Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 479

Search results for: workplace inclusivity

479 Exploring Individual and Team Approaches in Crafting Workplace Inclusivity for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Employees in Malaysia

Authors: Nor Wahiza Abdul Wahat, Nor Haniza Abdul Wahat, Siti Noormi Alias, Mohamad Sazali Shaari

Abstract:

This study prepares the groundwork for the development of a strategic model and instrument for workplace inclusivity for deaf and hard-of-hearing employees in Malaysia. In the past, scholars have discussed inclusivity of workplaces to the extent to which employees feel they are significantly part of the organizational processes. Such processes include access to information, connectedness to colleagues and team members as well as their ability to participate in and influence decision-making processes. A qualitative study was conducted to explore on experiences of employed deaf and hard-of-hearing employees in a few Malaysian organizations. Data were collected from two focus group discussions involving male and female deaf and hard of hearing employees. Three in-depth interviews were also conducted with employer representatives. Generated themes highlighted individual, and team approaches towards crafting workplace inclusivity for deaf and hard of hearing employees in Malaysia. The adaptiveness of deaf and hard-of-hearing employees and social inclusion by colleagues were among the emerged sub-themes. This study allowed the researchers to further develop workplace inclusivity instruments and models for the benefit of deaf and hard of hearing Malaysian employees, as well as their employers.

Keywords: deaf, hard of hearing, workplace inclusivity, disabilities

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478 The Influence of Workplace Aggression on Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Nimra Parvez, Nawaz Ahmed

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Workplace aggression not only is a proven safety and health issue but it also is a problem witnessed at workplace which has far-reaching consequences. It hinders the overall productivity of the organizations and individual employees. The current study examined employee turnover intentions as a result of workplace aggression. The study was conducted on employees from the private sector. Self-report questionnaires that measured the workplace aggression and turnover intentions of employees were used to target a sample size of 200 employees. In the hypothesis, it was assumed that high levels of workplace aggression at any organization will result in subsequent high levels of employee turnover intentions. It was therefore identified that there has been a relationship between workplace aggression and employee turnover intentions. The results determined a positive relationship between the workplace bullying behaviors towards the individuals and the turnover intention.

Keywords: bullying, organizational commitment, turnover intention, workplace aggression

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
477 The Pink Elephant: Women who Bully Other Women in the Workplace

Authors: Berri A. Wells

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The purpose of this study is to explore the different variables that influence women, specifically Black American or African American women to target and bully other Black American women in the workplace. The Pink Elephant Study seeks to answer the research question, what are some of the factors that prompt Black women to target and harass other Black women in the workplace or other professional settings and organizations? The goal of the study is to enhance the workplace bullying body of knowledge in two specific ways beginning with the inclusion of Black women in the conversation of workplace bullying. A second goal is to hear from and learn from perpetrators of workplace bullying.

Keywords: workplace bullying, incivility at work, women at work, overcoming conflict

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476 Effective Communication Within Workplace: Key to Growth of Business

Authors: Mamta

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Communication is the mixture of the various activities such as words, body language, volume and voice tone. Mankind has always throughout its history had the necessity for communication. It starts from birth and continues throughout life. Communication is just the right means of success and advancement in a workplace. Communication is one of the means to connect to different people at far distances. The modern workplace is inherently collaborative, and this collaboration relies on effective communication among co-workers. Also it has been observed that a lack in good communication skills especially within a workplace can result in conflicts and chaos hence hindering the productivity of an organization. Thus there is a dire need for developing good and effective communication skills which will result in increase in productivity and will enhance its efficiency.

Keywords: communication skills, professional communication, workplace communication, workplace efficiency

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475 Economical Working Hours per Workday for a Production Worker under Hazardous Environment

Authors: Mohammed Darwish

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Workplace injuries cost organizations significant amount of money. Causes of injuries at workplace are very well documented in the literature and attributed to variety of reasons. One important reason is the long working-hours. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model that finds the optimal working-hours at workplace. The developed model minimizes the expected total cost which consists of the expected cost incurred due to unsafe conditions of workplace, the other cost is related to the lost production due to work incidents, and the production cost.

