Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Seasonality Related Abstracts

8 Seasonal Lambing in Crossbred of Katahdin Ewes in Tropical Regions of Chiapas, Mexico

Authors: Juan C. Martínez-Alfaro, Aracely Zúñiga, Fernando Ruíz-Zarate

Abstract:

In recent years, the Katahdin sheep breeds have been one of the breeds with greater acceptance by sheep farmers in southwestern Mexico. The Hair Sheep breeds from tropical latitudes (16° to 21° North Latitude) show low estrus activity from January to May. By contrast, these breeds of sheep exhibit high estrus activity from August to December. However, the reproductive management of Hair Sheep crossbred is very limited, independently of the socioeconomic levels of sheep farmers. Thus, in crossbred of Hair Sheep, occurrence of lambing is greater in autumn (84%) than spring (16%). In this sense, the aim of this study was to determine the lambing in Crossbred of Katahdin sheep during different seasons of the year. The Hypothesis was that in crossbred of Katahdin sheep, the lambing period has a behavior seasonal in the Southwestern Mexico. The study design consisted in evaluating the lambing proportion in one herds of Katahdin ewes crossbred during one year (October 1st, 2015 to October 1st, 2016). The study was realized in a farm located in the municipality of Jiquipilas, in the State of Chiapas, Mexico (16° North Latitude). A total of 40 female sheep homogeneous in terms of physical condition, age and physiological state were selected; and they were fed in grazing continuous, mainly with Africa star grass (Cynodon lemfuensis) and they are provided with water and mineral salts ad libitum; during the dry season, the ewes were supplemented with a diet of maize and sorghum, and the reproductive management was continuous mating. The lambing proportion was analyzed by chi-squared test, using SAS statistical software. The proportion of Katahdin ewes crossbred that lambed during the study period was high (100%; 40/40), the prolificacy was 1.42 (lamb/lambing). The proportion of lambing was higher (P<0.05) in autumn (67.5%; 27/40), than winter, spring and summer (32.5%; 13/40; 0%; 0/40; 0%; 0/40; respectively). The proportion of lambing was greater (P<0.05) in November (50%; 20/40), compared to October, December and January (2.5%; 1/40; 27.5%; 11/40; 20%; 8/40, respectively). The results are consistent with the fact that in the Hair Sheep Breeds, the lambing appears behave seasonally. The most important finding is that the lambing period in the crossbred of Katahdin Sheep is similar to the crossbred of Hair Sheep in tropical regions of Mexico. Therefore, the period of greater sexual activity occurs in the spring season. In conclusion, the period of lambing in crossbred of Katahdin ewes appears behave seasonally. Further researches to assess the ovarian activity in different breeds of Hair Ewes are under assessment.

Keywords: Seasonality, Katahdin ewes, lambing, prolificacy

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7 Analysing Trends in Rice Cropping Intensity and Seasonality across the Philippines Using 14 Years of Moderate Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

Authors: Bhogendra Mishra, Andy Nelson, Mirco Boschetti, Lorenzo Busetto, Alice Laborte

Abstract:

Rice is grown on over 100 million hectares in almost every country of Asia. It is the most important staple crop for food security and has high economic and cultural importance in Asian societies. The combination of genetic diversity and management options, coupled with the large geographic extent means that there is a large variation in seasonality (when it is grown) and cropping intensity (how often it is grown per year on the same plot of land), even over relatively small distances. Seasonality and intensity can and do change over time depending on climatic, environmental and economic factors. Detecting where and when these changes happen can provide information to better understand trends in regional and even global rice production. Remote sensing offers a unique opportunity to estimate these trends. We apply the recently published PhenoRice algorithm to 14 years of moderate resolution remote sensing (MODIS) data (utilizing 250m resolution 16 day composites from Terra and Aqua) to estimate seasonality and cropping intensity per year and changes over time. We compare the results to the surveyed data collected by International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). The study results in a unique and validated dataset on the extent and change of extent, the seasonality and change in seasonality and the cropping intensity and change in cropping intensity between 2003 and 2016 for the Philippines. Observed trends and their implications for food security and trade policies are also discussed.

