Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

segregation Related Abstracts

13 The Determination of the Phosphorous Solubility in the Iron by the Function of the Other Components

Authors: Andras Dezső, Peter Baumli, George Kaptay


The phosphorous is the important components in the steels, because it makes the changing of the mechanical properties and possibly modifying the structure. The phosphorous can be create the Fe3P compounds, what is segregated in the ferrite grain boundary in the intervals of the nano-, or microscale. This intermetallic compound is decreasing the mechanical properties, for example it makes the blue brittleness which means that the brittle created by the segregated particles at 200 ... 300°C. This work describes the phosphide solubility by the other components effect. We make calculations for the Ni, Mo, Cu, S, V, C, Si, Mn, and the Cr elements by the Thermo-Calc software. We predict the effects by approximate functions. The binary Fe-P system has a solubility line, which has a determinating equation. The result is below: lnwo = -3,439 – 1.903/T where the w0 means the weight percent of the maximum soluted concentration of the phosphorous, and the T is the temperature in Kelvin. The equation show that the P more soluble element when the temperature increasing. The nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, manganese, and the chromium make dependence to the maximum soluted concentration. These functions are more dependent by the elements concentration, which are lower when we put these elements in our steels. The copper, sulphur and carbon do not make effect to the phosphorous solubility. We predict that all of cases the maximum solubility concentration increases when the temperature more and more high. Between 473K and 673 K, in the phase diagram, these systems contain mostly two or three phase eutectoid, and the singe phase, ferritic intervals. In the eutectoid areas the ferrite, the iron-phosphide, and the metal (III)-phospide are in the equilibrium. In these modelling we predicted that which elements are good for avoid the phosphide segregation or not. These datas are important when we make or choose the steels, where the phosphide segregation stopping our possibilities.

Keywords: steel, segregation, phosphorous, thermo-calc software

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12 Elimination of Occupational Segregation By Sex: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Mutiat Temitayo James, Oladapo Olakunle James, Kabiru Oyetunde


This paper examines occupational segregation by sex and sought to justify a case for its elimination or not. In doing this, we found that occupations are categorised among men and women in all parts of the world and this, in turn, affects the labour force participation rate of men and women in different sectors and aspects of the labour market. Data from the previous study shows that women are the most discriminated against as regards occupational segregation as many high profile jobs are regarded as men’s job and women relegated to the background. This has brought about low productivity for women and inequity in the labour market which can hinder the productivity levels of participants. It was however recommended that occupational segregation should be eliminated totally so that men and women alike can choose occupations of their choice irrespective of what gender the society ascribe to such occupation.

Keywords: Gender, segregation, Discrimination, Gender equality, occupation, labour market

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11 Investigation of the Grain-Boundary Segregation Transition in the Binary Fe-C Alloy

Authors: Végh Ádám, Mekler Csaba, Dezső András, Szabó Dávid, Stomp Dávid, Kaptay György


Grain boundary segregation transition (GBST) has been calculated by a thermodynamic model in binary alloys. The method is used on cementite (Fe3C) segregation in base-centered cubic (ferrite) iron (Fe) in the Fe-C binary system. The GBST line is shown in the Fe3C lacking part of the phase diagram with high solvent (Fe) concentration. At a lower solute content (C) or at higher temperature the grain boundary is composed mostly of the solvent atoms (Fe). On higher concentration compared to the GBST line or at lower temperature a phase transformation occurs at the grain boundary, the latter mostly composed of the associates (Fe3C). These low-segregation and high-segregation states are first order interfacial phase transitions of the grain boundary and can be transformed into each other reversibly. These occur when the GBST line is crossed by changing the bulk composition or temperature.

Keywords: segregation, GBST, cementite, Fe-C alloy

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10 Modelling Affordable Waste Management Solutions for India