Keywords: 8-hour workday, mathematical model, optimal working hours, workplace injuries

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474 The Happy Workplace Program Promoting Health Literate Workplace in Thai Garment Industry

Authors: Kwanmuang Kaeodumkoeng, Jumnian Junhasobhaga

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This action research on the happy workplace program (HWP) promoting health literate workplace (HLW) in Thai Garment Industry Companies aimed to categorize activities promoting HLW and results of HWP in the Thai garment industry. Thirteen program reports purposely selected from sampled companies. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and content analysis. The results showed that the end of the program, the significant higher levels of work skills, life skills, and factors promoting happy workplace were found compared to before the program in all 13 companies. The activities and results of the HWP could be categorized in five steps of implementing an HWP, compared with the attributes of HLW were composed of 1) Leadership promotion; 2) Preparing workforce; 3) Planning, evaluating, and improving; 4) Communicating effectively; and 5) Designing easy to use materials and ensuring easy access.

Keywords: happy workplace program, health literate workplace, garment industry, indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
473 The Process of Critical Care Nursing Resilience in Workplace Adversity

Authors: Jennifer Jackson

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Critical care nurses are at risk for burnout when confronted with sustained workplace adversity, which stems from a variety of social, structural, and environmental factors. Researchers have suggested that nurses can become resilient and overcome workplace adversity to achieve positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to learn more about critical care nurses’ experiences with workplace adversity, and their process of becoming resilient. The research question will be: what is the process of critical care nursing resilience in workplace adversity? In-depth interviews with critical care nurses will provide the data to inductively generate the grounded theory. The resultant grounded theory will provide a framework to inform nurses and managers in developing interventions to support critical care nurses in their workplace. By enhancing nursing resilience, burnout may be avoided, and nurse satisfaction and overall quality of care may be improved.

Keywords: nursing, resilience, burnout, critical care

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472 National Standard of Canada for Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace: A Critical Review

Authors: Lucie Cote, Isabelle Rodier

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The main objective of the research was to identify demonstrated mechanisms promoting psychological well-being and psychological health in the workplace, and to take a critical look at the 'National Standard of Canada for Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace - Prevention, Promotion and Guidance to Staged Implementation (Standard)' as a mechanism to promote the psychological well-being and psychological health in the workplace. A review of the scientific literature was conducted, and a case study was done using data from a Canadian federal department. The following six mechanisms with an efficiency supported by most of the studies reviewed were identified: improving psychological well-being in the workplace literacy; strengthening the resilience of employees; creating an environmentally friendly and healthy workplace; promoting a healthy lifestyle; taking into account psychological characteristics in the drafting of job descriptions and tasks during the hiring process; and offering psychological self-care tools. The Standard offers several mechanisms beyond those previously identified and their implementation can be demanding. Research based on objective data and addressing the magnitude of the effect would be required.

Keywords: critical review, national standard of Canada, psychological health, workplace

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
471 Workplace Development Programmes for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Europe and Singapore: A Conceptual Study

Authors: Zhan Jie How

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With the heightened awareness of workplace learning and its impact on improving organizational performance and developing employee competence, governments and corporations around the world are forced to intensify their cooperation to establish national workplace development programmes to guide these corporations in fostering engaging and collaborative workplace learning cultures. This conceptual paper aims to conduct a comparative study of existing workplace development programmes for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Europe and Singapore, focusing primarily on the Swedish Production Leap, Finnish TEKES Liideri Programme, and Singapore SkillsFuture SME Mentors Programme. The study carries out a systematic review of the three workplace development programmes to examine the roles of external mentors or coaches in influencing the design and implementation of workplace learning strategies and practices in SMEs. Organizational, personal and external factors that promote or inhibit effective workplace mentorship are also scrutinized, culminating in a critical comparison and evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the aforementioned programmes. Based on the findings from the review and analyses, a heuristic conceptual framework is developed to illustrate the complex interrelationships among external workplace development programmes, internal learning and development initiatives instituted by the organization’s higher management, and employees' continuous learning activities at the workplace. The framework also includes a set of guiding principles that can be used as the basis for internal mediation between the competing perspectives of mentors and mentees (employers and employees of the organization) regarding workplace learning conditions, practices and their intended impact on the organization. The conceptual study provides a theoretical blueprint for future empirical research on organizational workplace learning and the impact of government-initiated workplace development programmes.

