Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

season Related Abstracts

8 Circadian Rhythm of Blood-Sucking Behavior of Female Forcipomyia taiwana

Authors: Chang-Liang Shih, Kuei-Min Liao, Ya-Yuan Wang, Wu-Chun Tu


Forcipomyia taiwana, an important vexing pest, influences the development of the industry of Taiwan tourism and the quality of country life. Using human-attractant method to investigate the blood-sucking behavior of Forcipomyia taiwana in three districts in Taichung, it revealed that female F. taiwana only exhibits blood-sucking behavior in daytime, not in nighttime. The blooding-sucking behavior of female F. taiwana was affected by some factors, i.e., season and atmospheric factors. During 2008 to 2010, our study revealed that blood-sucking behavior commenced from 7:00 to 8:00 in the spring equinox, the summer solstice and the autumnal equinox, but from 8:00 to 9:00 in the winter solstice. However, regardless of any seasons, it revealed that blood-sucking behavior reached the acme between 13:00 and 15:00, and then descending. In those four seasons, the summer solstice had longer lighting and higher temperature, the average sucking activity was around 12 hours, on the contrary, the winter solstice had shorter lighting and lower temperature, the average sucking activity bridled to around 8 hours whilst it retrenched to 11 hours in the spring equinox and the autumnal equinox. To analyze the correlation between blood-sucking behavior and atmospheric factors, it revealed that female blood-sucking behavior was correlated positively to temperature and lighting but negatively to humidity. In addition, our study also showed that there is no blood-sucking behavior under 18ºC.

Keywords: Circadian Rhythm, Forcipomyia taiwana, blood-sucking behavior, season

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7 Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters in the Blood of Dromedary (Camelus Dromedarius)

Authors: M. Titaouine, T. Meziane, K. Deghnouche


The purpose of this study was to determine reference serum biochemistry values from dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria and to evaluate potential sources of physiological variability such as the sex, age and season on serum data. Usual serum biochemistry values were determined in blood samples from 26 apparently healthy dromedaries, 11 males and 15 females, divided into 3 lots (ender 4years), (between 5 and 10 years), (up 10 years). Parametric reference ranges and physiological variations are determined for calcium (Ca), organic phosphate (P), magnesium (Mg), natrium (Na), potassium (K), iron (Fe), glucose, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, urea, creatinine, total proteins and albumin. The results demonstrate: * Values which agreed with literature * Significant statistically differences (Anova test, p < 0.05) depending on: -the sex for Na, glucose, TG, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, albumin, -the age for Ca, P, K, Mg, glucose, TG, b and g globulin, -and season for Fe, urea, total proteins, TG, cholesterol and glucose. These reference ranges for serum biochemical analysis can be used for metabolic and nutritional disorders detection in dromedary.

Keywords: Biochemistry, Sex, age, season, dromadery

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6 Seasonal and Species Variations in Incidence of Foetal Loss at the Maiduguri Abattoir in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Abdulrazaq O. Raji, Abba Mohammed, Ibrahim D. Mohammed


This study was conducted to investigate foetal loss among slaughtered livestock species at the Maiduguri abattoir from 2009 to 2013. Record of animals slaughtered monthly and fetuses recovered were collected from the management of the Maiduguri abattoir. Data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using the General Linear Model of SPSS 13.0 with Season, Species and their interaction as fixed factors. Average yearly slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir was 63,225 animals with cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounting for 19737, 7374, 19281 and 17540 of the total. The corresponding number of those pregnant were 3117, 839, 2281 and 2432 out of a total of 8522 animals. Thus, cattle, camel, goat and sheep accounted for 30.87, 11.53, 30.16 and 27.44%, respectively of the animals slaughtered at the Abattoir and 35.96, 9.68, 26.31 and 28.05% of the foetal loss. The effect of season and species on foetal loss was significant (P < 0.05). The number of pregnant animals slaughtered and foetal loss were higher during wet than dry season. Similarly, foetal loss at the abattoir was higher in the month of May in respect of camel, goat and sheep, and August for cattle. Camel was the least slaughtered animal and had the least number of pregnant females. Foetal loss (%) was higher (P < 0.05) for cattle compared to other species. The interaction showed that camel was the least slaughtered species in both seasons and cattle in the wet season had the highest foetal loss.