Authors: Pradip Baishya, D. K. Mahanta


Rapid and unplanned urbanisation in most cities of India has progressively increased the problem of managing municipal waste in the past few years. With insufficient infrastructure and funds, Municipalities in most cities are struggling to cope with the pace of waste generated. Open dumping is widely in practice as a cheaper option. Scientific disposal of waste in such a large scale with the elements of segregation, recycling, landfill, and incineration involves sophisticated and expensive plants. In an effort to finding affordable and simple solutions to address this burning issue of waste disposal, a semi-mechanized plant has been designed underlying the concept of a zero waste community. The fabrication work of the waste management unit is carried out by local skills from locally available materials. A resident colony in the city of Guwahati has been chosen, which is seen as a typical representative of most cities in India in terms of size and key issues surrounding waste management. Scientific management and disposal of waste on site is carried out on the principle of reduce, reuse and recycle from segregation to compositing. It is a local community participatory model, which involves all stakeholders in the process namely rag pickers, residents, municipality and local industry. Studies were conducted to testify the plant as revenue earning self-sustaining model in the long term. Current working efficiency of plant for segregation was found to be 1kg per minute. Identifying bottlenecks in the success of the model, data on efficiency of the plant, economics of its fabrication were part of the study. Similar satellite waste management plants could potentially be a solution to supplement the waste management system of municipalities of similar sized cities in India or South East Asia with similar issues surrounding waste disposal.

Keywords: reuse, Zero Waste, segregation, recycle, affordable, rag pickers, reduce

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9 Socio Economic Impact and Status of the Islamic Perspective of Veil

Authors: Shagufta Jahangir, Nadeemullah, Yaqoob, Raisa Jahangir


The Persian language word ‘Purdah’ and in Arabic ‘Hajab’ is used for veil. Veil has been used by women for being escaped from men. In one way or the other veil has been continuously used in ancient as well as modern civilizations by women. Developed nations have blamed the use of veil an obstacle in the process of development. Therefore, modern nations have struggled to get rid of the use of veil. They argue that it is a sign of slavery for women and it is an obstacle in the path of development. The modern secular Muslims considered veil as the biggest obstacle for social and economic development. It makes a woman helpless, as being zanjir in her feet. It has become an obstacle in the process of development for women. It is also considered as a tool for segregation among men and women. The so called Muslims of the modern era are trying to introduce changes in religion by imitation the modern nations of the world. In particular ways for Muslim woman use of veil in Islam is must. It is a right provided her by religion. It provides her strength. In the Holy Quran word ‘Hajab’ is used 5 times. Islam is against domination and forceful practice of veil, as a part of teaching of Islam it is being adopted by women as a protection. This article aims at: (1) historical background of veil (2) Its existence in civilizations, (3) Meaning and interpretation of veil in Islamic context, (4) Economic impact of it on women (5) Discussion on its practice in Islamic (eastern) and other (European) circles and conclusions followed by concerted bibliography.

Keywords: Economic Development, civilizations, segregation, obstacle, veil, secular Muslims

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8 The Impact of Neighborhood Effects on the Economic Mobility of the Inhabitants of Three Segregated Communities in Salvador (Brazil)

Authors: Stephan Treuke


The paper analyses the neighbourhood effects on the economic mobility of the inhabitants of three segregated communities of Salvador (Brazil), in other words, the socio-economic advantages and disadvantages affecting the lives of poor people due to their embeddedness in specific socio-residential contexts. Recent studies performed in Brazilian metropolis have concentrated on the structural dimensions of negative externalities in order to explain neighbourhood-level variations in a field of different phenomena (delinquency, violence, access to the labour market and education) in spatial isolated and socially homogeneous slum areas (favelas). However, major disagreement remains whether the contiguity between residents of poor neighbourhoods and higher-class condominio-dwellers provides structures of opportunities or whether it fosters socio-spatial stigmatization. Based on a set of interviews, investigating the variability of interpersonal networks and their activation in the struggle for economic inclusion, the study confirms that the proximity of Nordeste de Amaralina to middle-/upper-class communities affects positively the access to labour opportunities. Nevertheless, residential stigmatization, as well as structures of social segmentation, annihilate these potentials. The lack of exposition to individuals and groups extrapolating from the favela’s social, educational and cultural context restricts the structures of opportunities to local level. Therefore, residents´ interpersonal networks reveal a high degree of redundancy and localism, based on bonding ties connecting family and neighbourhood members. The resilience of segregational structures in Plataforma contributes to the naturalization of social distance patters. It’s embeddedness in a socially homogeneous residential area (Subúrbio Ferroviário), growing informally and beyond official urban politics, encourages the construction of isotopic patterns of sociability, sharing the same values, social preferences, perspectives and behaviour models. Whereas it’s spatial isolation correlates with the scarcity of economic opportunities, the social heterogeneity of Fazenda Grande II interviewees and the socialising effects of public institutions mitigate the negative repercussions of segregation. The networks’ composition admits a higher degree of heterophilia and a greater proportion of bridging ties accounting for the access to broader information actives and facilitating economic mobility. The variability observed within the three different scenarios urges to reflect about the responsability of urban politics when it comes to the prevention or consolidation of the social segregation process in Salvador. Instead of promoting the local development of the favela Plataforma, public housing programs priorize technocratic habitational solutions without providing the residents’ socio-economic integration. The impact of negative externalities related to the homogeneously poor neighbourhood is potencialized in peripheral areas, turning its’ inhabitants socially invisible, thus being isolated from other social groups. The example of Nordeste de Amaralina portrays the failing interest of urban politics to bridge the social distances structuring the brazilian society’s rigid stratification model, founded on mecanisms of segmentation (unequal access to labour market and education system, public transport, social security and law protection) and generating permanent conflicts between the two socioeconomically distant groups living in geographic contiguity. Finally, in the case of Fazenda Grande II, the public investments in both housing projects and complementary infrastructure (e.g. schools, hospitals, community center, police stations, recreation areas) contributes to the residents’ socio-economic inclusion.

