Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Sediment Related Abstracts

33 Heavy Metal Concentration in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sisuwan Kaseamsawat, Sivapan Choo-In


A study was conducted in May to July 2013 with the aim of determination of heavy metal concentration in orchard area. 60 samples were collected and analyzed for Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of orchards, that use chemical for Cd (1.13 ± 0.26 mg/l), Cu (8.00 ± 1.05 mg/l), Pb (13.16 ± 2.01) and Zn (37.41 ± 3.20 mg/l). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of the orchards, that do not use chemical for Cd (1.28 ± 0.50 mg/l), Cu (7.60 ± 1.20 mg/l), Pb (29.87 ± 4.88) and Zn (21.79 ± 2.98 mg/l). Statistical analysis between heavy metal in sediment from the orchard, that use chemical and the orchard, that not use chemical were difference statistic significant of 0.5 level of significant for Cd and Pb while no statistically difference for Cu and Zn.

Keywords: Pollution and monitoring, Sediment, heavy metal, orchard

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32 Residue and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Sediment from CauBay River, Vietnam

Authors: Toan Vu Duc, Son Ha Viet


This research presents the first comprehensive survey of congener profiles (7 indicator congeners) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment samples covering ten sites in CauBay River, Vietnam. Chemical analyses were carried out in gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for tri- to hepta- brominated congeners. Results pointed out a non-homogenous contamination of the sediment with ∑7 PBDE values ranging from 8.93 to 25.64ng g−1, reflecting moderate to low contamination closely in conformity to other Asian aquatic environments. The general order of decreasing congener contribution to the total load was: BDE 47 > 99 > 100 > 154, similar to the distribution pattern worldwide. PBDEs had rare risks in the sediment of studied area. However, due to the propensity of PBDEs to accumulate in various compartments of wildlife and human food webs, evaluation of biological tissues should be undertaken as a high priority.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, Sediment, residue, PBDEs

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31 Ecological Effects of Oil Spill on Water and Sediment from Two Riverine Communities in Warri

Authors: Doris Fovwe Ogeleka, L. E. Tudararo-Aherobo, F. E. Okieimen


The ecological effects of oil spill in the environment were studied in Warri riverine areas of Ubeji and Jeddo, Delta State. In the two communities, water and sediment samples were analysed for organics (polyaromatic hydrocarbon; total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)) and heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc, iron and chromium). The American Public Health Association (APHA) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods were employed for the laboratory test. The results indicated that after a long period of oil spill (above one year), there were still significant concentrations (p<0.05) of organics indicating hydrocarbon pollution. Mean concentrations recorded for TPH in Ubeji and Jeddo waters were 23.60 ± 1.18 mg/L and 29.96 ± 0.14 mg/L respectively while total PAHs was 0.009 ± 0.002 mg/L and 0.008 ± 0.001 mg/L. Mean concentrations of TPH in the sediment was 48.83 ± 1.49 ppm and 1093 ± 74 ppm in the above order while total PAHs was 0.012 ± 0.002 ppm and 0.026 ± 0.004 ppm. Low concentrations were recorded for most of the heavy metals in the water and sediment. The observed concentrations of hydrocarbons in the study areas should provide the impetus for regulatory surveillance of oil discharged intentionally/unintentionally into the Warri riverine waters and sediment since hydrocarbon released into the environment sorb to the sediment particles where they cause harm to organisms in the sediment and overlying waters.

Keywords: Water, Sediment, PAHs, crude oil, TPH ‎, oil spillage

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30 Bio-Estimation of Selected Heavy Metals in Shellfish and Their Surrounding Environmental Media

Authors: Ebeed A. Saleh, Kadry M. Sadek, Safaa H. Ghorbal


Due to the determination of the pollution status of fresh resources in the Egyptian territorial waters is very important for public health, this study was carried out to reveal the levels of heavy metals in the shellfish and their environment and its relation to the highly developed industrial activities in those areas. A total of 100 shellfish samples from the Rosetta, Edku, El-Maadiya, Abo-Kir and El-Max coasts [10 crustaceans (shrimp) and 10 mollusks (oysters)] were randomly collected from each coast. Additionally, 10 samples from both the water and the sediment were collected from each coast. Each collected sample was analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc residues using a Perkin Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the levels of heavy metals were higher in the water and sediment from Abo-Kir. The heavy metal levels decreased successively for the Rosetta, Edku, El-Maadiya, and El-Max coasts, and the concentrations of heavy metals, except copper and zinc, in shellfish exhibited the same pattern. For the concentration of heavy metals in shellfish tissue, the highest was zinc and the concentrations decreased successively for copper, lead, chromium and cadmium for all coasts, except the Abo-Kir coast, where the chromium level was highest and the other metals decreased successively for zinc, copper, lead and cadmium. In Rosetta, chromium was higher only in the mollusks, while the level of this metal was lower in the crustaceans; this trend was observed at the Edku, El-Maadiya and El-Max coasts as well. Herein, we discuss the importance of such contamination for public health and the sources of shellfish contamination with heavy metals. We suggest measures to minimize and prevent these pollutants in the aquatic environment and, furthermore, how to protect humans from excessive intake.

