Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

seepage Related Abstracts

7 Geospatial Techniques for Impact Assessment of Canal Rehabilitation Program in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Sumaira Zafar, Arjumand Zaidi, Muhammad Arslan Hafeez


Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) is the largest contiguous irrigation system of the world comprising Indus River and its tributaries, canals, distributaries, and watercourses. A big challenge faced by IBIS is transmission losses through seepage and leaks that account to 41 percent of the total water derived from the river and about 40 percent of that is through watercourses. Irrigation system rehabilitation programs in Pakistan are focused on improvement of canal system at the watercourse level (tertiary channels). Under these irrigation system management programs more than 22,800 watercourses have been improved or lined out of 43,000 (12,900 Kilometers) watercourses. The evaluation of the improvement work is required at this stage to testify the success of the programs. In this paper, emerging technologies of GIS and satellite remote sensing are used for impact assessment of watercourse rehabilitation work in Sindh. To evaluate the efficiency of the improved watercourses, few parameters are selected like soil moisture along watercourses, availability of water at tail end and changes in cultivable command areas. Improved watercourses details and maps are acquired from National Program for Improvement of Watercourses (NPIW) and Space and Upper Atmospheric Research Commission (SUPARCO). High resolution satellite images of Google Earth for the year of 2004 to 2013 are used for digitizing command areas. Temporal maps of cultivable command areas show a noticeable increase in the cultivable land served by improved watercourses. Field visits are conducted to validate the results. Interviews with farmers and landowners also reveal their overall satisfaction in terms of availability of water at the tail end and increased crop production.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geospatial, GIS, Impact Assessment, watercourses, seepage, canal lining

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6 Simulation of Flow through Dam Foundation by FEM and ANN Methods Case Study: Shahid Abbaspour Dam

Authors: Mehrdad Shahrbanozadeh, Gholam Abbas Barani, Saeed Shojaee


In this study, a finite element (Seep3D model) and an artificial neural network (ANN) model were developed to simulate flow through dam foundation. Seep3D model is capable of simulating three-dimensional flow through a heterogeneous and anisotropic, saturated and unsaturated porous media. Flow through the Shahid Abbaspour dam foundation has been used as a case study. The FEM with 24960 triangular elements and 28707 nodes applied to model flow through foundation of this dam. The FEM being made denser in the neighborhood of the curtain screen. The ANN model developed for Shahid Abbaspour dam is a feedforward four layer network employing the sigmoid function as an activator and the back-propagation algorithm for the network learning. The water level elevations of the upstream and downstream of the dam have been used as input variables and the piezometric heads as the target outputs in the ANN model. The two models are calibrated and verified using the Shahid Abbaspour’s dam piezometric data. Results of the models were compared with those measured by the piezometers which are in good agreement. The model results also revealed that the ANN model performed as good as and in some cases better than the FEM.

Keywords: Neural Network, Finite Element Method, Dam Foundation, seepage, seep 3D model

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5 Minimization of Seepage in Sandy Soil Using Different Grouting Types

Authors: Eng. M. Ahmed, A. Ibrahim, M. Ashour


One of the major concerns facing dam is the repair of their structures to prevent the seepage under them. In previous years, many existing dams have been treated by grouting, but with varying degrees of success. One of the major reasons for this erratic performance is the unsuitable selection of the grouting materials to reduce the seepage. Grouting is an effective way to improve the engineering properties of the soil and strengthen of the permeability of the soil to reduce the seepage. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the efficiency of current available grouting materials and techniques from construction, environmental and economical point of view. The seepage reduction usually accomplished by either chemical grouting or cementious grouting using ultrafine cement. In addition, the study shows a comparison between grouting materials according to their degree of permeability reduction and cost. The application of seepage reduction is based on the permeation grouting using grout curtain installation. The computer program (SEEP/W) is employed to model a dam rested on sandy soil, using grout curtain to reduce seepage quantity and hydraulic gradient by different grouting materials. This study presents a relationship that takes into account the permeability of the soil, grout curtain spacing and a new performance parameter that can be used to predict the best selection of grouting materials for seepage reduction.

