Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1155

Search results for: zeotropic mixture

1155 Thermodynamic Analysis of Zeotropic Mixture Used in Low Temperature Solar Rankine Cycle with Ejector for Power Generation

Authors: Basma Hamdi, Lakdar Kairouani, Ezzedine Nahdi

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to present a thermodynamic analysis of low temperature solar Rankine cycle with ejector for power generation using zeotropic mixtures. Based on theoretical calculation, effects of zeotropic mixtures compositions on the performance of solar Rankine cycle with ejector are discussed and compared with corresponding pure fluids. Variations of net power output, thermal efficiency were calculating with changing evaporation temperature. The ejector coefficient had analyzed as independent variable. The result show that (R245fa/R152a) has a higher thermal efficiency than using pure fluids.

Keywords: zeotropic mixture, thermodynamic analysis, ejector, low-temperature solar rankine cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
1154 Production of Ultra-Low Temperature by the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycles with Environment Friendly Working Fluids

Authors: Sameh Frikha, Mohamed Salah Abid

Abstract:

We investigate the performance of an integrated cascade (IC) refrigeration system which uses environment friendly zeotropic mixtures. Computational calculation has been carried out by varying pressure level at the evaporator and the condenser of the system. Effects of mass flow rate of the refrigerant on the coefficient of performance (COP) are presented. We show that the integrated cascade system produces ultra-low temperatures in the evaporator by using environment friendly zeotropic mixture.

Keywords: coefficient of performance, environment friendly zeotropic mixture, integrated cascade, ultra low temperature, vapor compression refrigeration cycles

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
1153 A Learning-Based EM Mixture Regression Algorithm

Authors: Yi-Cheng Tian, Miin-Shen Yang

Abstract:

The mixture likelihood approach to clustering is a popular clustering method where the expectation and maximization (EM) algorithm is the most used mixture likelihood method. In the literature, the EM algorithm had been used for mixture regression models. However, these EM mixture regression algorithms are sensitive to initial values with a priori number of clusters. In this paper, to resolve these drawbacks, we construct a learning-based schema for the EM mixture regression algorithm such that it is free of initializations and can automatically obtain an approximately optimal number of clusters. Some numerical examples and comparisons demonstrate the superiority and usefulness of the proposed learning-based EM mixture regression algorithm.

Keywords: clustering, EM algorithm, Gaussian mixture model, mixture regression model

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
1152 Performance Analysis and Multi-Objective Optimization of a Kalina Cycle for Low-Temperature Applications

Authors: Sadegh Sadeghi, Negar Shabani

Abstract:

From a thermal point of view, zeotropic mixtures are likely to be more efficient than azeotropic fluids in low-temperature thermodynamic cycles due to their suitable boiling characteristics. In this study, performance of a low-temperature Kalina cycle with R717/water working fluid used in different existing power plants is mathematically investigated. To analyze the behavior of the cycle, mass conservation, energy conservation, and exergy balance equations are presented. With regard to the similarity in molar mass of R717 (17.03 gr/mol) and water (18.01 gr/mol), there is no need to alter the size of Kalina system components such as turbine and pump. To optimize the cycle energy and exergy efficiencies simultaneously, a constrained multi-objective optimization is carried out applying an Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. The main motivation behind using this algorithm lies on its robustness, reliability, remarkable precision and high–speed convergence rate in dealing with complicated constrained multi-objective problems. Convergence rates of the algorithm for calculating the optimal energy and exergy efficiencies are presented. Subsequently, due to the importance of exergy concept in Kalina cycles, exergy destructions occurring in the components are computed. Finally, the impacts of pressure, temperature, mass fraction and mass flow rate on the energy and exergy efficiencies are elaborately studied.

Keywords: artificial bee colony algorithm, binary zeotropic mixture, constrained multi-objective optimization, energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, Kalina cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1151 Thermodynamic Analysis of Ammonia-Water Based Regenerative Rankine Cycle with Partial Evaporation

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

A thermodynamic analysis of a partial evaporating Rankine cycle with regeneration using zeotropic ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid is presented in this paper. The thermodynamic laws were applied to evaluate the system performance. Based on the thermodynamic model, the effects of the vapor quality and the ammonia mass fraction on the system performance were extensively investigated. The results showed that thermal efficiency has a peak value with respect to the vapor quality as well as the ammonia mass fraction. The partial evaporating ammonia based Rankine cycle has a potential to improve recovery of low-grade finite heat source.