Keywords: segregation, Neighborhood Effects, economic mobility, Salvador

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7 Generating Biogas from Municipal Kitchen Waste: An Experience from Gaibandha, Bangladesh

Authors: Taif Rocky, Uttam Saha, Mahobul Islam


With a rapid urbanisation in Bangladesh, waste management remains one of the core challenges. Turning municipal waste into biogas for mass usage is a solution that Bangladesh needs to adopt urgently. Practical Action with its commitment to challenging poverty with technological justice has piloted such idea in Gaibandha. The initiative received immense success and drew the attention of policy makers and practitioners. We believe, biogas from waste can highly contribute to meet the growing demand for energy in the country at present and in the future. Practical Action has field based experience in promoting small scale and innovative technologies. We have proven track record in integrated solid waste management. We further utilized this experience to promote waste to biogas at end users’ level. In 2011, we have piloted a project on waste to biogas in Gaibandha, a northern secondary town of Bangladesh. With resource and support from UNICEF and with our own innovative funds we have established a complete chain of utilizing waste to the renewable energy source and organic fertilizer. Biogas is produced from municipal solid waste, which is properly collected, transported and segregated by private entrepreneurs. The project has two major focuses, diversification of biogas end use and establishing a public-private partnership business model. The project benefits include Recycling of Wastes, Improved institutional (municipal) capacity, Livelihood from improved services and Direct Income from the project. Project risks include Change of municipal leadership, Traditional mindset, Access to decision making, Land availability. We have observed several outcomes from the initiative. Up scaling such an initiative will certainly contribute for sustainable cleaner and healthier urban environment and urban poverty reduction. - It reduces the unsafe disposal of wastes which improve the cleanliness and environment of the town. -Make drainage system effective reducing the adverse impact of water logging or flooding. -Improve public health from better management of wastes. -Promotes usage of biogas replacing the use of firewood/coal which creates smoke and indoor air pollution in kitchens which have long term impact on health of women and children. -Reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the anaerobic recycling of wastes and contributes to sustainable urban environment. -Promote the concept of agroecology from the uses of bio slurry/compost which contributes to food security. -Creates green jobs from waste value chain which impacts on poverty alleviation of urban extreme poor. -Improve municipal governance from inclusive waste services and functional partnership with private sectors. -Contribute to the implementation of 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) Strategy and Employment Creation of extreme poor to achieve the target set in Vision 2021 by Government of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Biogas, segregation, kitchen waste, secondary town

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6 Teachers' Preferences on the Issue of Segregation of Gifted Pupils in Czech Educational System

Authors: I. Kočvarová, E. Machů, N. Bártlová


The issue of inclusion - segregation in the current Czech educational system is highly actual due to changes in legislation. It applies primarily to pupils with special educational needs, but it should also apply to pupils with giftedness. The paper presents chosen results of an exploratory survey that was carried out on a convenience sample of 1101 Czech teachers working in lower secondary education (ISCED2). The rate of teachers´ agreement with segregation of gifted pupils in the education system was monitored during this investigation. A validated questionnaire of our own design was used for the purpose of this investigation. The results were compared across groups of teachers in terms of selected variables. Results show that 36,3 % of teachers incline to segregation (rather than inclusion) of gifted pupils. Teachers who are not educated in this field and have no experience in teaching gifted pupils tend to support their segregation more in comparison with other teachers. Teachers of specialized schools for gifted pupils paradoxically agree with segregation to a slightly lesser extent than teachers from traditional schools, but they also manifest the most hesitant attitude in this issue. Preferences for segregation of gifted pupils are not related to attitudes toward gifted pupils or teachers' self-evaluation in terms of care for the gifted. Investigation indicates that the issue of education of gifted children and their inclusion in the educational system needs more space within the further education of teachers.