Keywords: Species, abattoir, season, foetal loss

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5 Factors Influencing Milk Yield, Quality, and Revenue of Dairy Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu


Dairy production in Vietnam is a relatively new agricultural activity and milk production increased remarkably in recent years. Smallholders are still the main drivers for this development, especially in the southern part of the country. However, information on the farming practices is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing milk yield and quality (milk fat, total solids, solids-not-fat, total number of bacteria, and somatic cell count) and revenue of dairy farms in Southern Vietnam. The collection of data was at the farm level; individual animal records were unavailable. The 539 studied farms were located in the provinces Lam Dong (N=111 farms), Binh Duong (N=69 farms), Long An (N=174 farms), and Ho Chi Minh city (N=185 farms). The dataset included 9221 monthly test-day records of the farms from January 2013 to May 2015. Seasons were defined as rainy and dry. Farms sizes were classified as small (< 10 milking cows), medium (10 to 19 milking cows) and large (≥ 20 milking cows). The model for each trait contained year-season and farm region-farm size as subclass fixed effects, and individual farm and residual as random effects. Results showed that year-season, region, and farm size were determining sources of variation affecting all studied traits. Milk yield was higher in dry than in rainy seasons (P < 0.05), while it tended to increase from years 2013 to 2015. Large farms had higher yields (445.6 kg/cow) than small (396.7 kg/cow) and medium (428.0 kg/cow) farms (P < 0.05). Small farms, in contrast, were superior to large farms in terms of milk fat, total solids, solids-not-fat, total number of bacteria, and somatic cell count than large farms (P < 0.05). Revenue per cow was higher in large compared with medium and small farms. In conclusion, large farms achieved higher milk yields and revenues per cow, while small farms were superior in milk quality. Overall, milk yields were low and better training, financial support and marketing opportunities for farmers are needed to improve dairy production and increase farm revenues in Southern Vietnam.

Keywords: Farm size, season, milk yield and quality, Southern Vietnam

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4 Ovarian Hormones and Antioxidants Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Synchronized with Controlled Intravaginal Drug Release/Ovsynch GPG Program during Breeding Season

Authors: Heba Hozyen, Amal Abo El-Maaty, Ragab Mohamed, Amal Abd El Hameed


This study aimed to investigate the effect of CIDR and ovsynch (Gonadotropin-prostaglandine-gonadotropin GPG) protocols for synchronization of follicular waves of dromedary camels on ovarian hormones, oxidative stress and conception during breeding season. Twelve dark colored dromedary camels were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to CIDR insertion for 7 days and blood samples were collected each other day from the day of CIDR insertion (day 0) till day 21. The other group was subjected to GPG system (Ovsynch) and blood samples were collected daily for 11 days. Progesterone (P4) and estradiol were assayed using commercial ELISA diagnostic EIA kits. Catalase (CAT), total antioxidants capacity (TAC), glutathione reduced (GHD), lipid peroxide product (malondialdehyde, MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured colorimetrically using spectrophotometer. Results revealed that CIDR treated camels had significantly high P4 (P= 0.0001), estradiol (P= 0.0001), CAT (P= 0.034), NO (P= 0.016) and TAC (P= 0.04) but significantly low MDA (P= 0.001) and GHD (P= 0.003) compared to GPG treated ones. Camels inserted with CIDR had higher conception rate (66.7%) compared to those treated with GPG (33%). In conclusion, camels treated with CIDR had higher hormonal response and antioxidant capacity than those synchronized with GPG which positively reflected on their conception rate. The better response of camels to CIDR and the higher conception compared to GPG protocol recommends its use for future reproductive management in camels.

Keywords: Antioxidants, camel, season, CIDR, steroid hormones

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3 Effects of Conversion of Indigenous Forest to Plantation Forest on the Diversity of Macro-Fungi in Kereita Forest, Kikuyu Escarpment, Kenya

Authors: Susan Mwai, Mary Muchane, Peter Wachira, Sheila Okoth, Muchai Muchane, Halima Saado


Tropical forests harbor a wide range of biodiversity and rich macro-fungi diversity compared to the temperate regions in the World. However, biodiversity is facing the threat of extinction following the rate of forest loss taking place before proper study and documentation of macrofungi is achieved. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of converting indigenous habitat to plantation forest on macrofungi diversity. To achieve the objective of this study, an inventory focusing on macro-fungi diversity was conducted within Kereita block in Kikuyu Escarpment forest which is on the southern side of Aberdare mountain range. The macrofungi diversity was conducted in the indigenous forest and in more than 15 year old Patula plantation forest , during the wet (long rain season, December 2014) and dry (Short rain season, May, 2015). In each forest type, 15 permanent (20m x 20m) sampling plots distributed across three (3) forest blocks were used. Both field and laboratory methods involved recording abundance of fruiting bodies, taxonomic identity of species and analysis of diversity indices and measures in terms of species richness, density and diversity. R statistical program was used to analyze for species diversity and Canoco 4.5 software for species composition. A total number of 76 genera in 28 families and 224 species were encountered in both forest types. The most represented taxa belonged to the Agaricaceae (16%), Polyporaceae (12%), Marasmiaceae, Mycenaceae (7%) families respectively. Most of the recorded macro-fungi were saprophytic, mostly colonizing the litter 38% and wood 34% based substrates, which was followed by soil organic dwelling species (17%). Ecto-mycorrhiza fungi (5%) and parasitic fungi (2%) were the least encountered. The data established that indigenous forests (native ecosystems) hosts a wide range of macrofungi assemblage in terms of density (2.6 individual fruit bodies / m2), species richness (8.3 species / plot) and species diversity (1.49/ plot level) compared to the plantation forest. The Conversion of native forest to plantation forest also interfered with species composition though did not alter species diversity. Seasonality was also shown to significantly affect the diversity of macro-fungi and 61% of the total species being present during the wet season. Based on the present findings, forested ecosystems in Kenya hold diverse macro-fungi community which warrants conservation measures.