Keywords: ammonia-water, Rankine cycle, partial evaporating, thermodynamic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
1150 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
1149 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
1148 Effect of Using a Mixture of Al2O3 Nanoparticles and 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the Sensing Membrane for Polysilicon Wire on pH Sensing

Authors: You-Lin Wu, Zong-Xian Wu, Jing-Jenn Lin, Shih-Hung Lin

Abstract:

In this work, a polysilicon wire (PSW) coated with a mixture of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (r-APTES) and Al2O3 nanoparticles as the sensing membrane prepared with various Al2O3/r-APTES and dispersing agent/r-APTES ratios for pH sensing is studied. The r-APTES and dispersed Al2O3 nanoparticles mixture was directly transferred to PSW surface by solution phase deposition (SPD). It is found that using a mixture of Al2O3 nanoparticles and r-APTES as the sensing membrane help in improving the pH sensing of the PSW sensor and a 5 min SPD deposition time is the best. Dispersing agent is found to be necessary for better pH sensing when preparing the mixture of Al2O3 nanoparticles and r-APTES. The optimum condition for preparing the mixture is found to be Al2O3/r-APTES ratio of 2% and dispersing agent/r-APTES ratio of 0.3%.

Keywords: al2o3 nanoparticles, ph sensing, polysilicon wire sensor, r-aptes

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
1147 Particle Size Distribution Estimation of a Mixture of Regular and Irregular Sized Particles Using Acoustic Emissions

Authors: Ejay Nsugbe, Andrew Starr, Ian Jennions, Cristobal Ruiz-Carcel

Abstract:

This works investigates the possibility of using Acoustic Emissions (AE) to estimate the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of a mixture of particles that comprise of particles of different densities and geometry. The experiments carried out involved the mixture of a set of glass and polyethylene particles that ranged from 150-212 microns and 150-250 microns respectively and an experimental rig that allowed the free fall of a continuous stream of particles on a target plate which the AE sensor was placed. By using a time domain based multiple threshold method, it was observed that the PSD of the particles in the mixture could be estimated.

Keywords: acoustic emissions, particle sizing, process monitoring, signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
1146 Effect of Using Crumb Rubber with Warm-Mix-Asphalt Additive in Laboratory and Field Aging

Authors: Mustafa Akpolat, Baha Vural Kök

Abstract:

Using a waste material such as crumb rubber (CR) obtained by waste tires has become an important issue in respect to sustainability. However, the CR modified mixture also requires high manufacture temperature as a polymer modified mixture. For this reason in this study, it is intended to produce a CR modified mixture with warm mix asphalt additives in the same mixture. Asphalt mixtures produced by pure, 10%CR, 10%CR+3% Sasobit and 10%CR+0.7% Evotherm were subjected to aging procedure in the laboratory and the field. The indirect tensile repeated tests were applied to aged and original specimens. It was concluded that the fatigue life of the mixtures increased significantly with the increase of aging time. CR+Sasobit modified mixture aged at the both field and laboratory gave the highest load cycle among the mixtures.

Keywords: crumb rubber, warm mix asphalt, aging, fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1145 Microstructure Analysis of Biopolymer Mixture (Chia-Gelatin) by Laser Confocal Microscopy

Authors: Emmanuel Flores Huicochea, Guadalupe Borja Mendiola, Jacqueline Flores Lopez, Rodolfo Rendon Villalobos

Abstract:

The usual procedure to investigate the properties of biodegradable films has been to prepare the film, measure the mechanical or transport properties and then decide whether the mixture has better properties than the individual components, instead of investigating whether the mixture has biopolymer-biopolymer interaction, then prepare the film and finally measure the properties of the film. The work investigates the presence of interaction biopolymer-biopolymer in a mixture of chia biopolymer and gelatin using Laser Confocal Microscopy (LCM). Previously, the chia biopolymer was obtained from chia seed. CML analysis of mixtures of chia biopolymer-gelatin without Na⁺ ions exhibited aggregates of different size, in the range of 100-400 μm, of defined color, for the two colors, but no mixing of color was observed. The increased of gelatin in the mixture decreases the size and number of aggregates. The tridimensional microstructure reveled that there are two layers of biopolymers, chia and gelatin well defined. The mixture chia biopolymer-gelatin with 10 mM Na⁺ and with a ratio 75:25 (chia-gelatin) showed lower aggregated size than others mixture with and without ions. This result could be explained because the chia biopolymer is a polyelectrolyte and the added sodium ions reduce the molecular rigidity by neutralizing the negative charges that the chia biopolymer possesses and therefore a better biopolymer-biopolymer interaction is allowed between the biopolymer of chia and gelatin.