Keywords: Water, Heavy Metals, Sediment, Shellfish, atomic absorption

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29 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani


Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: Radiation, stress, Mesh, Sediment, current, swell, mike21

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28 The Valorisation of Dredged Sediment in the Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: N. Bouhamou, F. Mostefa, A. Mebrouki, N. Belas


Every year, millions of cube meters are dredged from dams and restraints as an entertaining and prevention procedure all over the world. These dredged sediments are considered as natural waste leading to an environmental, ecological and even an economical problem in their processing and deposing. Nevertheless, in the context of the sustainable development policy, a way of management is opened aiming to the valorization of sediments as a building material and particularly as a new binder that can be industrially exploited and that improve the physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the concrete. This study is a part of the research works realized in the civil engineering department at the university of Mostaganem (Algeria), on the impact of the dredged mud of Fergoug dam on the behaviour of self-consolidating concrete in fresh and hardened state, such as the mechanical performance of SCC and its impact on the differed deformations (shrinkage). The work aims to valorize this mud in SCC and to show eventual interactions between constituents. The results obtained presents a good perspectives in order to perform SCC based in calcined mud.

Keywords: reuse, Self-Consolidating Concrete, Sediment, shrinkage, calcination, fresh state, hard state

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27 Nano-MFC (Nano Microbial Fuel Cell): Utilization of Carbon Nano Tube to Increase Efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cell Power as an Effective, Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Alternative Energy Sources

Authors: Annisa Ulfah Pristya, Andi Setiawan


Electricity is the primary requirement today's world, including Indonesia. This is because electricity is a source of electrical energy that is flexible to use. Fossil energy sources are the major energy source that is used as a source of energy power plants. Unfortunately, this conversion process impacts on the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and causes an increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, disrupting health, ozone depletion, and the greenhouse effect. Solutions have been applied are solar cells, ocean wave power, the wind, water, and so forth. However, low efficiency and complicated treatment led to most people and industry in Indonesia still using fossil fuels. Referring to this Fuel Cell was developed. Fuel Cells are electrochemical technology that continuously converts chemical energy into electrical energy for the fuel and oxidizer are the efficiency is considerably higher than the previous natural source of electrical energy, which is 40-60%. However, Fuel Cells still have some weaknesses in terms of the use of an expensive platinum catalyst which is limited and not environmentally friendly. Because of it, required the simultaneous source of electrical energy and environmentally friendly. On the other hand, Indonesia is a rich country in marine sediments and organic content that is never exhausted. Stacking the organic component can be an alternative energy source continued development of fuel cell is A Microbial Fuel Cell. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) is a tool that uses bacteria to generate electricity from organic and non-organic compounds. MFC same tools as usual fuel cell composed of an anode, cathode and electrolyte. Its main advantage is the catalyst in the microbial fuel cell is a microorganism and working conditions carried out in neutral solution, low temperatures, and environmentally friendly than previous fuel cells (Chemistry Fuel Cell). However, when compared to Chemistry Fuel Cell, MFC only have an efficiency of 40%. Therefore, the authors provide a solution in the form of Nano-MFC (Nano Microbial Fuel Cell): Utilization of Carbon Nano Tube to Increase Efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cell Power as an Effective, Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Alternative Energy Source. Nano-MFC has the advantage of an effective, high efficiency, cheap and environmental friendly. Related stakeholders that helped are government ministers, especially Energy Minister, the Institute for Research, as well as the industry as a production executive facilitator. strategic steps undertaken to achieve that begin from conduct preliminary research, then lab scale testing, and dissemination and build cooperation with related parties (MOU), conduct last research and its applications in the field, then do the licensing and production of Nano-MFC on an industrial scale and publications to the public.

Keywords: Electric, Efficiency, Microorganisms, Sediment, CNT

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26 Phytoremediation: An Ecological Solution to Heavy-Metal-Polluted Soil

Authors: Nasreen Jeelani, Huining Shi , Di An, Lu Xia, Shuqing An


Heavy metals contamination in aquatic ecosystem is a major environmental problem since its accumulation along the food chain pose public health risk. The concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil and plants species collected from different streams of Suoxu River, China was investigated. This aim was to define the level of pollutants in Suoxu River, find which plant species exhibits the greatest accumulation and to evaluate whether these species could be useful for phytoremediation. While total soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations varied, respectively, from 0.09 to 0.23 , 58.6 to 98, 9.72 to 80.5, 15.3 to 41, 15.2 to 27.3 and 35 to 156 (mg-kg-1), those in plants ranged from 0.035 to 0.49, 2.91 to 75.6, 4.79 to 32.4, 1.27 to 16.1, 0.62 to10.2, 18.9 to 84.6 (mg-kg-1), respectively. Based on BCFs and TFs values, most of the studied species have potential for phytostabilization. The plants with most effective in the accumulation of metals in shoots are Phragmatis australis (TF=2.29) and Iris tectorum (TF =2.07) for Pb. While Chenopodium album, (BCF =3.55), Ranunculus sceleratus, (BCF= 3.0), Polygonum hydropiper (BCF =2.46) for Cd and Iris tectorum (BCF=2.0) for Cu was suitable for phytostabilization. Among the plant species screened for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, most of the species were efficient to take up more than one heavy metal in roots. Our study showed that the native plant species growing on contaminated sites may have the potential uses for phytoremediation.

