Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Sediments Related Abstracts

12 Enhancing Value of Dam Dredged Sediments as a Component of a Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: N. Belas, O. Belaribi, S. Aggoun, K. Bendani, N. Bouhamou, A. Mebrouki


This experimental work is a part of a long research on the valorization of the dam dredged sediments issued from Fergoug Dam (Mascara-West Algeria). These sediments have to be subjected to thermal treatment to become reactive with the cement and thus to obtain an artificial pozzolana. It is therefore a question of developing the calcined mud as substitutable material in part to the cement used in the composition of self compacting concrete. The objective of the present work is to highlight its influence on the behavior of self compacting concrete compared to that of the natural pozzolana and this, in fresh and hardened states. The study is being conducted on three SCC, the first using 20% in volume of natural pozzolana, the second with 20 % of calcined mud and the third for the sake of comparison is made with cement only. The first results showed the possibility of obtaining SCC with calcined mud complying with the AFGC recommendations having a good mechanical behavior which makes interesting its development as construction materials.

Keywords: Sediments, Valorization, self compacting concrete, fresh state, dam, hardened state mud

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11 The Effects of Siltation in Seagrass along Claver Surigao Del Norte

Authors: Dawn Rosarie M. Fajardo


Seagrass plays a crucial role in sustaining marine ecosystem. In this investigation two areas (Panyug and Kinalablaban) were studied to assess the effect of siltation in seagrass condition. The size of the sediment was also examined. Data analysis showed that Panyug had higher level of silt compared to Kinalablaban. The results indicate that seagrass is vulnerable to environmental disturbances. The results also indicate that plants grown in undisturbed natural sediments were more successful than plants in sediments which were disturbed. In addition to that, there are total of seven species of seagrass that are found tolerant with siltation it includes Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea rotundata, Halophila minor, Halodule pinifolia, Halodule uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, and Thalassia hemprichii. The results were given emphasis especially for the five representative quadrats in each area. Among these species of seagrass Cymodocea rotundata is the most tolerant to siltation. There is also no significant relationships between silt and seagrass percent cover which had r² = 0.192, Panyug and r² = 0.145, at Kinalablaban at P> 0.05. The data showed that Panyug (area 1) was characterized with high level of silt compared to that of Kinalablaban that contains more granulated sediments.

Keywords: Environmental Issues, Sediments, seagrass, siltation, cymodocea rotundata

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10 Accumulation of Pollutants, Self-Purification and Impact on Peripheral Urban Areas: A Case Study in Shantytowns in Argentina

Authors: N. Porzionato, M. Mantiñan, E. Bussi, S. Grinberg, R. Gutierrez, G. Curutchet


This work sets out to debate the tensions involved in the processes of contamination and self-purification in the urban space, particularly in the streams that run through the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. For much of their course, those streams are piped; their waters do not come into contact with the outdoors until they have reached deeply impoverished urban areas with high levels of environmental contamination. These are peripheral zones that, until thirty years ago, were marshlands and fields. They are now densely populated areas largely lacking in urban infrastructure. The Cárcova neighborhood, where this project is underway, is in the José León Suárez section of General San Martín country, Buenos Aires province. A stretch of José León Suarez canal crosses the neighborhood. Starting upstream, this canal carries pollutants due to the sewage and industrial waste released into it. Further downstream, in the neighborhood, domestic drainage is poured into the stream. In this paper, we formulate a hypothesis diametrical to the one that holds that these neighborhoods are the primary source of contamination, suggesting instead that in the stretch of the canal that runs through the neighborhood the stream’s waters are actually cleaned and the sediments accumulate pollutants. Indeed, the stretches of water that runs through these neighborhoods act as water processing plants for the metropolis. This project has studied the different organic-load polluting contributions to the water in a certain stretch of the canal, the reduction of that load over the course of the canal, and the incorporation of pollutants into the sediments. We have found that the surface water has considerable ability to self-purify, mostly due to processes of sedimentation and adsorption. The polluting load is accumulated in the sediments where that load stabilizes slowly by means of anaerobic processes. In this study, we also investigated the risks of sediment management and the use of the processes studied here in controlled conditions as tools of environmental restoration.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Sediments, Pollutants, urban streams

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9 Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediments of North East Coast of Tamilnadu by EDXRF Technique

Authors: R. Ravisankar, Tholkappian A. Chandrasekaran, Y. Raghu, K. K. Satapathy, M. V. R. Prasad, K. V. Kanagasabapathy