Keywords: biopolymer-biopolymer interaction, confocal laser microscopy, CLM, microstructure, mixture chia-gelatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1144 Entropy Generation Analysis of Heat Recovery Vapor Generator for Ammonia-Water Mixture

Authors: Chul Ho Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

This paper carries out a performance analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) of ammonia-water mixture when the heat source is low-temperature energy in the form of sensible heat. In the analysis, effects of the ammonia mass concentration and mass flow ratio of the binary mixture are investigated on the system performance including the effectiveness of heat transfer, entropy generation, and exergy efficiency. The results show that the ammonia concentration and the mass flow ratio of the mixture have significant effects on the system performance of HRVG.

Keywords: entropy, exergy, ammonia-water mixture, heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1143 The Behavior of Unsteady Non-Equilibrium Distribution Function and Exact Equilibrium Time for a Dilute Gas Mixture Affected by Thermal Radiation Field

Authors: Taha Zakaraia Abdel Wahid

Abstract:

In the present study, a development of the papers is introduced. The behavior of the unsteady non-equilibrium distribution functions for a rarefied gas mixture under the effect of non-linear thermal radiation field is presented. For the best of our knowledge this is done for the first time at all. The distinction and comparisons between the unsteady perturbed and the unsteady equilibrium velocity distribution functions are illustrated. The equilibrium time for the rarefied gas mixture is determined for the first time. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the system is investigated. The results are applied to the Argon-Neon binary gas mixture, for various values of both of molar fraction parameters and radiation field intensity. 3D-Graphics illustrating the calculated variables are drawn to predict their behavior and the results are discussed.

Keywords: radiation field, binary gas mixture, exact solutions, travelling wave method, unsteady BGK model, irreversible thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
1142 Valorization of Local Materials in the Waterproofing Technique of Landfills Site "TLS"

Authors: M. Debieche, F. Kaoua

Abstract:

This paper deals with the use two locals materials abundant in our country, with the view to use a mixture in the waterproofing the landfills. Our interest comes from the necessity to the environment protection, which has recently considerably grown. The site's waterproofing technique, in the landfills sites, is nowadays a very necessary condition to protect the environment, which requires the use of appropriate materials. To this end, an optimal mixture ensuring good performance in terms of hydraulic conductivity, durability and shear strength, mixtures based of sand at different concentrations of sodium bentonite, at compact state are prepared and studied. This study showed that a low permeability of mixture (sand / bentonite) can be achieved 6% of sodium bentonite. This mixture confers also good mechanical behavior, expressed by the recorded, reduction of friction (φ) and the increase of the cohesion (C). Thus, the selected formulation represents an optimal mixture for waterproofing systems. It guarantees an economical and ecological advantages.

Keywords: hydraulic conductivity, sand, sodium bentonite, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1141 Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of a Tuff and Calcareous Sand Mixture for Use in Pavement in Arid Region

Authors: I. Goual, M. S. Goual, M. K. Gueddouda, Taïbi Saïd, Abou-Bekr Nabil, A. Ferhat

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to study the hydro-mechanical behavior of a tuff and calcareous sand mixture. A first experimental phase was carried out in order to find the optimal mixture. This showed that the material composed of 80% tuff and 20% calcareous sand provides the maximum mechanical strength. The second experimental phase concerns the study of the drying-wetting behavior of the optimal mixture was carried out on slurry samples and compacted samples at the MPO. Experimental results let to deduce the parameters necessary for the prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior of pavement formulated from tuff and calcareous sand mixtures, related to moisture. This optimal mixture satisfies the regulation rules and hence constitutes a good local eco-material, abundantly available, for the conception of pavements.