Keywords: Plants, Heavy Metals, Sediment, huaihe river catchments

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25 Spatio-temporal Variations in Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Qua Iboe River Estuary, Nigeria

Authors: Justina I. R. Udotong, Ime R. Udotong, Offiong U. Eka


The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of Qua Iboe River Estuary (QIRE) were monitored at four different sampling locations in wet and dry seasons. A preliminary survey to determine the four sampling stations along the river continuum showed that the area spanned between < 0.1% salinity at the control station and 21.5‰ at the fourth station along the river continuum. A preliminary survey to determine the four sampling locations along the river estuary showed variations in salinity and other physicochemical parameters. The estuary was found to be polluted with heavy metals from point and nonpoint sources at varying degrees. Mean values of 7.80 mg/kg, 4.97 mg/kg and 2.80 mg/kg of nickel were obtained for sediment samples from Douglas creek, Qua Iboe and Atlantic sampling locations, respectively in the dry season. The wet season nickel concentrations were however lower. The entire study area was grossly contaminated by iron. At Douglas creek, the concentration of iron in sediment was 9274 ± 9.54 mg/kg while copper, nickel, lead and vanadium were <0.5 mg/kg each as compared to iron. Bioaccumulation was therefore suspected within the study area as values of 31.00 ± 0.79, 36.00 ± 0.10 and 55.00 ± 0.05 mg/kg of zinc were recorded in sediment at Douglas creek, Atlantic and the control sampling locations. The results from this study showed that the source of these heavy metals were from point sources like the corrosion of metal steel pipes from old bridges as well as oily sludge wastes from the Qua Iboe Terminal / tank farm located within the vicinity of the study area.

Keywords: Sediment, heavy metal, Qua Iboe River estuary, seasonal variations

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24 Mobility of Metallic Trace Elements (MTE) in Water and Sediment of the Rivers: Case of Nil River, North-Eastern Algerian

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, S. Amiour, A. Chine, S. Khelili


The metallic trace elements (MTE) are present in water and sediments of the rivers with weak concentrations. Several physicochemical parameters (Eh, pH and oxygen dissolved) and chemical processes (adsorption, absorption, complexation and precipitation) as well as nature of the sediments control their mobility. In order to determine the effect of these factors on the mobility of some MTE (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in water of the rivers, a two-monthly monitoring of the physicochemical parameters and chemistry of water and sediments of the Nil wadi (Algeria) was carried out during the period from November 2013 to January 2015. The results show that each MTE has its own conditions of mobility and generally are very influence by the variations of the pH and Eh. Under the natural conditions, neutral pH with basic and medium oxidizing, only the lead presented in water with raised values, indicating its solubility in water and its salting out of the sediments. The other MTE present raised concentrations in the sediments, indicating their trapping by adsorption and/or chemical precipitation. The chemical form of each ETM was given by Eh-pH diagrams. The spatio-temporal monitoring of these ETM shows the effect of the rains, the dry periods and the rejects in the variation of their concentrations.

Keywords: Chemistry, Water, Sediment, metallic trace elements

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23 Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediments of Tidal Flat Marsh, the Case Study: Shuangtai Estuary, China

Authors: Chang-Fa Liu, Yi-Ting Wang, Yuan Liu, Hai-Feng Wei, Lei Fang, Jin Li


Heavy metals in sediments can cause adverse ecological effects while it exceeds a given criteria. The present study investigated sediment environmental quality, pollutant enrichment, ecological risk, and source identification for copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, mercury, and arsenic in the sediments collected from tidal flat marsh of Shuangtai estuary, China. The arithmetic mean integrated pollution index, geometric mean integrated pollution index, fuzzy integrated pollution index, and principal component score were used to characterize sediment environmental quality; fuzzy similarity and geo-accumulation Index were used to evaluate pollutant enrichment; correlation matrix, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis were used to identify source of pollution; environmental risk index and potential ecological risk index were used to assess ecological risk. The environmental qualities of sediment are classified to very low degree of contamination or low contamination. The similar order to element background of soil in the Liaohe plain is region of Sanjiaozhou, Honghaitan, Sandaogou, Xiaohe by pollutant enrichment analysis. The source identification indicates that correlations are significantly among metals except between copper and cadmium. Cadmium, lead, zinc, mercury, and arsenic will be clustered in the same clustering as the first principal component. Copper will be clustered as second principal component. The environmental risk assessment level will be scaled to no risk in the studied area. The order of potential ecological risk is As > Cd > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Ecological Risk Assessment, Sediment, marsh, Shuangtai estuary

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22 Deposit Characteristics of Jakarta, Indonesia: A Stratigraphy Study of Jakarta Subsurface

Authors: Girlly Marchlina Listyono, Abdurrokhim Abdurrokhim, Emi Sukiyah, Pulung Arya Pranantya


Jakarta Area is composed by deposit which has various lithology characteristics. Based on its lithology types, colors, textures, mineral dan organic content from 22 wells scattered on Jakarta, lithofacies analysis and intra-wells data correlation can be done. From the analysis, it can be interpretated that Jakarta deposit deposited in marine, transition and terrestrial depositional environments. Terrestrial deposit characterized by domination of relatively coarse clastics and content of remaining roots, woods, plants, high content of quartz, lithic fragment, calcareous and oxidated appearace. The thickness of terrestrial deposit is thickening to south. Transitional deposit characterized by fine to medium clastics with dark color, high content of organic matter, various thickness in any ways. Marine deposit characterized by finer clastics, contain remain of shells, fosil, coral, limestone fragments, glauconites, calcareous. Marine deposit relatively thickening to north. Those lateral variety caused by tectonic, subsidence and stratigraphic condition. Deposition of Jakarta deposit from the data research was started on marine depositional environment which surrounded by the event of cycle of regression and transgression then ended with regression which ongoing until form shore line in north Jakarta nowadays.