Keywords: Inclusion, Evaluation, Teacher, segregation, educational system, gifted pupil

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5 The Development of the Spatial and Hierarchic Urban Structure of the Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Population in Israel

Authors: Lee Cahaner, Nissim Leon


The segregation of populations is one of the main axes in the research of urban geography, which refers to the spatial and functional relationships between settlements. In Israel, this phenomenon has its unique expression in the spatial processes concerning the ultra-orthodox population. This population holds a set of interactions within itself as well as with the non-orthodox surrounding population because of historical and contemporary motivations on its which strength depends on its homogeneousness and separation. Its demographic growth rate and the internal social processes that the ultra-orthodox society undergoes create a new image of the ultra-orthodox concentration and its location in the Israeli space. The goals of the present study have also been defined with the express intention of filling the scholarly vacuum noted above: firstly, to discuss the development of the Israeli ultra-Orthodox sector’s hierarchical and spatial structure as of 2015, in light of the principles and mechanisms that guide it and vis-à-vis the general population’s hierarchical locality system; secondly, to map Israel’s ultra-Orthodox population, with attention to its physical boundaries, its subdivisions (Hassidic, Lithuanian, Sephardic) and the geographical and demographic processes that have characterized it in recent years; and thirdly, to shed light on the interactions between ultra-Orthodox localities via several different parameters, e.g. migration, education, transportation, employment, consumerism and community services. In order to understand the changes in ultra-Orthodox geographic distribution and the social processes that these changes have generated, a number of research activities were conducted during the course of this study− notably, gathering and assembling material from earlier academic studies, newspaper advertisements, state and private archives; in-depth interviews with major figures in the ultra-Orthodox community and others who come into contact with it; tours of the core areas of ultra-Orthodox settlement; and gathering quantitative and qualitative data from the statistical reports of governmental and other bodies. In addition, a multi-participant (2400-respondent) quantitative survey was conducted among residents of the new ultra-Orthodox cities, designed to elucidate the attributes and spatial attitudes of the residents− as a means of tracing and understanding this new settlement pattern within ultra-Orthodox space. A major portion of the quantitative and qualitative material was processed to form a system of maps that visually describe the distribution of Israel’s ultra-Orthodox population.

Keywords: Migration, segregation, new cities, ultra-orthodox

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4 Distribution and Segregation of Aerosols in Ambient Air

Authors: S. Ramteke, K. S. Patel


Aerosols are complex mixture of particulate matters (PM) inclusive of carbons, silica, elements, various salts, etc. Aerosols get deep into the human lungs and cause a broad range of health effects, in particular, respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. They are one of the major culprits for the climate change. They are emitted by the high thermal processes i.e. vehicles, steel, sponge, cement, thermal power plants, etc. Raipur (22˚33'N to 21˚14'N and 82˚6'E) to 81˚38'E) is a growing industrial city in central India with population of two million. In this work, the distribution of inorganics (i.e. Cl⁻, NO³⁻, SO₄²⁻, NH₄⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) associated to the PM in the ambient air is described. The PM₁₀ in ambient air of Raipur city was collected for duration of one year (December 2014 - December 2015). The PM₁₀ was segregated into nine modes i.e. PM₁₀.₀₋₉.₀, PM₉.₀₋₅.₈, PM₅.₈₋₄.₇, PM₄.₇₋₃.₃, PM₃.₃₋₂.₁, PM₂.₁₋₁.₁, PM₁.₁₋₀.₇, PM₀.₇₋₀.₄ and PM₀.₄ to know their emission sources and health hazards. The analysis of ions and metals was carried out by techniques i.e. ion chromatography and TXRF. The PM₁₀ concentration (n=48) was ranged from 100-450 µg/m³ with mean value of 73.57±20.82 µg/m³. The highest concentration of PM₄.₇₋₃.₃, PM₂.₁₋₁.₁, PM₁.₁₋₀.₇ was observed in the commercial, residential and industrial area, respectively. The effect of meteorology i.e. temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction in the PM₁₀ and associated elemental concentration in the air is discussed.