Keywords: Rice, Seasonality, phenology, cropping intensity, moderate resolution remote sensing (MODIS)

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6 Linking Temporal Changes of Climate Factors with Staple Cereal Yields in Southern Burkina Faso

Authors: Pius Borona, Cheikh Mbow, Issa Ouedraogo

Abstract:

In the Sahel, climate variability has been associated with a complex web of direct and indirect impacts. This natural phenomenon has been an impediment to agro-pastoral communities who experience uncertainty while involving in farming activities which is also their key source of livelihood. In this scenario, the role of climate variability in influencing the performance, quantity and quality of staple cereals yields, vital for food and nutrition security has been a topic of importance. This response of crops and subsequent yield variability is also a subject of immense debate due to the complexity of crop development at different stages. This complexity is further compounded by influence of slowly changing non-climatic factors. With these challenges in mind, the present paper initially explores the occurrence of climate variability at an inter annual and inter decadal level in South Burkina Faso. This is evidenced by variation of the total annual rainfall and the number of rainy days among other climatic descriptors. Further, it is shown how district-scale cereal yields in the study area including maize, sorghum and millet casually associate variably to the inter-annual variation of selected climate variables. Statistical models show that the three cereals widely depict sensitivity to the length of the growing period and total dry days in the growing season. Maize yields on the other hand relate strongly to the rainfall amount variation (R2=51.8%) showing high moisture dependence during critical growth stages. Our conclusions emphasize on adoption of efficient water utilization platforms especially those that have evidently increased yields and strengthening of forecasts dissemination.

Keywords: Climate Variability, Rainfall, Seasonality, Burkina Faso, cereal yields, rain fed farming

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5 Foodborne Outbreak Calendar: Application of Time Series Analysis

Authors: Ryan B. Simpson, Margaret A. Waskow, Aishwarya Venkat, Elena N. Naumova

Abstract:

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 31 known foodborne pathogens cause 9.4 million cases of these illnesses annually in US. Over 90% of these illnesses are associated with exposure to Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, Shiga-Toxin Producing E.Coli (STEC), Vibrio, and Yersinia. Contaminated products contain parasites typically causing an intestinal illness manifested by diarrhea, stomach cramping, nausea, weight loss, fatigue and may result in deaths in fragile populations. Since 1998, the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) has allowed for routine collection of suspected and laboratory-confirmed cases of food poisoning. While retrospective analyses have revealed common pathogen-specific seasonal patterns, little is known concerning the stability of those patterns over time and whether they can be used for preventative forecasting. The objective of this study is to construct a calendar of foodborne outbreaks of nine infections based on the peak timing of outbreak incidence in the US from 1996 to 2017. Reported cases were abstracted from FoodNet for Salmonella (135115), Campylobacter (121099), Shigella (48520), Cryptosporidium (21701), STEC (18022), Yersinia (3602), Vibrio (3000), Listeria (2543), and Cyclospora (758). Monthly counts were compiled for each agent, seasonal peak timing and peak intensity were estimated, and the stability of seasonal peaks and synchronization of infections was examined. Negative Binomial harmonic regression models with the delta-method were applied to derive confidence intervals for the peak timing for each year and overall study period estimates. Preliminary results indicate that five infections continue to lead as major causes of outbreaks, exhibiting steady upward trends with annual increases in cases ranging from 2.71% (95%CI: [2.38, 3.05]) in Campylobacter, 4.78% (95%CI: [4.14, 5.41]) in Salmonella, 7.09% (95%CI: [6.38, 7.82]) in E.Coli, 7.71% (95%CI: [6.94, 8.49]) in Cryptosporidium, and 8.67% (95%CI: [7.55, 9.80]) in Vibrio. Strong synchronization of summer outbreaks were observed, caused by Campylobacter, Vibrio, E.Coli and Salmonella, peaking at 7.57 ± 0.33, 7.84 ± 0.47, 7.85 ± 0.37, and 7.82 ± 0.14 calendar months, respectively, with the serial cross-correlation ranging 0.81-0.88 (p < 0.001). Over 21 years, Listeria and Cryptosporidium peaks (8.43 ± 0.77 and 8.52 ± 0.45 months, respectively) have a tendency to arrive 1-2 weeks earlier, while Vibrio peaks (7.8 ± 0.47) delay by 2-3 weeks. These findings will be incorporated in the forecast models to predict common paths of the spread, long-term trends, and the synchronization of outbreaks across etiological agents. The predictive modeling of foodborne outbreaks should consider long-term changes in seasonal timing, spatiotemporal trends, and sources of contamination.