Keywords: Stratigraphy, Sediment, Indonesia, Jakarta, deposit

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21 Study of the Potential of Raw Sediments and Sediments Treated with Lime or Cement for Use in a Foundation Layer and the Base Layer of a Roadway

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Abdeljalil Zri


In this work, firstly we have studied the potential of raw sediments and sediments treated with lime or cement for use in a foundation layer and the base layer of a roadway. Secondly, we have examined mineral changes caused by the addition of lime or cement in order to explain the mechanical performance of stabilized sediments. After determining the amount of lime and cement required stabilizing the sediments, the compaction characteristics and Immediate Bearing Capacity (IBI) were studied using the Modified Proctor method. Then, the evolution of the three parameters, which are optimum water content, maximum dry density and IBI, were determined. Mechanical performances can be evaluated through resistance to compression, resistance under traction and the elasticity modulus. The resistances of the formulations treated with ROLAC®645 increase with the amount of ROLAC®645. Traction resistance and the elastic modulus were used to evaluate the potential of the formulations as road construction materials using the classification diagram. The results show that all the other formulations with ROLAC®645 can be used in subgrades and foundation layers for roads.

Keywords: cement, lime, Sediment, roadway

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20 Nilsson Model Performance in Estimating Bed Load Sediment, Case Study: Tale Zang Station

Authors: Nader Parsazadeh


The variety of bed sediment load relationships, insufficient information and data, and the influence of river conditions make the selection of an optimum relationship for a given river extremely difficult. Hence, in order to select the best formulae, the bed load equations should be evaluated. The affecting factors need to be scrutinized, and equations should be verified. Also, re-evaluation may be needed. In this research, sediment bed load of Dez Dam at Tal-e Zang Station has been studied. After reviewing the available references, the most common formulae were selected that included Meir-Peter and Muller, using MS Excel to compute and evaluate data. Then, 52 series of already measured data at the station were re-measured, and the sediment bed load was determined. 1. The calculated bed load obtained by different equations showed a great difference with that of measured data. 2. r difference ratio from 0.5 to 2.00 was 0% for all equations except for Nilsson and Shields equations while it was 61.5 and 59.6% for Nilsson and Shields equations, respectively. 3. By reviewing results and discarding probably erroneous measured data measurements (by human or machine), one may use Nilsson Equation due to its r value higher than 1 as an effective equation for estimating bed load at Tal-e Zang Station in order to predict activities that depend upon bed sediment load estimate to be determined. Also, since only few studies have been conducted so far, these results may be of assistance to the operators and consulting companies.

Keywords: Sediment, bed load, empirical relation ship, Tale Zang Station

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19 An Experimental Approach of the Reuse of Dredged Sediments in a Cement Matrix by Physical and Heat Treatment

Authors: Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Nor-edine Abriak


In this study, a sediment was used as a secondary raw material in cement substitution with prior treatment. The treatment adopted is a physical treatment involving grinding and separation to obtain different fractions, using a dry method (1 mm, 250µm, 120µm) and washing method (250µm and 120µm). They were subsequently heat treated at temperatures of 650°C, 750°C and 850°C for 1 hour and 3 hours, in order to enable chemical activation by decarbonation or by pozzolanic activation of the material. Different characterization techniques were performed. The determination of main physical and chemical characteristics was obtained through multiple tests: particle size distribution, specific density, the BET surface area, the initial setting time and hydration heat calorimetry Langavant. The chemical tests include: ATG analysis, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) which were used to quantify the fractions, phases and chemical elements present. Compression tests were performed conforming NF EN 196-1 French standard, over terms of 7 days - 14 days - 28 days and 60 days on all formulated mortars: reference mortar based on 100% CEM I 52.5N binder and cement substituted mortars with 8% and 15% by treated sediment. This clearly evidenced contribution due to the chemical activity which was confirmed by calorimetry monitoring and strength investigation.

Keywords: Characterization, Heat Treatment, Grinding, Sediment, substitution

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18 Durability of a Cementitious Matrix Based on Treated Sediments

Authors: Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Amine Safhi, Nor-Edine Abriak


Significant volumes of sediment are annually dredged in France and all over the world. These materials may, in fact, be used beneficially as supplementary cementitious material. This paper studies the durability of a new cement matrix based on marine dredged sediment of Dunkirk-Harbor (north of France). Several techniques are used to characterize the raw sediment such as physical properties, chemical analyses, and mineralogy. The XRD analysis revealed quartz, calcite, kaolinite as main mineral phases. In order to eliminate organic matter and activate some of those minerals, the sediment is calcined at a temperature of 850°C for 1h. Moreover, four blended mortars were formulated by mixing a portland cement (CEM I 52,5 N) and the calcined sediment as partial cement substitute (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Reference mortars, based on the blended cement, were then prepared. This re-use cannot be substantiating and efficient without a durability study. In this purpose, the following tests, mercury porosity, accessible water porosity, chloride permeability, freezing and thawing, external sulfate attack, alkali aggregates reaction, compressive and bending strength tests were conducted on those mortars. The results of most of those tests evidenced the fact that the mortar that contains 10% of the treated sediment is efficient and durable as the reference mortar itself. That would infer that the presence of these calcined sediment improves mortar general behavior.