The coastal areas of Tamilnadu are assuming greater importance owing to increasing human population, urbanization and accelerated industrial activities. sIn the present study, sediment samples are collected along the east coast of Tamilnadu for assessment of heavy metal pollution. The concentration of 13 selected heavy metals such as Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zn determined by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. In order to describe the pollution status, Contamination factor and pollution load index are calculated and reported. This result suggests that sources of metal contamination were mainly attributed to natural inputs from surrounding environments.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Sediments, EDXRF, pollution contamination factors

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8 A webGIS Methodology to Support Sediments Management in Wallonia

Authors: Nathalie Stephenne, Mathieu Veschkens, Stéphane Palm, Christophe Charlemagne, Jacques Defoux


According to Europe’s first River basin Management Plans (RBMPs), 56% of European rivers failed to achieve the good status targets of the Water Framework Directive WFD. In Central European countries such as Belgium, even more than 80% of rivers failed to achieve the WFD quality targets. Although the RBMP’s should reduce the stressors and improve water body status, their potential to address multiple stress situations is limited due to insufficient knowledge on combined effects, multi-stress, prioritization of measures, impact on ecology and implementation effects. This paper describes a webGis prototype developed for the Walloon administration to improve the communication and the management of sediment dredging actions carried out in rivers and lakes in the frame of RBMPs. A large number of stakeholders are involved in the management of rivers and lakes in Wallonia. They are in charge of technical aspects (client and dredging operators, organizations involved in the treatment of waste…), management (managers involved in WFD implementation at communal, provincial or regional level) or policy making (people responsible for policy compliance or legislation revision). These different kinds of stakeholders need different information and data to cover their duties but have to interact closely at different levels. Moreover, information has to be shared between them to improve the management quality of dredging operations within the ecological system. In the Walloon legislation, leveling dredged sediments on banks requires an official authorization from the administration. This request refers to spatial information such as the official land use map, the cadastral map, the distance to potential pollution sources. The production of a collective geodatabase can facilitate the management of these authorizations from both sides. The proposed internet system integrates documents, data input, integration of data from disparate sources, map representation, database queries, analysis of monitoring data, presentation of results and cartographic visualization. A prototype of web application using the API geoviewer chosen by the Geomatic department of the SPW has been developed and discussed with some potential users to facilitate the communication, the management and the quality of the data. The structure of the paper states the why, what, who and how of this communication tool.

Keywords: Web Application, GIS, Sediments, rivers management

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7 Heavy Metals Concentration in Sediments Along the Ports, Samoa

Authors: T. Imo, F. Latū, S. Aloi, J. Leung-Wai, V. Vaurasi, P. Amosa, M. A. Sheikh


Contamination of heavy metals in coral reefs and coastal areas is a serious ecotoxicological and environmental problem due to direct runoff from anthropogenic wastes, commercial vessels, and discharge from industrial effluents. In Samoa, the information on the ecotoxicological impact of heavy metals on sediments is limited. This study presents baseline data on the concentration and distribution of heavy metals in sediments collected along the commercial and fishing ports in Samoa. Surface sediment samples were collected within the months of August-October 2013 from the 5 sites along the 2 ports. Sieved sample fractions were used for the evaluation of sediment physicochemical parameters namely pH, conductivity, organic matter, and bicarbonates of calcium. Heavy metal (Cu, Pb) analysis was achieved by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Two heavy metals (Cu, Pb) were detected from each port with some concentration below the WHO permissible maximum concentration of environment quality standard. The results obtained from this study advocate for further studies regarding emerging threats of heavy metals on the vital marine resources which have significant importance to the livelihood of coastal societies, particularly Small Island States including Samoa.

Keywords: Coastal environment, Pollution, Heavy Metals, Sediments

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6 Biogas Production from Lake Bottom Biomass from Forest Management Areas