Keywords: predictive modeling, Seasonality, foodborne outbreak, national outbreak reporting system

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4 Global Evidence on the Seasonality of Enteric Infections, Malnutrition, and Livestock Ownership

Authors: Aishwarya Venkat, Anastasia Marshak, Ryan B. Simpson, Elena N. Naumova

Abstract:

Livestock ownership is simultaneously linked to improved nutritional status through increased availability of animal-source protein, and increased risk of enteric infections through higher exposure to contaminated water sources. Agrarian and agro-pastoral households, especially those with cattle, goats, and sheep, are highly dependent on seasonally various environmental conditions, which directly impact nutrition and health. This study explores global spatiotemporally explicit evidence regarding the relationship between livestock ownership, enteric infections, and malnutrition. Seasonal and cyclical fluctuations, as well as mediating effects, are further examined to elucidate health and nutrition outcomes of individual and communal livestock ownership. The US Agency for International Development’s Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund’s Multi-Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) provide valuable sources of household-level information on anthropometry, asset ownership, and disease outcomes. These data are especially important in data-sparse regions, where surveys may only be conducted in the aftermath of emergencies. Child-level disease history, anthropometry, and household-level asset ownership information have been collected since DHS-V (2003-present) and MICS-III (2005-present). This analysis combines over 15 years of survey data from DHS and MICS to study 2,466,257 children under age five from 82 countries. Subnational (administrative level 1) measures of diarrhea prevalence, mean livestock ownership by type, mean and median anthropometric measures (height for age, weight for age, and weight for height) were investigated. Effects of several environmental, market, community, and household-level determinants were studied. Such covariates included precipitation, temperature, vegetation, the market price of staple cereals and animal source proteins, conflict events, livelihood zones, wealth indices and access to water, sanitation, hygiene, and public health services. Children aged 0 – 6 months, 6 months – 2 years, and 2 – 5 years of age were compared separately. All observations were standardized to interview day of year, and administrative units were harmonized for consistent comparisons over time. Geographically weighted regressions were constructed for each outcome and subnational unit. Preliminary results demonstrate the importance of accounting for seasonality in concurrent assessments of malnutrition and enteric infections. Household assets, including livestock, often determine the intensity of these outcomes. In many regions, livestock ownership affects seasonal fluxes in malnutrition and enteric infections, which are also directly affected by environmental and local factors. Regression analysis demonstrates the spatiotemporal variability in nutrition outcomes due to a variety of causal factors. This analysis presents a synthesis of evidence from global survey data on the interrelationship between enteric infections, malnutrition, and livestock. These results provide a starting point for locally appropriate interventions designed to address this nexus in a timely manner and simultaneously improve health, nutrition, and livelihoods.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Livestock, Enteric Infections, Diarrhea, Seasonality, households

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3 The Significance of Seasonality on the Airport Efficiency in Touristic Regions