Keywords: Characterization, Durability, Sediment, substitution, calcination

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17 Jurrasic Deposit Ichnofossil Study of Cores from Bintuni Basin, Eastern Indonesia

Authors: Aswan Aswan


Ichnofossils were examined based on two wells cores of Jurassic sediment from Bintuni Basin, West Papua, Indonesia. The cores are the Jurassic interval and known as the potential reservoir interval in this area. Representative of 18 ichnogenera was recorded including forms assigned to Arenicolites, Asterosoma, Bergaueria, Chondrites, cryptic bioturbation, Glossifungites, Lockeia, Ophiomorpha, Palaeophycus, Phycosiphon, Planolites, Rhizocorallium, Rosselia, root structure, Skolithos, Teichicnus, Thalassinoides, and Zoophycos. The two cores represent a depositional system that is dominated by tidal flat, shallow marine shelf continuum possibly crossed by estuaries or tidal shoals channels. From the first core identified two deepening cycles. The shallow one is a shallow marine with tidal influence while the deeper one attached to the shelf. Shallow interval usually indicates by appearances of Ophiomorpha and Glossifungites while the deeper shallow marine interval signs by the abundance of Phycosiphon. The second core reveals eight deepening cycles.

Keywords: Reservoir, Sediment, Indonesia, ichnofossil, Jurassic, Bintuni, West Papua

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16 Effects of Watershed Erosion on Stream Channel Formation

Authors: Tiao Chang, Ivan Caballero, Hong Zhou


Streams carry water and sediment naturally by maintaining channel dimensions, pattern, and profile over time. Watershed erosion as a natural process has occurred to contribute sediment to streams over time. The formation of channel dimensions is complex. This study is to relate quantifiable and consistent channel dimensions at the bankfull stage to the corresponding watershed erosion estimation by the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Twelve sites of which drainage areas range from 7 to 100 square miles in the Hocking River Basin of Ohio were selected for the bankfull geometry determinations including width, depth, cross-section area, bed slope, and drainage area. The twelve sub-watersheds were chosen to obtain a good overall representation of the Hocking River Basin. It is of interest to determine how these bankfull channel dimensions are related to the soil erosion of corresponding sub-watersheds. Soil erosion is a natural process that has occurred in a watershed over time. The RUSLE was applied to estimate erosions of the twelve selected sub-watersheds where the bankfull geometry measurements were conducted. These quantified erosions of sub-watersheds are used to investigate correlations with bankfull channel dimensions including discharge, channel width, channel depth, cross-sectional area, and pebble distribution. It is found that drainage area, bankfull discharge and cross-sectional area correlates strongly with watershed erosion well. Furthermore, bankfull width and depth are moderately correlated with watershed erosion while the particle size, D50, of channel bed sediment is not well correlated with watershed erosion.

Keywords: watershed, channel, Sediment, stream

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15 Erosion and Deposition of Terrestrial Soil Supplies Nutrients to Estuaries and Coastal Bays: A Flood Simulation Study of Sediment-Nutrient Flux

Authors: Kaitlyn O'Mara, Michele Burford


Estuaries and coastal bays can receive large quantities of sediment from surrounding catchments during flooding or high flow periods. Large river systems that feed freshwater into estuaries can flow through several catchments of varying geology. Human modification of catchments for agriculture, industry and urban use can contaminate soils with excess nutrients, trace metals and other pollutants. Land clearing, especially clearing of riparian vegetation, can accelerate erosion, mobilising, transporting and depositing soil particles into rivers, estuaries and coastal bays. In this study, a flood simulation experiment was used to study the flux of nutrients between soil particles and water during this erosion, transport and deposition process. Granite, sedimentary and basalt surface soils (as well as sub-soils of granite and sedimentary) were collected from eroding areas surrounding the Brisbane River, Australia. The <63 µm size fraction of each soil type was tumbled in freshwater for 3 days, to simulation flood erosion and transport, followed by stationary exposure to seawater for 4 weeks, to simulate deposition into estuaries. Filtered water samples were taken at multiple time points throughout the experiment and analysed for water nutrient concentrations. The highest rates of nutrient release occurred during the first hour of exposure to freshwater and seawater, indicating a chemical reaction with seawater that may act to release some nutrient particles that remain bound to the soil during turbulent freshwater transport. Although released at a slower rate than the first hour, all of the surface soil types showed continual ammonia, nitrite and nitrate release over the 4-week seawater exposure, suggesting that these soils may provide ongoing supply of these nutrients to estuarine waters after deposition. Basalt surface soil released the highest concentrations of phosphates and dissolved organic phosphorus. Basalt soils are found in much of the agricultural land surrounding the Brisbane River and contributed largely to the 2011 Brisbane River flood plume deposit in Moreton Bay, suggesting these soils may be a source of phosphate enrichment in the bay. The results of this study suggest that erosion of catchment soils during storm and flood events may be a source of nutrient supply in receiving waterways, both freshwater and marine, and that the amount of nutrient release following these events may be affected by the type of soil deposited. For example, flooding in different catchments of a river system over time may result in different algal and food web responses in receiving estuaries.

Keywords: Flood, nutrient, Soil, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sediment

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14 Formulation of Aggregates Based on Dredged Sand and Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Ilyas Ennahal, Abdeljalil Zri, Mahfoud Benzerzour


Nord Pas de Calais is one of the French regions that records a large volume of dredged sediment in harbors and waterways. To ensure navigation within ports and waterways, harbor and river managers are forced to find solutions to remove sediment that contamination levels exceed levels established by regulations. Therefore, this non- submersible sediment must be managed on land and will be subject to the waste regulation. In this paper, some examples of concrete achievements and experiments of reusing dredged sediment in civil engineering and sector will be illustrated. These achievements are alternative solutions to sediment landfilling and guarantee the reuse of this material in a logic of circular economy and ecological transition. It permits to preserve the natural resources increasingly scarce and resolve issues related to the accumulation of sediments in the harbor basins, rivers, dams, and lakes, etc. Examples of beneficial use of dredged material illustrated in this paper are the result of different projects reusing harbor and waterways sediments in several applications. These projects were funded under the national SEDIMATERIAUX approach. Thus the technical and environmental feasibility of the reuse of dredged sediment is demonstrated and verified; the dredged sediment reusing would meet multiple challenges of sustainable development in relation to environmental, economic, social and societal.