Keywords: employee competence, mentorship, organizational performance, workplace development programme, workplace learning culture

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470 Creating Inclusive Workplace Practices to Support Individuals With Dyslexia Across the Employment Lifecycle: Perspectives From Employers, Managers, and Employees With Dyslexia

Authors: Shae Wissell, Leila Karimi, Tanya Serry, Lisa Furlong, Judith Hudson

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Background: Employment and job security are key influences on health and wellbeing . Dyslexia affects approximately 1 in 10 individuals and is a lifelong disability . Little is known about the workplace practices through the lens of individuals with dyslexia and those who employ and manage dyslexic employees. Materials and Methods: Individual structured interviews were used to seek perspectives from two participant groups. The first study investigated the perspectives of 14 Australian adults with dyslexia in relation to their experiences, progression and performance management in the workplace. This data were analysed within the Job Demands-Resources Model of Burnout (JD-R Model) , which explores links between workplace characteristics and employee wellbeing. The second study explored the perspectives of four employers and managers about their experiences and self-efficacy managing dyslexic employees as well as their views on workplace inclusivity. Deductive content analysis was utilised to categorise and analyse the responses of participants . Results: Study 1: Of the 14 participants (adults with dyslexia) all reported experiencing challenges at different points throughout their employment, including a lack of awareness of dyslexia as a disability, exhaustion and discrimination. Many felt indecisive about whether to disclose their dyslexia in the workplace. A minority reported receiving positive, useful support from team members following disclosure. Study 2: Responses from employers and managers (n=4) indicated that although they personally had a some awareness of the challenges facing employees with dyslexia, they felt there was a lack of broader awareness and understanding of dyslexia as a disability, which could make it challenging for those with dyslexia, across their workplaces. They felt with the right reasonable adjustments in place those with dyslexia could complete work tasks to a high standard. By merging the results from these two studies, we were able to gain a better understanding of some of the workplace challenges faced by people with dyslexia and ways to improve organisational practices and inclusion. Although this study was conducted in a single state in Australia with a relatively small sample size, we present preliminary evidence demonstrating that employees with dyslexia face unique challenges related top their disability and this was often amplified by low levels of understanding about dyslexia from their peers. Additionally, employers and managers felt there was a lack of understanding of dyslexia as a disability and that workplaces could be doing more to create inclusive working environment. At present, dyslexia appears to be a risk factor to career satisfaction and success for many with the condition. To mitigate these difficulties, whole of organisation awareness training and the adoption of inclusive workplace practices could improve outcomes for employees with dyslexia. With inclusive, supportive, educated workplace environment, we would expect more employees with dyslexia to flourish, however further research particularly in an Australian setting is necessary to build on these finds, so we can garner a deeper and broader understanding of the issued faced by employers, managers and dyslexic employees.

Keywords: dyslexia, adults, disability, inclusion and diversity, workplaces, Australia, job demands resource model of burn out, employers, managers

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469 Model Based Optimization of Workplace Ergonomics by Workpiece and Resource Positioning

Authors: Edward Hage, Pieter Lietaert, Gabriel Abedrabbo

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Musculoskeletal disorders are an important category of work-related diseases. They are often caused by working in non-ergonomic postures and are preventable with proper workplace design, possibly including human-machine collaboration. This paper presents a methodology and a supporting software prototype to design a simple assembly cell with minimal ergonomic risk. The methodology helps to determine the optimal position and orientation of workpieces and workplace resources for specific operator assembly actions. The methodology is tested on an industrial use case: a collaborative robot (cobot) assisted assembly of a clamping device. It is shown that the automated methodology results in a workplace design with significantly reduced ergonomic risk to the operator compared to a manual design of the cell.