Keywords: Permeability, sandy soil, seepage, grouting

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4 Design of Raw Water Reservoir on Sandy Soil

Authors: Venkata Ramana Pamu


This paper is a case study of a 5310 ML capacity Raw Water Reservoir (RWR), situated in Indian state Rajasthan, which is a part of Rajasthan Rural Water Supply & Fluorosis Mitigation Project. This RWR embankment was constructed by locally available material on natural ground profile. Height of the embankment was varying from 2m to 10m.This is due to existing ground level was varying. Reservoir depth 9m including 1.5m free board and 1V:3H slopes were provided both upstream and downstream side. Proper soil investigation, tests were done and it was confirmed that the existing soil is sandy silt. The existing excavated earth was used as filling material for embankment construction, due to this controlling seepage from upstream to downstream be a challenging task. Slope stability and Seismic analysis of the embankment done by Conventional method for both full reservoir condition and rapid drawdown. Horizontal filter at toe level was provided along with upstream side PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) block and HDPE (High Density poly ethylene) lining as a remedy to control seepage. HDPE lining was also provided at storage area of the reservoir bed level. Mulching was done for downstream side slope protection.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Seismic Analysis, seepage, raw water reservoir

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3 Soil Moisture Regulation in Irrigated Agriculture

Authors: I. Kruashvili, I. Inashvili, K. Bziava, M. Lomishvili


Seepage capillary anomalies in the active layer of soil, related to the soil water movement, often cause variation of soil hydrophysical properties and become one of the main objectives of the hydroecology. It is necessary to mention that all existing equations for computing the seepage flow particularly from soil channels, through dams, bulkheads, and foundations of hydraulic engineering structures are preferable based on the linear seepage law. Regarding the existing beliefs, anomalous seepage is based on postulates according to which the fluid in free volume is characterized by resistance against shear deformation and is presented in the form of initial gradient. According to the above-mentioned information, we have determined: Equation to calculate seepage coefficient when the velocity of transition flow is equal to seepage flow velocity; by means of power function, equations for the calculation of average and maximum velocities of seepage flow have been derived; taking into consideration the fluid continuity condition, average velocity for calculation of average velocity in capillary tube has been received.

Keywords: Water, Soil, velocity, seepage

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2 Fragility Analysis of Weir Structure Subjected to Flooding Water Damage

Authors: Oh Hyeon Jeon, WooYoung Jung


In this study, seepage analysis was performed by the level difference between upstream and downstream of weir structure for safety evaluation of weir structure against flooding. Monte Carlo Simulation method was employed by considering the probability distribution of the adjacent ground parameter, i.e., permeability coefficient of weir structure. Moreover, by using a commercially available finite element program (ABAQUS), modeling of the weir structure is carried out. Based on this model, the characteristic of water seepage during flooding was determined at each water level with consideration of the uncertainty of their corresponding permeability coefficient. Subsequently, fragility function could be constructed based on this response from numerical analysis; this fragility function results could be used to determine the weakness of weir structure subjected to flooding disaster. They can also be used as a reference data that can comprehensively predict the probability of failur,e and the degree of damage of a weir structure.

Keywords: seepage, probabilistic risk assessment, Monte-Carlo simulation, permeability coefficient, weir structure, flood disaster fragility

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1 Reliability-Based Design of an Earth Slope Taking into Account Unsaturated Soil Properties

Authors: A. T. Siacara, A. T. Beck, M. M. Futai


This paper shows how accurately and efficiently reliability analyses of geotechnical installations can be performed by directly coupling geotechnical software with a reliability solver. An earth slope is used as the study object. The limit equilibrium method of Morgenstern-Price is used to calculate factors of safety and find the critical slip surface. The deterministic software package Seep/W and Slope/W is coupled with the StRAnD reliability software. Reliability indexes of critical probabilistic surfaces are evaluated by the first-order reliability methods (FORM). By means of sensitivity analysis, the effective cohesion (c') is found to be the most relevant uncertain geotechnical parameter for slope equilibrium. The slope was tested using different geometries, taking into account unsaturated soil properties. Finally, a critical slip surface, identified in terms of minimum factor of safety, is shown here not to be the critical surface in terms of reliability index.

Keywords: Reliability, Safety, slope, seepage, Unsaturated

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