Keywords: Circular economy, Sediment, waterways, SEDIMATERIAUX

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13 Formulation of Mortars with Marine Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mouhamadou Amar, Mahfoud Benzerzour


The transition to a more sustainable economy is directed by a reduction in the consumption of raw materials in equivalent production. The recovery of byproducts and especially the dredged sediment as mineral addition in cements matrix represents an alternative to reduce raw material consumption and construction sector’s carbon footprint. However, the efficient use of sediment requires adequate and optimal treatment. Several processing techniques have so far been applied in order to improve some physicochemical properties. The heat treatment by calcination was effective in removing the organic fraction and activates the pozzolanic properties. In this article, the effect of the optimized heat treatment of marine sediments in the physico-mechanical and environmental properties of mortars are shown. A finding is that the optimal substitution of a portion of cement by treated sediments by calcination at 750 °C helps to maintain or improve the mechanical properties of the cement matrix in comparison with a standard reference mortar. The use of calcined sediment enhances mortar behavior in terms of mechanical strength and durability. From an environmental point of view and life cycle, mortars formulated containing treated sediments are considered inert with respect to the inert waste storage facilities reference (ISDI-France).

Keywords: cement, reuse, Sediment, calcination

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12 An Assessment of Water and Sediment Quality of the Danube River: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Trace Metals

Authors: A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, I. Vass


Water and sediment samples from the Danube River and Moson Danube Arm (Hungary) have been collected and analyzed for contamination by 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eight trace metal(loid)s (As, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Hg and Zn) in the period of 2014-2015. Moreover, the trace metal(loid) concentrations were measured in the Rába and Marcal rivers (parts of the tributary system feeding the Danube). Total PAH contents in water were found to vary from 0.016 to 0.133 µg/L and concentrations in sediments varied in the range of 0.118 mg/kg and 0.283 mg/kg. Source analysis of PAHs using diagnostic concentration ratios indicated that PAHs found in sediments were of pyrolytic origins. The dissolved trace metal and arsenic concentrations were relatively low in the surface waters. However, higher concentrations were detected in the water samples of Rába (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb) and Marcal (As, Cu, Ni, Pb) compared to the Danube and Moson Danube. The concentrations of trace metals in sediments were higher than those found in water samples.

Keywords: Surface Water, Sediment, Trace Metal, PAH

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11 Heavy Metal Contamination of Mining-Impacted Mangrove Sediments and Its Correlation with Vegetation and Sediment Attributes

Authors: Jumel Christian P. Nicha, Severino G. Salmo III


This study investigated the concentration of heavy metals (HM) in mangrove sediments of Lake Uacon, Zambales, Philippines. The relationship among the studied HM (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe) and the mangrove vegetation and sediment characteristics were assessed. Fourteen sampling plots were designated across the lake (10 vegetated and 4 un-vegetated) based on distance from the mining effluents. In each plot, three sediment cores were collected at 20 cm depth. Among the dominant mangrove species recorded were (in order of dominance): Sonneratia alba, Rhizophora stylosa, Avicennia marina, Excoecaria agallocha and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Sediment samples were digested with aqua regia, and the HM concentrations were quantified using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that HM concentrations were higher in the vegetated plots as compared to the un-vegetated sites. Vegetated sites had high Ni (mean: 881.71 mg/kg) and Cr (mean: 776.36 mg/kg) that exceeded the threshold values (cf. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; USEPA). Fe, Pb, Cu and Cd had a mean concentration of 2597.92 mg/kg, 40.94 mg/kg, 36.81 mg/kg and 2.22 mg/kg respectively. Vegetation variables were not significantly correlated with HM concentration. However, the HM concentration was significantly correlated with sediment variables particularly pH, redox, particle size, nitrogen, phosphorus, moisture and organic matter contents. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicated moderate to high pollution in the lake. Risk assessment and management should be designed in order to mitigate the ecological risk posed by HM. The need of a regular monitoring scheme for lake and mangrove rehabilitation programs and management should be designed.

Keywords: Mining, Heavy Metals, Sediment, Philippines, mangrove vegetation

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10 Analysis of Bed Load Sediment Transport Mataram-Babarsari Irrigation Canal

Authors: Agatha Padma Laksitaningtyas, Sumiyati Gunawan


Mataram Irrigation Canal has 31,2 km length, is the main irrigation canal in Special Region Province of Yogyakarta, connecting Progo River on the west side and Opak River on the east side. It has an important role as the main water carrier distribution for various purposes such as agriculture, fishery, and plantation which should be free from sediment material. Bed Load Sediment is the basic sediment that will make the sediment process on the irrigation canal. Sediment process is a simultaneous event that can make deposition sediment at the base of irrigation canal and can make the height of elevation water change, it will affect the availability of water to be used for irrigation functions. To predict the amount of drowning sediments in the irrigation canal using two methods: Meyer-Peter and Muller’s Method which is an energy approach method and Einstein Method which is a probabilistic approach. Speed measurement using floating method and using current meters. The channel geometry is measured directly in the field. The basic sediment of the channel is taken in the field by taking three samples from three different points. The result of the research shows that by using the formula Meyer -Peter Muller get the result of 60,75799 kg/s, whereas with Einsten’s Method get result of 13,06461 kg/s. the results may serve as a reference for dredging the sediments on the channel so as not to disrupt the flow of water in irrigation canal.