Keywords: ergonomics optimization, design for ergonomics, workplace design, pose generation

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468 Prevalence of Workplace Bullying in Hong Kong: A Latent Class Analysis

Authors: Catalina Sau Man Ng

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Workplace bullying is generally defined as a form of direct and indirect maltreatment at work including harassing, offending, socially isolating someone or negatively affecting someone’s work tasks. Workplace bullying is unfortunately commonplace around the world, which makes it a social phenomenon worth researching. However, the measurements and estimation methods of workplace bullying seem to be diverse in different studies, leading to dubious results. Hence, this paper attempts to examine the prevalence of workplace bullying in Hong Kong using the latent class analysis approach. It is often argued that the traditional classification of workplace bullying into the dichotomous 'victims' and 'non-victims' may not be able to fully represent the complex phenomenon of bullying. By treating workplace bullying as one latent variable and examining the potential categorical distribution within the latent variable, a more thorough understanding of workplace bullying in real-life situations may hence be provided. As a result, this study adopts a latent class analysis method, which was tested to demonstrate higher construct and higher predictive validity previously. In the present study, a representative sample of 2814 employees (Male: 54.7%, Female: 45.3%) in Hong Kong was recruited. The participants were asked to fill in a self-reported questionnaire which included measurements such as Chinese Workplace Bullying Scale (CWBS) and Chinese Version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). It is estimated that four latent classes will emerge: 'non-victims', 'seldom bullied', 'sometimes bullied', and 'victims'. The results of each latent class and implications of the study will also be discussed in this working paper.

Keywords: latent class analysis, prevalence, survey, workplace bullying

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
467 Workplace Humor and Creativity in It Teams: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Hima Elizabeth Mathew, V. VijayalakshmI

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All of us know what it is like to experience humor. Humor and laughter are universal aspects of human experience, occurring in all cultures and virtually in all individuals throughout the world. For people today, the workplace is associated more with the cubicles they sit, than with the co-workers around them. With reference to the current generation and the work context, the paper aims to understand the concept of humor at the workplace and its influence on team creativity in organizations. Humor is a multi-disciplinary topic that has been investigated for many years by researchers from fields such as anthropology, psychology, physiology and linguistics but significantly less thoroughly by management researchers. Researchers in the field of creativity also had their initial focus on the individual differences leading to creativity. Although the studies yielded some important findings regarding creative people, it provided the little help to practitioners in helping people develop creativity and almost ignored the role of social environment in enhancing creativity. After a review the relevant literature of the key variables, a theoretical framework is proposed linking workplace humor, emotional contagion, and team creativity. The findings of the study are expected to help academicians gain clarity on Workplace Humor for future research.

Keywords: emotional contagion, humor, team creativity, workplace humor

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466 The Impact of Emoticons in the Workplace: Legal Challenges and Regulatory Change

Authors: Jacques C. Duvenhage

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The use of emoticons or so-called ‘emojis’ has gained much attention, not only in the daily use thereof with friends or family but also within the workplace amongst co-workers and employers. Even though emojis may be seen as a way to express feelings or even ideas, it may present legal challenges in the workplace. With new emojis being created on a daily basis, communicating through emojis, whether via phone, email or social media platforms, can become convoluted, especially within the working environment. The question to be addressed is how and/or whether Australian legislators will regulate the use of emojis (as a form of technology) in the workplace to prevent harassment, discrimination and other forms of prejudice. The emojis sent to co-workers may be interpreted by employees and even employers in different ways depending on their age, sexual orientation, and cultural background. Therefore, Australian courts will need to interpret an emoji’s meaning on a case-by-case basis. This paper will explore the use of emojis in the workplace (drawing on a desktop study), the impact emojis have on the employer-employee relationship as well as co-worker relationships, its legal application through case studies and whether a legal framework should be adopted by Australian legislators on this issue. Furthermore, this paper will reflect on the legal framework and application of emojis in the workplace considering foreign jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom and the United States of America and whether Australia should adopt similar legal approaches to these jurisdictions.