Keywords: tuff, sandy calcareous, road engineering, hydro mechanical behaviour, suction

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
1140 OLED Encapsulation Process Using Low Melting Point Alloy and Epoxy Mixture by Instantaneous Discharge

Authors: Kyung Min Park, Cheol Hee Moon

Abstract:

In this study we are to develop a sealing process using a mixture of a LMPA and an epoxy for the atmospheric OLED sealing process as a substitute for the thin-film process. Electrode lines were formed on the substrates, which were covered with insulating layers and sacrificial layers. A mixture of a LMPA and an epoxy was screen printed between the two electrodes. In order to generate a heat for the melting of the mixture, Joule heating method was used. Were used instantaneous discharge process for generating Joule heating. Experimental conditions such as voltage, time and constituent of the electrode were varied to optimize the heating conditions. As a result, the mixture structure of this study showed a great potential for a low-cost, low-temperature, atmospheric OLED sealing process as a substitute for the thin-film process.

Keywords: organic light emitting diode, encapsulation, low melting point alloy, joule heat

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
1139 In vitro Anti-Gonococcal, Anti-Inflammatory and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Activities of the Herbal Mixture

Authors: T. E. Tshikalange, B. C. Mophuting

Abstract:

Traditional medicine often consists of complex ingredients prepared from a mixture of plant species. These herbal mixtures are used in the treatment of various ailments such as sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The present study was carried out to determine the biological activities of the herbal mixture used traditionally in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. This herbal mixture consists of four plant species from families Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, and Myrtaceae. Five crude extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol, water and boiled) of the herbal mixture were investigated for anti-gonococcal, anti-inflammatory, and reverse transcriptase activities. The anti-inflammatory activity of the plant extracts was determined by measuring the extract inhibitory effect on the pro-inflammatory enzyme lipoxygenase. The extracts were also tested for anti-HIV activity against recombinant HIV-1 enzyme using non-radioactive HIV-RT colorimetric assay. The boiled extract exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity with an IC₅₀ of 87 µg/ml compared to that of the positive control quercetin (IC₅₀= 92 µg/ml). All the other extracts showed little or no activity. Hexane extract was the only extract that showed reverse transcriptase extract inhibitory effect with an IC₅₀ of 74 µg/ml. Anti-gonococcal and cytotoxicity investigations are underway. The preliminary results support the use of herbal mixture by traditional healers.

Keywords: sexually transmitted diseases, lipoxygenase, anti-inflammatory, herbal mixture

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1138 Structural Properties of Polar Liquids in Binary Mixture Using Microwave Technique

Authors: Shagufta Tabassum, V. P. Pawar

Abstract:

The study of static dielectric properties in a binary mixture of 1,2 dichloroethane (DE) and n,n dimethylformamide (DMF) polar liquids has been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz for 11 different concentration using time domain reflectometry technique at 10ºC temperature. The dielectric relaxation study of solute-solvent mixture at microwave frequencies gives information regarding the creation of monomers and multimers as well as interaction between the molecules of the binary mixture. The least squares fit method is used to determine the values of dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant (ε0), dielectric constant at high frequency (ε) and relaxation time (τ).

Keywords: shagufta shaikhexcess parameters, relaxation time, static dielectric constant, time domain reflectometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
1137 Learning the Dynamics of Articulated Tracked Vehicles

Authors: Mario Gianni, Manuel A. Ruiz Garcia, Fiora Pirri

Abstract:

In this work, we present a Bayesian non-parametric approach to model the motion control of ATVs. The motion control model is based on a Dirichlet Process-Gaussian Process (DP-GP) mixture model. The DP-GP mixture model provides a flexible representation of patterns of control manoeuvres along trajectories of different lengths and discretizations. The model also estimates the number of patterns, sufficient for modeling the dynamics of the ATV.