Authors: Dessie Tegegne Tibebu, Kirsi Mononen, Ari Pappinen


In areas with forest management, agricultural, and industrial activity, sediments and biomass are accumulated in lakes through drainage system, which might be a cause for biodiversity loss and health problems. One possible solution can be utilization of lake bottom biomass and sediments for biogas production. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potentials of lake bottom materials for production of biogas by anaerobic digestion and to study the effect of pretreatment methods for feed materials on biogas yield. In order to study the potentials of biogas production lake bottom materials were collected from two sites, Likokanta and Kutunjärvi lake. Lake bottom materials were mixed with straw-horse manure to produce biogas in a laboratory scale reactor. The results indicated that highest yields of biogas values were observed when feeds were composed of 50% lake bottom materials with 50% straw horse manure mixture-while with above 50% lake bottom materials in the feed biogas production decreased. CH4 content from Likokanta lake materials with straw-horse manure and Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw-horse manure were similar values when feed consisted of 50% lake bottom materials with 50% straw horse manure mixtures. However, feeds with lake bottom materials above 50%, the CH4 concentration started to decrease, impairing gas process. Pretreatment applied on Kutunjärvi lake materials showed a slight negative effect on the biogas production and lowest CH4 concentration throughout the experiment. The average CH4 production (ml g-1 VS) from pretreated Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw horse manure (208.9 ml g-1 VS) and untreated Kutunjärvi lake materials with straw horse manure (182.2 ml g-1 VS) were markedly higher than from Likokanta lake materials with straw horse manure (157.8 ml g-1 VS). According to the experimental results, utilization of 100% lake bottom materials for biogas production is likely to be impaired negatively. In the future, further analyses to improve the biogas yields, assessment of costs and benefits is needed before utilizing lake bottom materials for the production of biogas.

Keywords: Biogas, Sediments, Pretreatment, Anaerobic Digestion, lake bottom materials

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5 Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rivers, Sediments and Wastewater Effluents in Vhembe District of South Africa Using GC-TOF-MS

Authors: Joshua N. Edokpayi, John O. Odiyo, Titus A. M. Msagati, Elizabeth O. Popoola


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and persistent environmental contaminants. This study was undertaken to assess the concentrations and possible sources of 16 PAHs classified by the United State Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants in Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers and sediments. Effluents from Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant and Siloam waste stabilization ponds were also investigated. Diagnostic ratios were used to evaluate the possible sources of PAHs. PAHs in the water samples were extracted using 1:1 dichloromethane and n-hexane mixtures, while those in the sediment samples were extracted with 1:1 acetone and dichloromethane using ultrasonication method. The extracts were purified using SPE technique and reconstituted in n-hexane before analyses with GC-TOF-MS. The results obtained indicate the prevalence of high molecular weight PAHs in all the samples. PAHs concentrations in water and sediment samples from all the sampling sites were in the range of 13.174-26.382 mg/L and 27.10-55.93 mg/kg, respectively. Combustion of biomass was identified as the major possible source of PAHs. Effluents from wastewater treatment facilities were also considered as major anthropogenic contributions to the levels of PAHs determined in both river waters and sediments. Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers show moderate to high contamination level of PAHs.

Keywords: rivers, Sediments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, wastewater effluents

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4 Balance Transfer of Heavy Metals in Marine Environments Subject to Natural and Anthropogenic Inputs: A Case Study on the Mejerda River Delta

Authors: Mohamed Amine Helali, Walid Oueslati, Ayed Added


Sedimentation rates and total fluxes of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cu) was measured in three different depths (10m, 20m and 40m) during March and August 2012, offshore of the Mejerda River outlet (Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia). The sedimentation rates are estimated from the fluxes of the suspended particulate matter at 7.32, 5.45 and 4.39 mm y⁻¹ respectively at 10m, 20m and 40m depth. Heavy metals sequestration in sediments was determined by chemical speciation and the total metal contents in each core collected from 10, 20 and 40m depth. Heavy metals intake to the sediment was measured also from the suspended particulate matter, while the fluxes from the sediment to the water column was determined using the benthic chambers technique and from the diffusive fluxes in the pore water. Results shown that iron is the only metal for which the balance transfer between intake/uptake (45 to 117 / 1.8 to 5.8 g m² y⁻¹) and sequestration (277 to 378 g m² y⁻¹) was negative, at the opposite of the Lead which intake fluxes (360 to 480 mg m² y⁻¹) are more than sequestration fluxes (50 to 92 mg m² y⁻¹). The balance transfer is neutral for Mn, Zn, and Cu. These clearly indicate that the contributions of Mejerda have consistently varied over time, probably due to the migration of the River mouth and to the changes in the mining activity in the Mejerda catchment and the recent human activities which affect the delta area.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Sediments, fluxes, delta, sedimentation rates

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3 Comparison of Quality Indices for Sediment Assessment in Ireland

Authors: Tayyaba Bibi, Jenny Ronan, Robert Hernan, Kathleen O’Rourke, Brendan McHugh, Evin McGovern, Michelle Giltrap, Gordon Chambers, James Wilson


Sediment contamination is a major source of ecosystem stress and has received significant attention from the scientific community. Both the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) require a robust set of tools for biological and chemical monitoring. For the MSFD in particular, causal links between contaminant and effects need to be assessed. Appropriate assessment tools are required in order to make an accurate evaluation. In this study, a range of recommended sediment bioassays and chemical measurements are assessed in a number of potentially impacted and lowly impacted locations around Ireland. Previously, assessment indices have been developed on individual compartments, i.e. contaminant levels or biomarker/bioassay responses. A number of assessment indices are applied to chemical and ecotoxicological data from the Seachange project (Project code) and compared including the metal pollution index (MPI), pollution load index (PLI) and Chapman index for chemistry as well as integrated biomarker response (IBR). The benefits and drawbacks of the use of indices and aggregation techniques are discussed. In addition to this, modelling of raw data is investigated to analyse links between contaminant and effects.

