure. Bracing systems are mostly provided to enhance the stiffness factor of the structures with the seismic loads. Unbraced systems have mostly translational modes of failure and are very flexible due to excessive loads.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Seismic Design, Cold Formed Steel, buckling capacity, pallets Rrack

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11 A Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of Built-Up Battened Columns

Authors: Mohammadreza Vafaei, Sophia C. Alih, Farnoud Rahimi Mansour, Nur Hajarul Falahi Abdul Halim


Built-up columns have been widely employed by practice engineers in the design and construction of buildings and bridges. However, failures have been observed in this type of columns in previous seismic events. This study analyses the performance of built-up columns with different configurations of battens when it is subjected to seismic loads. Four columns with different size of battens were simulated and subjected to three different intensities of axial load along with a lateral cyclic load. Results indicate that the size of battens influences significantly the seismic behavior of columns. Lower shear capacity of battens results in higher ultimate strength and ductility for built-up columns. It is observed that intensity of axial load has a significant effect on the ultimate strength of columns, but it is less influential on the yield strength. For a given drift value, the stress level in the centroid of smaller size battens is significantly more than that of larger size battens signifying damage concentration in battens rather than chords. It is concluded that design of battens for shear demand lower than code specified values only slightly reduces initial stiffness of columns; however, it improves seismic performance of battened columns.

Keywords: Seismic Design, cyclic behavior, steel column, battened column, built-up column

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10 Experimental Investigation of Low Strength Concrete (LSC) Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer (CFRP) Wrap

Authors: Sana Gul, Furqan Farooq, Arslan Akbar


Inadequate design of seismic structures and use of Low Strength Concrete (LSC) remains the major aspect of structure failure. Parametric investigation (LSC) beams based on experimental work using externally applied Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer (CFRP) warp in flexural behavior is studied. The ambition is to know the behavior of beams under loading condition, and its strengthening enhancement after inducing crack is studied, Moreover comparison of results using abacus software is studied. Results show significant enhancement in load carrying capacity, experimental work is compared with abacus software. The research is based on the conclusion that various existing structure but inadequacy in seismic design could increase the load carrying capacity by applying CFRP techniques, which not only strengthened but also provide them to resist even larger potential earthquake by improving its strength as well as ductility.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Strengthening, Carbon Fiber, Ductility

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9 Finite Element Study of Coke Shape Deep Beam to Column Moment Connection Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Robel Wondimu Alemayehu, Sihwa Jung, Manwoo Park, Young K. Ju


Following the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge earthquake, intensive research on beam to column connections is conducted, leading to the current design basis. The current design codes require the use of either a prequalified connection or a connection that passes the requirements of large-scale cyclic qualification test prior to use in intermediate or special moment frames. The second alternative is expensive both in terms of money and time. On the other hand, the maximum beam depth in most of the prequalified connections is limited to 900mm due to the reduced rotation capacity of deeper beams. However, for long span beams the need to use deeper beams may arise. In this study, a beam to column connection detail suitable for deep beams is presented. The connection detail comprises of thicker-tapered beam flange adjacent to the beam to column connection. Within the thicker-tapered flange region, two reduced beam sections are provided with the objective of forming two plastic hinges within the tapered-thicker flange region. In addition, the length, width, and thickness of the tapered-thicker flange region are proportioned in such a way that a third plastic hinge forms at the end of the tapered-thicker flange region. As a result, the total rotation demand is distributed over three plastic zones. Making it suitable for deeper beams that have lower rotation capacity at one plastic hinge. The effectiveness of this connection detail is studied through finite element analysis. For the study, a beam that has a depth of 1200mm is used. Additionally, comparison with welded unreinforced flange-welded web (WUF-W) moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection is made. The results show that the rotation capacity of a WUF-W moment connection is increased from 2.0% to 2.2% by applying the proposed moment connection detail. Furthermore, the maximum moment capacity, energy dissipation capacity and stiffness of the WUF-W moment connection is increased up to 58%, 49%, and 32% respectively. In contrast, applying the reduced beam section detail to the same WUF-W moment connection reduced the rotation capacity from 2.0% to 1.50% plus the maximum moment capacity and stiffness of the connection is reduced by 22% and 6% respectively. The proposed connection develops three plastic hinge regions as intended and it shows improved performance compared to both WUF-W moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection. Moreover, the achieved rotation capacity satisfies the minimum required for use in intermediate moment frames.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Seismic Design, Connections, steel intermediate moment frame