Keywords: emoticons, legal approaches, regulation, workplace

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465 Psychological Testing in Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Validity and Reliability of Psychological Assessments in the Workplace

Authors: Melissa C. Monney

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Psychological testing has been of interest to researchers for many years as useful tools in assessing and diagnosing various disorders as well as to assist in understanding human behavior. However, for over 20 years now, researchers and laypersons alike have been interested in using them for other purposes, such as determining factors in employee selection, promotion, and even termination. In recent years, psychological assessments have been useful in facilitating workplace decision processing, regarding employee circulation within organizations. This literature review explores four of the most commonly used psychological tests in workplace environments, namely cognitive ability, emotional intelligence, integrity, and personality tests, as organizations have used these tests to assess different factors of human behavior as predictive measures of future employee behaviors. The findings suggest that while there is much controversy and debate regarding the validity and reliability of these tests in workplace settings as they were not originally designed for these purposes, the use of such assessments in the workplace has been useful in decreasing costs and employee turnover as well as increase job satisfaction by ensuring the right employees are selected for their roles.

Keywords: cognitive ability, personality testing, predictive validity, workplace behavior

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464 Risk-Realistic Decision Support Intervention for Women in the Workplace

Authors: Joshua Midha

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This paper provides an evaluation of an intervention designed to promote a risk-realistic environment for women in the workplace and regulate their risk-related decision-making. In past research, women -specifically women of color- are highly risk-averse, and this may prove to be an innate obstacle in gender progress in corporations. By helping women see the risks and the benefits and increasing potential benefits, we can increase the chances of success in the workplace. Our intervention was a success and significantly increased comfort, trust, and frequency in the use of decision-making skills in the workplace. In this paper, we explore the intervention, the methods, the results, and the implications.

Keywords: behavioral economics, decision support, risk, gender equality

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463 Meditation-Based Interventions in the Workplace

Authors: Louise Fitzgerald, John Allman

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Introduction: Having previously engaged in a meditation-based programme (MBP) for staff in general practice, we explore the evidence and extent to which MBPs are employed in the workplace. Aim of the study: We aim to understand the current workplace MBP intervention literature, which will help inform the suitability of these interventions within the workplace domain. Objectives: Uptake of MBPs in the workplace has grown as organizations look to support employee health, wellbeing, and performance. We will discuss the current MBP literature, including the large variability across MBPs and the associated difficulties in evaluating their efficacy. Learning points: 1) MBPs have a positive impact on cognitive function including concentration and memory and as such job performance. MBPs appear to have a positive impact on objective and subjective job satisfaction, productivity, motivation and work engagement. Meditation in the workplace may have positive impacts on mental health issues - including stress reduction and depression. 2) From our review MBPs appear to be implementable in a wide range of professions and work contexts - regardless of individual factors. Given many companies are focusing on health and wellbeing of employees, this could be included in employee wellbeing programmes. 3) Despite the benefits of mindfulness and meditation interventions in psychosocial workplace health and work performance the long-term efficacy has yet to be fully determined.

Keywords: meditation-based programmes, mindfulness, meditation, well-being

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462 Impact of Social Media Usage and Psychological Absenteeism at Workplace on Job Performance

Authors: Quaid Farooq, Zainab Mujtaba

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The main aim of this paper was to conduct a research regarding social media usage, psychological absenteeism and job performance at workplace in Pakistan. This research examined the effects of social media usage and psychological absenteeism at workplace on job performance of employees. It was a popular belief that social media usage and psychological absenteeism at workplace have a negative relation with job performance. However, to date there was no study to support this argument, and this compelled us to choose this topic and find out the results. Secondly, this research also found effect of social media usage on psychological absenteeism. Despite the theoretical appeal of these variables and significance in today’s workplace environment, no previous study has investigated the relationship between them in detail. Data was collected from a sample (N = 100 paired responses) of employees and supervisors from different organizations in Pakistan. Study results indicate that performance is negatively related to psychological absenteeism, and such individuals were rated as exhibiting low performance level by their supervisors. However, it had no significant relationship with social media. Moreover, psychological absenteeism was positively related to social media. Individuals, who used more social media at workplace, were more psychologically absent at work according to our results.

