Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

secondary metabolite Related Abstracts

3 Contribution to the Production of Phenazine Antibiotics Effect Type Compounds by Some Strains of Pseudomonas spp.fluorescent

Authors: Nacéra Benoussaid, Lehalali Meriem, Benchabane Messaoud

Abstract:

Our work focuses on the production of compound antibiotic effect of volatile nature namely hydrogen cyanide and the production and identification of molecules phénazinique by some strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp isolated from the rhizosphere of some trees for a possible use as bio pesticides antifungal effect and/or antibiotic. We tested the production of hydrogen cyanide of 21 strains of Pseudomonas spp. fluorescent among them 19 strains (90, 47%) showed a positive cyanogenesis.The antagonism test executed in vitro showed that Pseudomonas strains have a higher anti fungal effect relative to their antibacterial effect with diameters of inhibition zones up to 3, 9 cm recorded by the strain F48 against Coleosporiumsp compared with recorded results against bacteria with a maximum inhibition of 1, 26 cm among this antagonistic strain.Three strains were selected by testing for producing phénazines namely PI9, BB9 and F20. The effect of the antimicrobial activity was performed on different culture media (GN, King B, ISP2 and PDA). The results of our study allowed us to retain the King B medium as ideal medium for the production of secondary metabolite. The produced phenazinique compounds was extracted from various organic solvents, and after the results of antibiographie against germs - targets, the extracts of ethyl acetate gave the best results compared to dichloromethane and hexane.The Analysis of these compounds of antibiotic phenazinique effect within layer chromatography (CCM) and high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) indicate that both strains PI9 and F20 are productive of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). The BB9 strain is suspected to be productive of another phenazinique compound.

Keywords: biopesticide, Pseudomonas ssp. fluorescents, antagonism in vitro, secondary metabolite, phenazines

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2 Induction of Callus and Expression of Compounds in Capsicum Frutescens Supplemented with of 2, 4-D

Authors: Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob, Muhammad Aiman Ramli

Abstract:

Cili padi or Capsicum frutescens is one of capsicum species from nightshade family, Solanaceae. It is famous in Malaysia and is widely used as a food ingredient. Capsicum frutescens also possess vast medicinal properties. The objectives of this study are to determine the most optimum 2,4-D hormone concentration for callus induction from stem explants C. frutescens and the effects of different 2,4-D concentrations on expression of compounds from C. frutescens. Seeds were cultured on MS media without hormones (MS basal media) to yield aseptic seedlings of this species, which were then used to supply explant source for subsequent tissue culture experiments. Stem explants were excised from aseptic seedlings and cultured on MS media supplemented with various concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L) of 2,4-D to induce formation of callus. Fresh weight, dry weight and callus growth percentage in all samples were recorded. The highest mean of dry weight was observed in MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D, where 0.4499 ± 0.106 g of callus was produced. The highest percentage of callus growth (16.4%) was also observed in cultures supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. The callus samples were also subjected to HPLC-MS to evaluate the effect of hormone concentration on expression of bio active compounds in different samples. Results showed that caffeoylferuloylquinic acids were present in all samples, but was most abundant in callus cells supplemented with 0.3 & 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Interestingly, there was an unknown compound observed to be highly expressed in callus cells supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D, but its presence was less significant in callus cells supplemented with 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Furthermore, there was also a compound identified as octadecadienoic acid, which was uniquely expressed in callus supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D, but absent in callus cells supplemented with 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L 2,4-D. The results obtained in this study indicated that plant growth regulators played a role in expression of secondary metabolites in plants. The increase or decrease of these growth regulators may have triggered a change in the secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways, thus causing differential expression of compounds in this plant.

Keywords: In vitro, callus, secondary metabolite

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1 Comparative Production of Secondary Metabolites by Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman Provenances in Cameroon and Some Associated Endophytic Fungi

Authors: Gloria M. Ntuba-Jua, Afui M. Mih, Eneke E. T. Bechem

Abstract:

Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, commonly known as Pygeum or African cherry belongs to the Rosaceae family. It is a medium to large, evergreen tree with a spreading crown of 10 to 20 m. It is used by the traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of over 45ailments in Cameroon and sub-Sahara Africa. In modern medicine, it is used in the treatment of benign prostrate hyperplasia (BPH), prostate gland hypertrophy (enlarged prostate glands). This is possible because of its ability to produce some secondary metabolites which are believed to have bioactivity against these ailments. The ready international market for the sale of Prunus bark, uncontrolled exploitation, illegal harvesting using inappropriate techniques and poor timing of harvesting have contributed enormously to making the plant endangered. It is known to harbor a large number of endophytic fungi with the potential to produce similar secondary metabolites as the parent plant. Alternative sourcing of medicinal principles through endophytic fungi requires succinct knowledge of the endophytic fungi. This will serve as a conservation measure for Prunus africana by reducing dependence on Prunus bark for such metabolites. This work thus sought to compare the production of some major secondary metabolites produced by P. africana and some of its associated endophytic fungi. The leaves and stem bark of the plant from different provenances were soaked in methanol for 72 hrs to yield the methanolic crude extract. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic crude extracts using different standard procedures revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenolics and steroids. Pure cultures of some predominantly isolated endophyte species from the difference Prunus provenances such as Curvularia sp, and Morphospecies P001 were also grown in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) for 21 days and later extracted with Methylene dichloride (MDC) solvent after 24hrs to produce crude culture extracts. Qualitative assessment of crude culture extracts showed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, phenolics and steroids particularly β-Sitosterol, (a major bioactive metabolite) as did the plant tissues. Qualitative analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was done to confirm and compare the production of β-Sitosterol (as marker compounds) in the crude extracts of the plant and endophyte. Samples were loaded on TLC silica gel aluminium barked plate (Kieselgel 60 F254, 0.2 mm, Merck) using acetone/hexane, (3.0:7.0) solvent system. They were visualized under an ultra violet lamp (UV254 and UV360). TLC revealed that leaves had a higher concentration of β-sitosterol in terms of band intensity than stem barks from the different provenances. The intensity of β-sitosterol bands in the culture extracts of endophytes was comparable to the plant extracts except for Curvularia sp (very minute) whose band was very faint. The ability of these fungi to make β-sitosterol was confirmed by TLC analysis with the compound having chromatographic properties (retention factor) similar to those of β-sitosterol standard. The ability of these major endophytes to produce secondary metabolites similar to the host has therefore been demonstrated. There is, therefore, the potential of developing the in vitro production system of Prunus secondary metabolites thereby enhancing its conservation.

Keywords: endophytic fungi, secondary metabolite, Caneroon, Prunus africana

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