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8 Comparison of Allowable Stress Method and Time History Response Analysis for Seismic Design of Buildings

Authors: Naohiro Nakamura, Sayuri Inoue, Tsubasa Hamada


The seismic design method of buildings is classified into two types: static design and dynamic design. The static design is a design method that exerts static force as seismic force and is a relatively simple design method created based on the experience of seismic motion in the past 100 years. At present, static design is used for most of the Japanese buildings. Dynamic design mainly refers to the time history response analysis. It is a comparatively difficult design method that input the earthquake motion assumed in the building model and examine the response. Currently, it is only used for skyscrapers and specific buildings. In the present design standard in Japan, it is good to use either the design method of the static design and the dynamic design in the medium and high-rise buildings. However, when actually designing middle and high-rise buildings by two kinds of design methods, the relatively simple static design method satisfies the criteria, but in the case of a little difficult dynamic design method, the criterion isn't often satisfied. This is because the dynamic design method was built with the intention of designing super high-rise buildings. In short, higher safety is required as compared with general buildings, and criteria become stricter. The authors consider applying the dynamic design method to general buildings designed by the static design method so far. The reason is that application of the dynamic design method is reasonable for buildings that are out of the conventional standard structural form such as emphasizing design. For the purpose, it is important to compare the design results when the criteria of both design methods are arranged side by side. In this study, we performed time history response analysis to medium-rise buildings that were actually designed with allowable stress method. Quantitative comparison between static design and dynamic design was conducted, and characteristics of both design methods were examined.

Keywords: Buildings, Seismic Design, allowable stress design, time history response analysis, Japanese seismic code

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7 Optimal Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall-Frame Structure

Authors: S. Yoshitomi, H. Nikzad


In this paper, the optimal seismic design of reinforced concrete shear wall-frame building structures was done using structural optimization. The optimal section sizes were generated through structural optimization based on linear static analysis conforming to American Concrete Institute building design code (ACI 318-14). An analytical procedure was followed to validate the accuracy of the proposed method by comparing stresses on structural members through output files of MATLAB and ETABS. In order to consider the difference of stresses in structural elements by ETABS and MATLAB, and to avoid over-stress members by ETABS, a stress constraint ratio of MATLAB to ETABS was modified and introduced for the most critical load combinations and structural members. Moreover, seismic design of the structure was done following the International Building Code (IBC 2012), American Concrete Institute Building Code (ACI 318-14) and American Society of Civil Engineering (ASCE 7-10) standards. Typical reinforcement requirements for the structural wall, beam and column were discussed and presented using ETABS structural analysis software. The placement and detailing of reinforcement of structural members were also explained and discussed. The outcomes of this study show that the modification of section sizes play a vital role in finding an optimal combination of practical section sizes. In contrast, the optimization problem with size constraints has a higher cost than that of without size constraints. Moreover, the comparison of optimization problem with that of ETABS program shown to be satisfactory and governed ACI 318-14 building design code criteria.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Structural Optimization, MATLAB, ETABS, linear static analysis, RC shear wall-frame structures

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6 Influence of Existing Foundations on Soil-Structure Interaction of New Foundations in a Reconstruction Project

Authors: Kanagarajah Ravishankar


This paper describes a study performed for a project featuring an elevated steel bridge structure supported by various types of foundation systems. This project focused on rehabilitation or redesign of a portion of the bridge substructures founded on caisson foundations. The study that this paper focuses on is the evaluation of foundation and soil stiffnesses and interactions between the existing caissons and proposed foundations. The caisson foundations were founded on top of rock, where the depth to the top of rock varies from approximately 50 to 140 feet below ground surface. Based on a comprehensive investigation of the existing piers and caissons, the presence of ASR was suspected from observed whitish deposits on cracked surfaces as well as internal damages sustained through the entire depth of foundation structures. Reuse of existing piers and caissons was precluded and deemed unsuitable under the earthquake condition because of these defects on the structures. The proposed design of new foundations and substructures which was selected ultimately neglected the contribution from the existing caisson and pier columns. Due to the complicated configuration between the existing caisson and the proposed foundation system, three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) was employed to evaluate soil-structure interaction (SSI), to evaluate the effect of the existing caissons on the proposed foundations, and to compare the results with conventional group analysis. The FEM models include separate models for existing caissons, proposed foundations, and combining both.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Soil-Structure Interaction, finite element, foundation stiffness