Keywords: Diversity, season, indigenous forest, plantation forest, macro-fungi

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2 Seasonal Short-Term Effect of Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Mortality in Belgium

Authors: Natalia Bustos Sierra, Katrien Tersago


It is currently proven that both extremes of temperature are associated with increased mortality and that air pollution is associated with temperature. This relationship is complex, and in countries with important seasonal variations in weather such as Belgium, some effects can appear as non-significant when the analysis is done over the entire year. We, therefore, analyzed the effect of short-term outdoor air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality during the warmer and colder months separately. We used daily cardiovascular deaths from acute cardiovascular diagnostics according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10: I20-I24, I44-I49, I50, I60-I66) during the period 2008-2013. The environmental data were population-weighted concentrations of particulates with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM₁₀) and less than 2.5 µm (PM₂.₅) (daily average), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) (daily maximum of the hourly average) and ozone (O₃) (daily maximum of the 8-hour running mean). A Generalized linear model was applied adjusting for the confounding effect of season, temperature, dew point temperature, the day of the week, public holidays and the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) per 100,000 inhabitants. The relative risks (RR) were calculated for an increase of one interquartile range (IQR) of the air pollutant (μg/m³). These were presented for the four hottest months (June, July, August, September) and coldest months (November, December, January, February) in Belgium. We applied both individual lag model and unconstrained distributed lag model methods. The cumulative effect of a four-day exposure (day of exposure and three consecutive days) was calculated from the unconstrained distributed lag model. The IQR for PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, NO₂, and O₃ were respectively 8.2, 6.9, 12.9 and 25.5 µg/m³ during warm months and 18.8, 17.6, 18.4 and 27.8 µg/m³ during cold months. The association with CV mortality was statistically significant for the four pollutants during warm months and only for NO₂ during cold months. During the warm months, the cumulative effect of an IQR increase of ozone for the age groups 25-64, 65-84 and 85+ was 1.066 (95%CI: 1.002-1.135), 1.041 (1.008-1.075) and 1.036 (1.013-1.058) respectively. The cumulative effect of an IQR increase of NO₂ for the age group 65-84 was 1.066 (1.020-1.114) during warm months and 1.096 (1.030-1.166) during cold months. The cumulative effect of an IQR increase of PM₁₀ during warm months reached 1.046 (1.011-1.082) and 1.038 (1.015-1.063) for the age groups 65-84 and 85+ respectively. Similar results were observed for PM₂.₅. The short-term effect of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality is greater during warm months for lower pollutant concentrations compared to cold months. Spending more time outside during warm months increases population exposure to air pollution and can, therefore, be a confounding factor for this association. Age can also affect the length of time spent outdoors and the type of physical activity exercised. This study supports the deleterious effect of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality (CV) which varies according to season and age groups in Belgium. Public health measures should, therefore, be adapted to seasonality.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Cardiovascular, Mortality, season

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1 Growth and Yield Response of Solanum retroflexum to Different Level of Salinity

Authors: Fhatuwani Herman Nndwambi, P. W. Mashela


Salinity is a major constraint limiting crop productivity. It has been predicted that by the year 2050, more than 50% of the arable land will be affected by salinity. Two similar salinity experiments were conducted in two seasons under greenhouse condition. Six levels of salinity plus control (viz; control, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 % NaCl and CaCl2 at 3:1 ratio) were applied in a form of irrigation water in a single factor experiment arranged in a complete block design with 20 replications. Plant growth and yield were negatively affected by salinity treatments especially at the high levels of salinity. For example, our results suggest that the 32 and 64% of NaCl and CaCl2 treatment were too much for the plant to withstand as determined by reduced dry shoot mass, stem diameter and plant height in both seasons. On the other hand, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content increased with an increased level of salinity.

Keywords: Growth, Yield, Salinity, season

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