Keywords: Dirichlet processes, gaussian mixture models, learning motion patterns, tracked robots for urban search and rescue

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
1136 Investigation of Effect of Mixture Ratio and Compaction Pressure of Reinforced with Miscanthus Fibre Brake Pad Samples

Authors: M. Unaldi, R. Kus

Abstract:

Brake pads are important parts of the braking system and they are made of different materials. Use of asbestos fibre can cause health risks. The goal of this study is to determine the effect of ecological brake pad samples which are produced under different compaction pressure values and mixture ratios by using miscanthus as reinforcement component on the density, hardness, wear rate and compression strength properties, and friction coefficients changes of ecological brake pad samples. Miscanthus powder, cashew powder, alumina powder, phenolic resin powder, and calcite powder mixtures were used to produce ecological brake pad samples. The physical properties of the brake pad samples produced under different mixture ratios and compaction pressures values were determined to assign their effects on them by using Taguchi experimental design. Mixture ratios and compaction pressures values were chosen as the factors with three-levels. Experiments are conducted to L₉(3⁴) Taguchi orthogonal array design. The results showed that hardness value is very much affected both compaction pressure values and mixture ratios than the other physical properties. When reinforcing component ratio within the mixture and compaction pressure value is increased, hardness and compression strength values of the all samples are also increased. All test results taking into account, the ideal compaction value for used components and mixture ratios were determined as 200 MPa.

Keywords: brake pad, eco-friendly materials, hardness, Miscanthus, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
1135 Temperature Measurements of Corona Discharge in the SF6-N2 Gas Mixture

Authors: A. Lemzadmi

Abstract:

Rotational and vibrational temperatures of the SF6-N2 gas mixture are spectroscopically measured over a pressure range of 2-14 bars. The spectra obtained of the light emission of the corona discharge were recorded with different values of pressure, voltage and current together with the variation of the position of the tip electrode. The emission of N2 is very dominant for different gas concentration and the second positive system 2S+ is the most important. The convolution method is used for the determination of the temperature. The Rotational temperature measurements of the plasma reveal gas temperatures in the range of 450-650°K and vibrational temperatures in the range of 1800-2200°K.

Keywords: rotational temperatures, corona discharges, SF6-N2 gas mixture, vibrational temperatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
1134 Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of Calcareous Soils in Arid Region

Authors: I. Goual, M. S. Goual, M. K. Gueddouda, Taïbi Saïd, Abou-Bekr Nabil, A. Ferhat

Abstract:

This paper presents the study of hydro mechanical behavior of this optimal mixture. A first experimental phase was carried out in order to find the optimal mixture. This showed that the material composed of 80% tuff and 20% calcareous sand provides the maximum mechanical strength. The second experimental phase concerns the study of the drying- wetting behavior of the optimal mixture was carried out on slurry samples and compacted samples at the MPO. Experimental results let to deduce the parameters necessary for the prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior of pavement formulated from tuff and calcareous sand mixtures, related to moisture. This optimal mixture satisfies the regulation rules and hence constitutes a good local eco-material, abundantly available, for the conception of pavements.

Keywords: tuff, sandy calcareous, road engineering, hydro mechanical behaviour, suction

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
1133 Process Simulation of 1-Butene Separation from C4 Mixture by Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah, Wasif Mughees

Abstract:

Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with regard to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent plays an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator. Moreover, NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99% pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1: 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column. Previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the number of proposed plates were 30, which shows that the separation process can be economized.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, aspen plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
1132 The Modality of Multivariate Skew Normal Mixture

Authors: Bader Alruwaili, Surajit Ray

Abstract:

Finite mixtures are a flexible and powerful tool that can be used for univariate and multivariate distributions, and a wide range of research analysis has been conducted based on the multivariate normal mixture and multivariate of a t-mixture. Determining the number of modes is an important activity that, in turn, allows one to determine the number of homogeneous groups in a population. Our work currently being carried out relates to the study of the modality of the skew normal distribution in the univariate and multivariate cases. For the skew normal distribution, the aims are associated with studying the modality of the skew normal distribution and providing the ridgeline, the ridgeline elevation function, the $\Pi$ function, and the curvature function, and this will be conducive to an exploration of the number and location of mode when mixing the two components of skew normal distribution. The subsequent objective is to apply these results to the application of real world data sets, such as flow cytometry data.