Authors: Ioanna Pagoni, Annitsa Koumoutsidi

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to estimate the efficiency of airports that are located in touristic regions. It focuses on the regional airports of Greece, which are located at the mainland and the islands that constitute touristic destinations. Most of these airports share the following characteristics. They operate at levels below capacity with a high level of seasonality to their traffic. In addition, in such airports, the operation of charter and low-cost airlines is significant. The efficiency of the study airports is calculated by using the non-parametric data envelopment analysis during the period of 2010-2016. The selected inputs include several airport infrastructure measures such as passenger terminal size, aircraft parking area, runway length, and the number of check-in counters, while the number of employees in each airport is also used. The number of passengers and aircraft movements are selected as outputs. The effect of seasonality, as well as the operation of charter airlines and low-cost carriers on airport efficiency, is estimated by running proper regression models. Preliminary findings indicate that low-cost and charter airlines contribute to increasing airport efficiency for most of the study airports. The results of this research could be useful for airlines, airport operators, hotel businesses, and other tourism-related operators.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Seasonality, airport efficiency, low-cost carriers, charter airlines

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2 Agroecology and Seasonal Disparity Nexus with Nutritional Status of Children in Ethiopia

Authors: Dagem Alemayehu, Samson Gebersilassie, Jan Frank

Abstract:

Climate change is impacting nutrition through reducing food quantity and access, limiting dietary diversity, and decreased nutritional food content as well as strongly affecting seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, only a few data is available on the impacts of seasonality in Infant, and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices undernutrition among 6-23 months old children in different agro-ecological zones of poor resource settings of Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic, anthropometry, and IYCF indicators were assessed in the harvest and lean seasons among children aged 6–23 months of age randomly selected from rural villages of lowland and midland agro-ecological zones. Results: Child stunting and underweight increased from prevalence of 32.8 % and 23.9 % (lowland &midland respectively) in the lean season to 36.1% and 33.8 % harvest seasons, respectively. The biggest increase in the prevalence of stunting and underweight between harvest and lean seasons was noted in the lowland zone. Wasting decreased from 11.6% lean to 8.5% harvest, with the biggest decline recorded in the midland zone. Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet, and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in harvest compared to a lean season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children's age was a predictor of child dietary diversity in both seasons. Conclusion: There is seasonal variation in undernutrition and IYCF practices among children 6-23 months of age with more pronounced effect lowland agro-ecological zone.

Keywords: Agroecology, Seasonality, Stunting, Wasting

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1 Visualization of PM₂.₅ Time Series and Correlation Analysis of Cities in Bangladesh

Authors: Asif Zaman, Moinul Islam Zaber, Amin Ahsan Ali

Abstract:

In recent years of industrialization, the South Asian countries are being affected by air pollution due to a severe increase in fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM₂.₅). Among them, Bangladesh is one of the most polluting countries. In this paper, statistical analyses were conducted on the time series of PM₂.₅ from various districts in Bangladesh, mostly around Dhaka city. Research has been conducted on the dynamic interactions and relationships between PM₂.₅ concentrations in different zones. The study is conducted toward understanding the characteristics of PM₂.₅, such as spatial-temporal characterization, correlation of other contributors behind air pollution such as human activities, driving factors and environmental casualties. Clustering on the data gave an insight on the districts groups based on their AQI frequency as representative districts. Seasonality analysis on hourly and monthly frequency found higher concentration of fine particles in nighttime and winter season, respectively. Cross correlation analysis discovered a phenomenon of correlations among cities based on time-lagged series of air particle readings and visualization framework is developed for observing interaction in PM₂.₅ concentrations between cities. Significant time-lagged correlations were discovered between the PM₂.₅ time series in different city groups throughout the country by cross correlation analysis. Additionally, seasonal heatmaps depict that the pooled series correlations are less significant in warmer months, and among cities of greater geographic distance as well as time lag magnitude and direction of the best shifted correlated particulate matter time series among districts change seasonally. The geographic map visualization demonstrates spatial behaviour of air pollution among districts around Dhaka city and the significant effect of wind direction as the vital actor on correlated shifted time series. The visualization framework has multipurpose usage from gathering insight of general and seasonal air quality of Bangladesh to determining the pathway of regional transportation of air pollution.

Keywords: Air quality, Particles, Seasonality, cross correlation

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