Keywords: Marine Environment, Ecotoxicity, Sediments, contamination indices, bioassays

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2 Rheological Study of Natural Sediments: Application in Filling of Estuaries

Authors: S. Serhal, Y. Melinge, D. Rangeard, F. Hage Chehadeh


Filling of estuaries is an international problem that can cause economic and environmental damage. This work aims the study of the rheological structuring mechanisms of natural sedimentary liquid-solid mixture in estuaries in order to better understand their filling. The estuary of the Rance river, located in Brittany, France is particularly targeted by the study. The aim is to provide answers on the rheological behavior of natural sediments by detecting structural factors influencing the rheological parameters. So we can better understand the fillings estuarine areas and especially consider sustainable solutions of ‘cleansing’ of these areas. The sediments were collected from the trap of Lyvet in Rance estuary. This trap was created by the association COEUR (Comité Opérationnel des Elus et Usagers de la Rance) in 1996 in order to facilitate the cleansing of the estuary. It creates a privileged area for the deposition of sediments and consequently makes the cleansing of the estuary easier. We began our work with a preliminary study to establish the trend of the rheological behavior of the suspensions and to specify the dormant phase which precedes the beginning of the biochemical reactivity of the suspensions. Then we highlight the visco-plastic character at younger age using the Kinexus rheometer, plate-plate geometry. This rheological behavior of suspensions is represented by the Bingham model using dynamic yield stress and viscosity which can be a function of volume fraction, granular extent, and chemical reactivity. The evolution of the viscosity as a function of the solid volume fraction is modeled by the Krieger-Dougherty model. On the other hand, the analysis of the dynamic yield stress showed a fairly functional link with the solid volume fraction.

Keywords: viscosity, Sediments, Estuaries, yield stress, rheological behavior, Kinexus rheometer, Bingham model

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1 Radioactivity Assessment of Sediments in Negombo Lagoon Sri Lanka

Authors: H. M. N. L. Handagiripathira


The distributions of naturally occurring and anthropogenic radioactive materials were determined in surface sediments taken at twenty seven different locations along the bank of Negombo Lagoon in Sri Lanka. Hydrographic parameters of lagoon water and the grain size analysis of the sediment samples were also carried out for this study. The conductivity of the adjacent water was varied from 13.6 mS/cm to 55.4 mS/cm near the southern end, and the northern end of the lagoon, respectively, and equally salinity levels were varied from 7.2 psu to 32.1 psu. The average pH in the water was 7.6, and average water temperature was 28.7 °C. The grain size analysis was emphasized the mass fractions of the samples as sand (60.9 %), fine sand (30.6 %), and fine slit + clay (1.3 %) in the sampling locations. The surface sediment samples of wet weight, 1 kg each from upper 5-10 cm layer were oven dried at 105 °C for 24 hours to get a constant weight, homogenized and sieved through a 2 mm sieve (IAEA technical series no. 295). The radioactivity concentrations were determined using gamma spectrometry technique. Ultra Low Background Broad Energy High Purity Ge Detector, BEGe (Model BE5030, Canberra) was used for radioactivity measurement with Canberra Industries' Laboratory Source-less Calibration Software (LabSOCS) mathematical efficiency calibration approach and Geometry composer software. The mean activity concentration was found to be 24 ± 4, 67 ± 9, 181 ± 10, 59 ± 8, 3.5 ± 0.4 and 0.47 ± 0.08 Bq/kg for 238U, 232Th, 40K, 210Pb, 235U and 137Cs respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate in air, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, annual gonadal dose equivalent, and annual effective dose equivalent were 60.8 nGy/h, 137.3 Bq/kg, 0.4, 425.3 mSv/year, and 74.6 mSv/year, respectively. The results of this study will provide baseline information on the natural and artificial radioactive isotopes and environmental pollution associated with information on radiological risk.

Keywords: Radioactivity, Sediments, Gamma Spectrometry, lagoon

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