Keywords: employee, job performance, psychological absenteeism, social media

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461 A Strategic Perspective on a Qualitative Model of Type II Workplace Aggression in Healthcare Sector

Authors: Francesco Ceresia

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Workplace aggression is broadly recognized as a main work-related risk for healthcare organizations the world over. Scholars underlined that nonfatal workplace aggressions can be also produced by Type II workplace aggression, that occur when the aggressor has a legitimate relationship with the organization and commits an act of hostility while being served or cared for by members of the organization. Several reviews and meta-analysis highlighted the main antecedents and consequences of Type II verbal and physical workplace aggression in the healthcare sector, also focusing on its economic and psychosocial costs. However, some scholars emphasized the need for a systemic and multi-factorial approach to deeply understand and effectively respond to such kind of aggression. The main aim of the study is to propose a qualitative model of Type II workplace aggression in a health care organization in accordance with the system thinking and multi-factorial perspective. A case study research approach, conducted in an Italian non-hospital healthcare organization, is presented. Two main data collection methods have been adopted: individual and group interviews with a sample (N = 24) of physicians, nurses and clericals. A causal loop diagram (CLD) that describes the main causal relationships among the key-variables of the proposed model has been outlined. The main feedback loops and the causal link polarities have been also defined to fully describe the structure underlining the Type II workplace aggression phenomenon. The proposed qualitative model shows how the Type II workplace aggression is related with burnout, work performance, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, work motivation and emotional dissonance. Finally, strategies and policies to reduce the strength of workplace aggression’s drivers are suggested.

Keywords: healthcare, system thinking, work motivation, workplace aggression

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460 The Use of Religious Symbols in the Workplace: Remarks on the Latest Case Law

Authors: Susana Sousa Machado

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The debate on the use of religious symbols has been highlighted in modern societies, especially in the field of labour relationships. As litigiousness appears to be growing, the matter requires a careful study from a legal perspective. In this context, a description and critical analysis of the most recent case law is conducted regarding the use of symbols by the employee in the workplace, delivered both by the European Court of Human Rights and by the Court of Justice of the European Union. From this comparative analysis we highlight the most relevant aspects in order to seek a common core regarding the juridical-argumentative approach of case law.

Keywords: religion, religious symbols, workplace, discrimination

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459 Immigrant Workers’ Perspectives of Occupational Health and Safety and Work Conditions that Challenge Work Safety

Authors: Janki Shankar, Shu-Ping Chen

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This Canadian study explored the perspectives of recent immigrant workers regarding occupational health and safety (OHS) and workplace conditions that increase workers’ vulnerability to sustaining injury or illness. Using an interpretive research approach and semi structured qualitative interviews, 42 recent immigrant workers from a range of industries operating in two cities in a province in Canada were interviewed. A constant comparative approach was used to identify key themes across the workers’ experiences. The findings revealed that these workers have an incomplete understanding of OHS. In many workplaces, poor job training, little worker support, lack of power in the workplace, and a poor workplace safety culture make it difficult for recent immigrant workers to acquire OHS information and implement safe work practices. This study proposes workplace policies and practices that will improve worker OHS awareness and make workplaces safer for immigrant workers.

Keywords: new immigrant workers, occupational health and safety, workplace challenges, policy, practice

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458 The Transformation of the Workplace through Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Automation

Authors: Javed Mohammed

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Robotics is the fastest growing industry in the world, poised to become the largest in the next decade. The use of robots requires design, application and implementation of the appropriate safety controls in order to avoid creating hazards to production personnel, programmers, maintenance specialists and systems engineers. The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) and related technologies in the workplace are dramatically changing the employment landscape. The impact of robotics technology on workplace policy is dramatic and complex. The robotics revolution calls for a comprehensive approach to job training, and retraining, to mitigate worker displacement and enable workers to benefit from the new jobs that the technology will generate. It calls for a thoughtful, forward-thinking approach by lawmakers, regulators and employers to prepare for the oncoming transformation of the workplace and workforce.