Keywords: Metals, Ions, segregation, ambient aerosol

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3 The Desirable Construction of Urbanity in Spaces for Public Use

Authors: Giselly Barros Rodrigues, Carlos Leite de Souza


In recent years, there has been a great discussion about urbanism, the right to the city, the search for the public space and the occupation and appropriation of people in the spaces of the city. This movement happens all over the world and also in the great Brazilian metropolises. The more human-friendly city - the desirable construction of urbanity - as well as the encouragement of walking or bicycling to the detriment of cars is one of the major issues addressed by urban planners and challenges in the process of reviewing regulatory frameworks. The fact is that even if there are public spaces or space for public use in private areas - it is essential that there be, besides a project focused on the people and the use of space, a good management not to generate excess of control and consequently the segregation between different ethnicities, classes or creed. With the insertion of the Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014), there is great incentive for them to implement - in the private spaces - of mixed uses and active facades (Services and commerce in the basement of buildings), these incentives will generate a city for people in the medium and long term. This research seeks to discuss the extent to which these spaces are democratic, what their perceptions are in relation to the space of public use in private areas and why this perception may be the one that was originally idealized. For this study, we carried out bibliographic reviews where applied research were carried out in three case studies listed in Sao Paulo. Questionnaires were also applied to the actors who gave answers regarding their perceptions and how they were approached in the places analyzed. After analyzing the material, it was verified that in the three case studies analyzed, sitting on the floor is prohibited. In the two places in Paulista Avenue (Cetenco Plaza and Square of Mall Cidade Sao Paulo) there was no problem whatsoever in relation to the clothes or attitudes of the actors in the streets of Paulista Avenue in Sao Paulo city. Different from what happened in the Itaim neighborhood (Brascan Century Plaza), with more conservative characteristics, where the actors were heavily watched by security and observed by others due to their clothes and attitudes in that area. The city of Sao Paulo is slowly changing, people are increasingly looking for places of quality in public use in their daily lives. The Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014) and the Legislation approved in 2016 envision a city more humane and people-oriented in the future. It is up to the private sector, the public, and society to work together so that this glimpse becomes an abundant reality in every city, generating quality of life and urbanity for all.

Keywords: segregation, urbanity, space for public use, appropriation of space

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2 Horizontal Gender Inequality and Segregation at Workplace in China: Understanding How Implicit and Unconscious Gender Stereotypes Produce and Reinforce Workplace Gender Inequality in China through Interview-Based Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Yiyan Wu


In the past several decades, the market transition in China has brought in not only more opportunities for women in the labor market but also more attention to gender inequality in workplace. Although some pieces of literature have mentioned gender inequality and segregation at workplace in China, the paper looks into the variations of gender inequality and segregation: working women have little feeling about 'hierarchical inequalities', which define the status and position of women at the workplace. However, at the same time, they unconsciously reinforced 'horizontal inequalities', which creates gender segregation across occupations and job titles. Using qualitative interviews with women employers and employees of various occupations and job titles in Eastern and Southern China, this paper finds evidence that working women's understandings of the division of labor based on the characteristics and expectations of women and men are not as a result of rationality and efficiency, but instead, are the products of gendered stereotypes and traditions. However, holding positive views of gender equality at workplace, working women are not aware of the existence and influence of such gendered stereotypes and traditions. By distinguishing the concepts of 'horizontal inequality' and 'hierarchical inequality' with a cultural sociological approach, this paper contributes to the understanding of gender inequality and segregation in contemporary Chinese society. Moreover, this paper explains the logic behind the paradox in which gender inequality and segregation at workplace persist while women are feeling equal.

Keywords: segregation, China, Gender equality, hierarchical inequality, horizontal inequality

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1 Using Geographic Information Systems to Trace Conditions for Young Women's Experiences of Public Spaces in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

Authors: Alazar G. Ejigu


Cities have traditionally been designed for and by men. Despite positive changes in this regard, contemporary cities appear to offer limited options and experiences to women in their everyday life. There are differences regarding the quality of space. Distressed or disadvantaged areas often have less access to urban qualities, such as services, parks, and public places, than more privileged ones. The most attractive meeting-places are located centrally, whereas many suburban areas lack these elements. By focusing on young women living in multi-ethnic working-class suburban areas in Stockholm - a group generally ignored and disadvantaged; the study aims to examine various forms of inequality or equality in three selected neighborhoods. Spatial data was collected through walk-along with the young girls, inventory of the places, and geodata made available by Statistics Sweden (SCB). The combined data was analyzed with the help of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In line with Crenshaw - one of the forerunners of intersectional thinking – the project departs from the idea that if we address the needs of those who are disadvantaged and restructure urban space accordingly, then others will benefit too. Thus, working our way towards a more equal city.

Keywords: Urban Planning, GIS, segregation, Gender equality

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