Keywords: mode, modality, multivariate skew normal, finite mixture, number of mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
1131 A Time-Varying and Non-Stationary Convolution Spectral Mixture Kernel for Gaussian Process

Authors: Kai Chen, Shuguang Cui, Feng Yin

Abstract:

Gaussian process (GP) with spectral mixture (SM) kernel demonstrates flexible non-parametric Bayesian learning ability in modeling unknown function. In this work a novel time-varying and non-stationary convolution spectral mixture (TN-CSM) kernel with a significant enhancing of interpretability by using process convolution is introduced. A way decomposing the SM component into an auto-convolution of base SM component and parameterizing it to be input dependent is outlined. Smoothly, performing a convolution between two base SM component yields a novel structure of non-stationary SM component with much better generalized expression and interpretation. The TN-CSM perfectly allows compatibility with the stationary SM kernel in terms of kernel form and spectral base ignored and confused by previous non-stationary kernels. On synthetic and real-world datatsets, experiments show the time-varying characteristics of hyper-parameters in TN-CSM and compare the learning performance of TN-CSM with popular and representative non-stationary GP.

Keywords: Gaussian process, spectral mixture, non-stationary, convolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
1130 Characterization and Evaluation of LD Slag and Fly Ash Mixture for Their Possible Utilization in Different Sectors

Authors: Jagdeep Nayak, Biswajit Paul, Anup Gupta

Abstract:

Characterization of coal refuses to fly ash, and steel slag from steel industries have been performed to develop a mixture of both these materials to enhance strength properties of their utilization in other sectors like mine fill, construction work, etc. A large amount of Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag and fly ash waste are generated from steel and thermal power industries respectively. Management of these wastes is problematic, and their reutilization may provide a sustainable waste management option. LD slag and fly ash mixed in different proportions were tested to analyse the micro structural improvement and hardening rate of the matrix. Mixing of activators such as sodium hydroxide and potassium silicate with silica-alumina of LD slag-fly ash mixture, geopolymeric structure were found to be developed. The effect of geo-polymerization behaviour and subsequent structural rearrangement has been studied using compressibility; shear strength and permeability tests followed by micro-graphical analysis. Densification in the mixture was observed along with an improvement of geotechnical properties due to the addition of LD slag. Due to suitable strength characteristics of these two waste materials as mixture, it can be used in the various construction field or may be used as a filling material in mine voids.

Keywords: LD slag, fly-ash, geopolymer, strength property, compressibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1129 Fractionation of Biosynthetic Mixture of Gentamicins by Reactive Extraction

Authors: L. Kloetzer, M. Poştaru, A. I. Galaction, D. Caşcaval

Abstract:

Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic industrially obtained by biosynthesis of Micromonospora purpurea or echinospora, the product being a complex mixture of components with very similar structures. Among them, three exhibit the most important biological activity: gentamicins C1, C1a, C2, and C2a. The separation of gentamicin from the fermentation broths at industrial scale is rather difficult and it does not allow the fractionation of the complex mixture of gentamicins in order to increase the therapeutic activity of the product. The aim of our experiments is to analyze the possibility to selectively separate the less active gentamicin, namely gentamicin C1, from the biosynthetic mixture by reactive extraction with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in dichloromethane, followed selective re-extraction of the most active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. The experiments on the reactive extraction of gentamicins indicated the possibility to separate selectively the gentamicin C1 from the mixture obtained by biosynthesis. The extraction selectivity is positively influenced by increasing the pH-value of an aqueous solution and by using a D2EHPA concentration in organic phase closer to the value needed for an equimolecular ratio between the extractant and this gentamicin. For quantifying the selectivity of separation, the selectivity factor, calculated as the ratio between the degree of reactive extraction of gentamicin C1 and the overall extraction degree of gentamicins were used. The possibility to remove the gentamicin C1 at an extractant concentration of 10 g l-1 and pH = 8 is presented. In these conditions, it was obtained the maximum value of the selectivity factor of 2.14, which corresponds to the modification of the gentamicin C1 concentration from 31.92% in the biosynthetic mixture to 72% in the extract. The re-extraction of gentamicins C1, C1a, C2, and C2a with sulfuric acid from the extract previously obtained by reactive extraction (mixture A – extract obtained by non-selective reactive extraction; mixture B – extract obtained by selective reactive extraction) allows for separating selectively the most active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. For recovering only the active gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a, the re-extraction must be carried out at very low acid concentrations, far below those corresponding to the stoichiometry of its chemical reactions with these gentamicins. Therefore, the mixture resulted by re-extraction contained 92.6% gentamicins C1a, C2, and C2a. By bringing together the aqueous solutions obtained by reactive extraction and re-extraction, the overall content of the active gentamicins in the final product becomes 89%, their loss reaching 0.3% related to the initial biosynthetic product.