Keywords: irrigation, Sediment, bed load, Mataram canal

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9 Comparison of Non-Organic (Suspended and Solved) Solids Removal with and without Sediments in Treatment of an Industrial Wastewater with and without Ozonation

Authors: Amir Hajiali, Gevorg P. Pirumyan


In this research, removal of Non-Organic Suspended Solids and Non-Organic Solved Solids with and without sediment in treatment of an industrial wastewater system before and after ozonation was studied and compared. The most hazardous part of these substances is monomers of chlorophenolic combinations which in biological reactors in a liquid phase could be absorbed much easier and with a high velocity. These monomers and particularly monomers with high molecular weights are seen a lot in such wastewater treatment systems. After the treatment, the measured non-organic solved and suspended solids contents in the cyclic ozonation-biotreatment system compared to the non-organic solved and suspended solids values in the treatment method without ozonation. Sedimentation was the other factor which was considered in this experiment.The solids removals were measured with and without sediments. The comparison revealed that the remarkable efficiency of the cyclic ozonation-biotreatment system in removing the non-organic solids both with and without sediments is extremely considerable. Results of the experiments showed that ozone can be dramatically effective for solving most organic materials in activated sludge in such a wastewater or for making them mineral. Moreover, bio dissolubility increase related to the solved materials was reported.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Sediment, ozonation, non-organic solids

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8 Comparison of Sediment Rating Curve and Artificial Neural Network in Simulation of Suspended Sediment Load

Authors: Ahmad Saadiq, Neeraj Sahu


Sediment, which comprises of solid particles of mineral and organic material are transported by water. In river systems, the amount of sediment transported is controlled by both the transport capacity of the flow and the supply of sediment. The transport of sediment in rivers is important with respect to pollution, channel navigability, reservoir ageing, hydroelectric equipment longevity, fish habitat, river aesthetics and scientific interests. The sediment load transported in a river is a very complex hydrological phenomenon. Hence, sediment transport has attracted the attention of engineers from various aspects, and different methods have been used for its estimation. So, several experimental equations have been submitted by experts. Though the results of these methods have considerable differences with each other and with experimental observations, because the sediment measures have some limits, these equations can be used in estimating sediment load. In this present study, two black box models namely, an SRC (Sediment Rating Curve) and ANN (Artificial Neural Network) are used in the simulation of the suspended sediment load. The study is carried out for Seonath subbasin. Seonath is the biggest tributary of Mahanadi river, and it carries a vast amount of sediment. The data is collected for Jondhra hydrological observation station from India-WRIS (Water Resources Information System) and IMD (Indian Meteorological Department). These data include the discharge, sediment concentration and rainfall for 10 years. In this study, sediment load is estimated from the input parameters (discharge, rainfall, and past sediment) in various combination of simulations. A sediment rating curve used the water discharge to estimate the sediment concentration. This estimated sediment concentration is converted to sediment load. Likewise, for the application of these data in ANN, they are normalised first and then fed in various combinations to yield the sediment load. RMSE (root mean square error) and R² (coefficient of determination) between the observed load and the estimated load are used as evaluating criteria. For an ideal model, RMSE is zero and R² is 1. However, as the models used in this study are black box models, they don’t carry the exact representation of the factors which causes sedimentation. Hence, a model which gives the lowest RMSE and highest R² is the best model in this study. The lowest values of RMSE (based on normalised data) for sediment rating curve, feed forward back propagation, cascade forward back propagation and neural network fitting are 0.043425, 0.00679781, 0.0050089 and 0.0043727 respectively. The corresponding values of R² are 0.8258, 0.9941, 0.9968 and 0.9976. This implies that a neural network fitting model is superior to the other models used in this study. However, a drawback of neural network fitting is that it produces few negative estimates, which is not at all tolerable in the field of estimation of sediment load, and hence this model can’t be crowned as the best model among others, based on this study. A cascade forward back propagation produces results much closer to a neural network model and hence this model is the best model based on the present study.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Sediment, Root mean squared error, sediment rating curve

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7 Identification of Fluorinated Methylsiloxanes in Environmental Matrices Near a Manufacturing Plant in Eastern China