Keywords: design, artificial intelligence, programmers, system engineers, robotics, transformation

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457 Exposure of Emergency Department Staff in Jordanian Hospitals to Workplace Violence: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Ibrahim Bashayreh Al-Bashtawy Mohammed, Al-Azzam Manar Ahmad Rawashda, Abdul-Monim Batiha Mohammad Sulaiman

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Background: Workplace violence against emergency department staff (EDS) is considered one of the most common and widespread phenomena of violence. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine the incidence rates of workplace violence and the predicting factors of violent behaviors among emergency departments’ staff in Jordanian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was used to investigate workplace violence towards a convenience sample of 355 emergency staff departments from 8 governmental and 4 private Jordanian hospitals. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire that was developed for the purpose of this study. Results: 72% of workers in emergency departments within Jordanian hospitals are exposed to violent acts, and that patients and their relatives are the main source of workplace violence. The contributing factors as reported by the participants were related to overcrowding, lack of resources, staff shortages, and the absence of effective antiviolence policies. Conclusions/implications for Practice: Policies and legislation regarding violence should be instituted and developed, and emergency department staff should be given training on how to deal with violent incidents, as well as on violence-management policies.

Keywords: Jordan, emergency staff department, workplace violence, community health

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456 Horizontal Gender Inequality and Segregation at Workplace in China: Understanding How Implicit and Unconscious Gender Stereotypes Produce and Reinforce Workplace Gender Inequality in China through Interview-Based Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Yiyan Wu

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In the past several decades, the market transition in China has brought in not only more opportunities for women in the labor market but also more attention to gender inequality in workplace. Although some pieces of literature have mentioned gender inequality and segregation at workplace in China, the paper looks into the variations of gender inequality and segregation: working women have little feeling about 'hierarchical inequalities', which define the status and position of women at the workplace. However, at the same time, they unconsciously reinforced 'horizontal inequalities', which creates gender segregation across occupations and job titles. Using qualitative interviews with women employers and employees of various occupations and job titles in Eastern and Southern China, this paper finds evidence that working women's understandings of the division of labor based on the characteristics and expectations of women and men are not as a result of rationality and efficiency, but instead, are the products of gendered stereotypes and traditions. However, holding positive views of gender equality at workplace, working women are not aware of the existence and influence of such gendered stereotypes and traditions. By distinguishing the concepts of 'horizontal inequality' and 'hierarchical inequality' with a cultural sociological approach, this paper contributes to the understanding of gender inequality and segregation in contemporary Chinese society. Moreover, this paper explains the logic behind the paradox in which gender inequality and segregation at workplace persist while women are feeling equal.

Keywords: gender equality, segregation, hierarchical inequality, horizontal inequality, China

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455 Factors Influencing Violence Experienced by Medical Staff in Primary Health Care Centers, Taif City

Authors: Turki Adnan Kamal, Abdulmajeed Ahmad Alsofiany, Nemer Khidhran Husain Alghamdi, Ali Eissa Hassan Al-Rajhi

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Background:- Health care workers are ranked as one of the most vulnerable groups experiencing violence and aggressive behavior compared to other occupational groups. Objectives:- To estimate the prevalence rate and characteristics and assess the avoidance measures, and notification of the violence among medical staff working in primary health care centers in Taif city. Subject and methods:- A cross-sectional study design was applied among all physicians and a representative sample of nurses working in primary health care centers affiliated with the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Taif city. A predesigned Arabic/English validated self-administered questionnaire was used. Results:- In this study, 56 physicians and 145 nurses responded, giving a response rate of 77.6%. Their age ranged from 25 and 60 years (36.2±8.2), with 59.7% of them aged between 25 and 35 years. Males represent 55.7% of them. More than half of them (52.2%) were Saudis. The prevalence of workplace violence was 30.3%. Verbal abuse was the commonest reported type (86.9%). The absence of security, training on the procedures that must be followed and special uniforms at the workplace were significantly associated with workplace violence. We concluded that workplace violence is a significant problem facing a considerable proportion of HCWs in primary health care centers in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Most violence incidents were verbal. Conclusion:- Findings of this study revealed that HCWs who were dealing with male patients only were at high risk of workplace violence and the absence of measures to avoid workplace violence, particularly security, training on the procedures that must be followed and special uniform at the workplace was significantly associated with workplace violence.