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5 Application of Seismic Isolators in Kutahya City Hospital Project Utilizing Double Friction Pendulum Type Devices

Authors: Kaan Yamanturk, Cihan Dogruoz


Seismic isolators have been utilized around the world to protect the structures, nonstructural components and contents from the damaging effects of earthquakes. In Structural Engineering, seismic isolation is used for protecting buildings and its vibration-sensitive contents from earthquakes. Seismic isolation is a passive control system that lowers effective earthquake forces by utilizing flexible bearings. One of the most significant isolation systems is seismic isolators. In this paper, double pendulum type Teflon coated seismic isolators utilized in a city hospital project by Guris Construction and Engineering Co. Inc, located in Kutahya, Turkey, have been investigated. Totally, 498 seismic isolators were applied in the project. These isolators are double friction pendulum type seismic isolation devices. The review of current practices is also examined in this study. The focus of this study is related to the application of passive seismic isolation systems for buildings as practiced in Kutahya City Hospital Project. Based on the study, the acceleration at the top floor will be 0.18 g and it will decrease 0.01 g in every floor. Therefore, seismic isolators are very important for buildings located in earthquake zones.

Keywords: Seismic Design, maximum considered earthquake, moment resisting frame, seismic isolator

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4 A Study of Seismic Design Approaches for Steel Sheet Piles: Hydrodynamic Pressures and Reduction Factors Using CFD and Dynamic Calculations

Authors: Helena Pera, Arcadi Sanmartin, Albert Falques, Rafael Rebolo, Xavier Ametller, Heiko Zillgen, Cecile Prum, Boris Even, Eric Kapornyai


Sheet piles system can be an interesting solution when dealing with harbors or quays designs. However, current design methods lead to conservative approaches due to the lack of specific basis of design. For instance, some design features still deal with pseudo-static approaches, although being a dynamic problem. Under this concern, the study particularly focuses on hydrodynamic water pressure definition and stability analysis of sheet pile system under seismic loads. During a seismic event, seawater produces hydrodynamic pressures on structures. Currently, design methods introduce hydrodynamic forces by means of Westergaard formulation and Eurocodes recommendations. They apply constant hydrodynamic pressure on the front sheet pile during the entire earthquake. As a result, the hydrodynamic load may represent 20% of the total forces produced on the sheet pile. Nonetheless, some studies question that approach. Hence, this study assesses the soil-structure-fluid interaction of sheet piles under seismic action in order to evaluate if current design strategies overestimate hydrodynamic pressures. For that purpose, this study performs various simulations by Plaxis 2D, a well-known geotechnical software, and CFD models, which treat fluid dynamic behaviours. Knowing that neither Plaxis nor CFD can resolve a soil-fluid coupled problem, the investigation imposes sheet pile displacements from Plaxis as input data for the CFD model. Then, it provides hydrodynamic pressures under seismic action, which fit theoretical Westergaard pressures if calculated using the acceleration at each moment of the earthquake. Thus, hydrodynamic pressures fluctuate during seismic action instead of remaining constant, as design recommendations propose. Additionally, these findings detect that hydrodynamic pressure contributes a 5% to the total load applied on sheet pile due to its instantaneous nature. These results are in line with other studies that use added masses methods for hydrodynamic pressures. Another important feature in sheet pile design is the assessment of the geotechnical overall stability. It uses pseudo-static analysis since the dynamic analysis cannot provide a safety calculation. Consequently, it estimates the seismic action. One of its relevant factors is the selection of the seismic reduction factor. A huge amount of studies discusses the importance of it but also about all its uncertainties. Moreover, current European standards do not propose a clear statement on that, and they recommend using a reduction factor equal to 1. This leads to conservative requirements when compared with more advanced methods. Under this situation, the study calibrates seismic reduction factor by fitting results from pseudo-static to dynamic analysis. The investigation concludes that pseudo-static analyses could reduce seismic action by 40-50%. These results are in line with some studies from Japanese and European working groups. In addition, it seems suitable to account for the flexibility of the sheet pile-soil system. Nevertheless, the calibrated reduction factor is subjected to particular conditions of each design case. Further research would contribute to specifying recommendations for selecting reduction factor values in the early stages of the design. In conclusion, sheet pile design still has chances for improving its design methodologies and approaches. Consequently, design could propose better seismic solutions thanks to advanced methods such as findings of this study.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Seismic Design, pseudo-static analysis, hydrodynamic pressures, quays, steel sheet pile