Authors: Liqin Zhi, Lin Xu, Wenxia Wei, Yaqi Cai


Recently, replacing some of the methyl groups in polydimethylsiloxanes with other functional groups has been extensively explored to obtain modified polymethylsiloxanes with special properties that enable new industrial applications. Fluorinated polysiloxanes, one type of these modified polysiloxanes, are based on a siloxane backbone with fluorinated groups attached to the side chains of polysiloxanes. As a commercially significant material, poly[methyl(trifluoropropyl)siloxane] (PMTFPS) has sufficient fluorine content to be useful as a fuel-and oil-resistant elastomer, which combines both the chemical and solvent resistance of fluorocarbons and the wide temperature range applicability of organosilicones. PMTFPS products can be used in many applications in which resistance to fuel, oils and hydrocarbon solvents is required, including use as lubricants in bearings, sealants, and elastomers for aerospace and automotive fuel systems. Fluorinated methylsiloxanes, a type of modified methylsiloxane, include tris(trifluoropropyl)trimethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3F) and tetrakis(trifluoropropyl)tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4F), both of which contain trifluoropropyl groups in the side chains of cyclic methylsiloxanes. D3F, as an important monomer in the manufacture of PMTFPS, is often present as an impurity in PMTFPS. In addition, the synthesis of PMTFPS from D3F could form other fluorinated methylsiloxanes with low molecular weights (such as D4F). The yearly demand and production volumes of D3F increased rapidly all over world. Fluorinated methylsiloxanes might be released into the environment via different pathways during the production and application of PMTFPS. However, there is a lack of data concerning the emission, environmental occurrence and potential environmental impacts of fluorinated methylsiloxanes. Here, we report fluorinated methylsiloxanes (D3F and D4F) in surface water and sediment samples collected near a fluorinated methylsiloxane manufacturing plant in Weihai, China. The concentrations of D3F and D4F in surface water ranged from 3.29 to 291 ng/L and from 7.02 to 168 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations of D3F and D4F in sediment ranged from 11.8 to 5478 ng/g and from 17.2 to 6277 ng/g, respectively. In simulation experiment, the half-lives of D3F and D4F at different pH values (5.2, 6.4, 7.2, 8.3 and 9.2) varied from 80.6 to 154 h and from 267 to 533 h respectively. CF₃(CH₂)₂MeSi(OH)₂ was identified as one of the main hydrolysis products of fluorinated methylsiloxanes. It was also detected in the river samples at concentrations of 72.1-182.9 ng/L. In addition, the slow rearrangement of D3F (spiked concentration = 500 ng/L) to D4F (concentration = 11.0-22.7 ng/L) was also found during 336h hydrolysis experiment.

Keywords: Hydrolysis, Sediment, fluorinated methylsiloxanes, environmental matrices

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6 [Keynote Talk]: Heavy Metals in Marine Sediments of Gulf of Izmir

Authors: E. Kam, Z. U. Yümün, D. Kurt


In this study, sediment samples were collected from four sampling sites located on the shores of the Gulf of İzmir. In the samples, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined using inductively coupled, plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average heavy metal concentrations were: Cd < LOD (limit of detection); Co 14.145 ± 0.13 μg g−1; Cr 112.868 ± 0.89 μg g−1; Cu 34.045 ± 0.53 μg g−1; Mn 481.43 ± 7.65 μg g−1; Ni 76.538 ± 3.81 μg g−1; Pb 11.059 ± 0.53 μg g−1 and Zn 140.133 ± 1.37 μg g−1, respectively. The results were compared with the average abundances of these elements in the Earth’s crust. The measured heavy metal concentrations can serve as reference values for further studies carried out on the shores of the Aegean Sea.

Keywords: Sediment, heavy metal, ICP-OES, Aegean Sea

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5 Determination of Acid Volatile Sulfides–Simultaneously Extracted Metal Relationship and Toxicity in Contaminated Sediment Layer in Mid-Black Sea Coasts

Authors: Arife Simsek, Gulfem Bakan


Sediment refers to the accumulation of varying amounts of sediment material in natural waters and the formation of bottom sludge. Sediments are the most important sources of pollutants as well as important future sources and carriers of pollutants. The accumulation of pollutants in sediments can cause serious environmental problems for the surrounding areas. Heavy metals (such as Cr, Cd, Al, Pb, Cu, Al, Zn) disrupt the water quality, affect the useful use of sediment, affect the ecosystem and have a toxic effect on the life of the sediment layer. This effect, which accumulates in the aquatic organisms, can enter the human body with the food chain and affect health seriously. Potential metal toxicity can be determined by comparing acid volatile sulfides (AVS) – simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) ratio in anoxic sediments to determine the effect of metals. Determination of the concentration of SEM and AVS is useful in screening sediments for potential toxicity due to the high metal concentration. In the case of SEM/AVS < 0 (anoxic sediment); in terms of AVS biomass production, its toxicity can be controlled. No toxic effects may be observed when SEM / AVS < 0. SEM / AVS > 0 (in the case of oxic sediment); metals with sensitive fraction such as Cu, As, Ag, Zn are stored. In this study, AVS and SEM measurements of sediment samples collected from five different points in the district of Tekkeköy in Samsun province were performed. The SEM - AVS ratio was greater than 0 in all samples. Therefore, it is necessary to test the toxicity against the risks that may occur in the ecosystem.

Keywords: Toxicity, Sediment, heavy metal, Black Sea, AVS-SEM

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4 Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in River Sediments and Suspended Matter in Small Tributaries of Abandoned Mercury Mines in Wanshan, Guizhou

Authors: Guo-Hui Lu, Jing-Yi Cai, Ke-Yan Tan, Xiao-Cai Yin, Yu Zheng, Peng-Wei Shao, Yong-Liang Yang


Soil erosion around abandoned mines is one of the important geological agents for pollutant diffuses to the lower reaches of the local river basin system. River loading of pollutants is an important parameter for remediation of abandoned mines. In order to obtain information on pollutant transport and diffusion downstream in mining area, the small tributary system of the Xiaxi River in Wanshan District of Guizhou Province was selected as the research area. Sediment and suspended matter samples were collected and determined for Pb, As, Hg, Zn, Co, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Mn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) with the pretreatment of wet digestion. Discussions are made for pollution status and spatial distribution characteristics. The total Hg content in the sediments ranged from 0.45 to 16.0 g/g (dry weight) with an average of 5.79 g/g, which was ten times higher than the limit of Class II soil for mercury by the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard. The maximum occurred at the intersection of the Jin River and the Xiaxi River. The potential ecological hazard index (RI) was used to evaluate the ecological risk of heavy metals in the sediments. The average RI value for the whole study area suggests the high potential ecological risk level. High Cd potential ecological risk was found at individual sites.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, Sediment, heavy metal, suspended matter, Wanshan mercury mine, small tributary system

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