Keywords: di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, gentamicin, reactive extraction, selectivity factor

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1128 The Effects of Inulin on the Stabilization and Stevioside as Sugar-Replacer of Sourcherry Juice-Milk Mixture

Authors: S. Teimouri, S. Abbasi

Abstract:

Milk-fruit juice mixture is a type of soft drinks, which can be produced by mixing milk with pieces of fruits, fruit juices, or fruit juices concentrates. The major problem of these products, mainly the acidic ones, is phase separation which occurs during formulation and storage due to the aggregation of caseins at low pH Short-chain inulin (CLR), long-chain inulin (TEX), native inulin (IQ) and Long-chain inulin (TEX) and short-chain inulin (CLR) combined in different proportions (2o:80, 50:50, and 80:20) were added (2-10 %) to sourcherry juice-milk mixture and their stabilization mechanisms were studied with using rheological and microstructural observations. Stevioside as a bio-sweetener and sugar-replacer was added at last step. Finally, sensory analyses were taken place on stabilized samples. According to the findings, TEX stabilized the mixture at concentration of 8%. MIX and IQ reduced phase separation at high concentration but had not complete effect on stabilization. CLR did not effect on stabilization. Rheological changes and inulin aggregates formation were not observed in CLR samples during the one month storage period. However TEX, MIX and IQ samples formed inulin aggregates and became more thixotropic, elastic and increased the viscosity of mixture. The rate of the inulin aggregates formation and viscosity increasing was in the following order TEX > MIX > IQ. Consequently the mixture which stabilized with inulin and sweetened with stevioside had the prebiotic properties which may suggest to diabetic patients and children.

Keywords: prebiotic, inulin, casein, stabilization, stevioside

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1127 Unsupervised Reciter Recognition Using Gaussian Mixture Models

Authors: Ahmad Alwosheel, Ahmed Alqaraawi

Abstract:

This work proposes an unsupervised text-independent probabilistic approach to recognize Quran reciter voice. It is an accurate approach that works on real time applications. This approach does not require a prior information about reciter models. It has two phases, where in the training phase the reciters' acoustical features are modeled using Gaussian Mixture Models, while in the testing phase, unlabeled reciter's acoustical features are examined among GMM models. Using this approach, a high accuracy results are achieved with efficient computation time process.

Keywords: Quran, speaker recognition, reciter recognition, Gaussian Mixture Model

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1126 Effect of a GABA/5-HTP Mixture on Behavioral Changes and Biomodulation in an Invertebrate Model

Authors: Kyungae Jo, Eun Young Kim, Byungsoo Shin, Kwang Soon Shin, Hyung Joo Suh

Abstract:

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are amino acids of digested nutrients or food ingredients and these can possibly be utilized as non-pharmacologic treatment for sleep disorder. We previously investigated the GABA/5-HTP mixture is the principal concept of sleep-promoting and activity-repressing management in nervous system of D. melanogaster. Two experiments in this study were designed to evaluate sleep-promoting effect of GABA/5-HTP mixture, to clarify the possible ratio of sleep-promoting action in the Drosophila invertebrate model system. Behavioral assays were applied to investigate distance traveled, velocity, movement, mobility, turn angle, angular velocity and meander of two amino acids and GABA/5-HTP mixture with caffeine treated flies. In addition, differentially expressed gene (DEG) analyses from next generation sequencing (NGS) were applied to investigate the signaling pathway and functional interaction network of GABA/5-HTP mixture administration. GABA/5-HTP mixture resulted in significant differences between groups related to behavior (p < 0.01) and significantly induced locomotor activity in the awake model (p < 0.05). As a result of the sequencing, the molecular function of various genes has relationship with motor activity and biological regulation. These results showed that GABA/5-HTP mixture administration significantly involved the inhibition of motor behavior. In this regard, we successfully demonstrated that using a GABA/5-HTP mixture modulates locomotor activity to a greater extent than single administration of each amino acid, and that this modulation occurs via the neuronal system, neurotransmitter release cycle and transmission across chemical synapses.

Keywords: sleep, γ-aminobutyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptophan, Drosophila melanogaster

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