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3 Numerical Simulation of Encased Composite Column Bases Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Eman Ismail, Adnan Masri


Energy dissipation in ductile moment frames occurs mainly through plastic hinge rotations in its members (beams and columns). Generally, plastic hinge locations are pre-determined and limited to the beam ends, where columns are designed to remain elastic in order to avoid premature instability (aka story mechanisms) with the exception of column bases, where a base is 'fixed' in order to provide higher stiffness and stability and to form a plastic hinge. Plastic hinging at steel column bases in ductile moment frames using conventional base connection details is accompanied by several complications (thicker and heavily stiffened connections, larger embedment depths, thicker foundation to accommodate anchor rod embedment, etc.). An encased composite base connection is proposed where a segment of the column beginning at the base up to a certain point along its height is encased in reinforced concrete with headed shear studs welded to the column flanges used to connect the column to the concrete encasement. When the connection is flexurally loaded, stresses are transferred to a reinforced concrete encasement through the headed shear studs, and thereby transferred to the foundation by reinforced concrete mechanics, and axial column forces are transferred through the base-plate assembly. Horizontal base reactions are expected to be transferred by the direct bearing of the outer and inner faces of the flanges; however, investigation of this mechanism is not within the scope of this research. The inelastic and cyclic behavior of the connection will be investigated where it will be subjected to reversed cyclic loading, and rotational ductility will be observed in cases of yielding mechanisms where yielding occurs as flexural yielding in the beam-column, shear yielding in headed studs, and flexural yielding of the reinforced concrete encasement. The findings of this research show that the connection is capable of achieving satisfactory levels of ductility in certain conditions given proper detailing and proportioning of elements.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Composite Construction, moment frame, plastic mechanisms steel structure

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2 Seismic Resistant Columns of Buildings against the Differential Settlement of the Foundation

Authors: Romaric Desbrousses, Lan Lin


The objective of this study is to determine how Canadian seismic design provisions affect the column axial load resistance of moment-resisting frame reinforced concrete buildings subjected to the differential settlement of their foundation. To do so, two four-storey buildings are designed in accordance with the seismic design provisions of the Canadian Concrete Design Standards. One building is located in Toronto, which is situated in a moderate seismic hazard zone in Canada, and the other in Vancouver, which is in Canada’s highest seismic hazard zone. A finite element model of each building is developed using SAP 2000. A 100 mm settlement is assigned to the base of the building’s center column. The axial load resistance of the column is represented by the demand capacity ratio. The analysis results show that settlement-induced tensile axial forces have a particularly detrimental effect on the conventional settling columns of the Toronto buildings which fail at a much smaller settlement that those in the Vancouver buildings. The results also demonstrate that particular care should be taken in the design of columns in short-span buildings.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Non-linear Analysis, Columns, Demand, Foundation differential settlement

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1 A Study on Golden Ratio (ф) and Its Implications on Seismic Design Using ETABS

Authors: Vishal A. S. Salelkar, Sumitra S. Kandolkar


Golden ratio (ф) or Golden mean or Golden section, as it is often referred to, is a proportion or a mean, which is often used by architects while conceiving the aesthetics of a structure. Golden Ratio (ф) is an irrational number that can be roughly rounded to 1.618 and is derived out of quadratic equation x2-x-1=0. The use of Golden Ratio (ф) can be observed throughout history, as far as ancient Egyptians, which later peaked during the Greek golden age. The use of this design technique is very much prevalent. At present, architects around the world prefer this as one of the primary techniques to decide aesthetics. In this study, an analysis has been performed to investigate whether the use of the golden ratio while planning a structure has any effects on the seismic behavior of the structure. The structure is modeled and analyzed on ETABS (by Computers and Structures, Inc.) for Seismic requirements equivalent to Zone III (Region: Goa-India) as per Indian Standard Code IS-1893. The results were compared to that of an identical structure modeled along the lines of normal design philosophy, not using the Golden Ratio tools. The results were then compared for Story Shear, Story Drift, and Story Displacement Readings. Improvement in performance, although slight, but was observed. Similar improvements were also observed in subsequent iterations, performed using time-acceleration data of previous major earthquakes matched to Zone III as per IS-1893.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Structural Behavior, golden ratio, ETABS

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