Keywords: violence, workplace, primary health care, prevalence, avoidance

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454 Effectiveness of a Communication Training on Workplace Bullying Using Mobile Phone Application for Nurses

Authors: Jiyeon Kang, Yeon Jin Jeong, Hoon Heo

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Purpose: Bullying in nursing workplace has been a serious problem that increases the turnover of nurses. Few studies have examined the effects of communication training on workplace bullying for nurses, and all used a single-group design and a small sample size. Thus, more rigorous research has been needed to evaluate the effects properly. This research was aimed to identify the effects of the mobile type communication training of responses on bullying behaviors among nurses. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was performed. Subjects were 62 critical care nurses working in university hospitals in Busan, South Korea. We developed a mobile phone application to train nurses to deal with bullying situation. This application includes 6 common bullying situations and appropriate empathetic communication (non-violent communication) samples in the form of webtoons. The experimental group used this application for 4 weeks, and we measured interpersonal relationship, workplace bullying, symptom experience, and intention to leave before, post, and 8 weeks after the intervention from both experimental and control groups. The effect of the intervention was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: The mobile type communication training developed in this study was effective for decreasing nurses’ intention to leave workplace (F = 5.11, p = .027). However, it had no effect on interpersonal relationship (F = 2.54, p = .116), workplace bullying (F = 2.99, p = .089) or symptom experience (F = 2.81, p = .099). The beneficial effects on intention to leave lasted at least up to 4 weeks after the training. Conclusion: The mobile type communication training can be utilized as an effective personal coping strategy for workplace bullying among nurses. Further studies on the long-term effects of the communication training are necessary.

Keywords: bullying, communication, mobile applications, nurses, training, workplace

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453 The Implications of Person-Organisation Spirituality Fit on Employees’ Ethical and Spiritual Leadership Behaviours: Insights from Jordan

Authors: Tamer Koburtay, Radi Haloub

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Person-Organization fit theory concerns how people flourish in a workplace that is congruence with their values and other traits. This paper seeks to highlight the theoretical relevance that workplace spirituality may add to the existing theory development of the P-O fit. In specific, it aims to empirically test the emerged framework that encompasses how workplace and self-spirituality match may enhance the perceived P-O fit, and how such a fit can enhance both employees’ ethical behaviors (i.e., humanism and honesty) and spiritual leadership behaviors. Drawing on a survey of the private and public sectors in Jordan, the results reveal that increasing the match in workplace and employees’ spirituality positively enhances the perceived P-O fit. Further, ethical and spiritual behaviors were found to be positively linked with a higher P-O fit. The importance of this paper is by generating a concept (i.e., P-O spirituality fit) beyond the already vast literature on P-O fit.

Keywords: ethical behavior, leadership, P-O fit, spirituality, leadership

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452 Gender and Work-Family Conflict Gaps in Hong Kong: The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies

Authors: Lina Vyas

Abstract:

Gender gap, unfortunately, is still prevalent in the workplace around the world. In most countries, women are less likely than men to participate in the workplace. They earn considerably less than men for doing the same work and are generally expected to prioritize family obligations over work responsibilities. Women often face more conflicts while balancing the increasingly normalized roles of both worker and mother. True gender equality in the workplace is still a long way off. In Hong Kong, no less is this true. Despite the fact that female students are outnumbered by males at universities, only 55% of women are active participants in the labour market, and for those in the workforce, the gender pay gap is 22%. This structural inequality also exacerbates the issues of confronting biases at work for choosing to be employed as a mother, as well as reinforces the societal expectation of women to be the primary caregiver at home. These pressures are likely to add up for women and contribute to increased levels of work-life conflict, which may be a further barrier for the inclusion of women into the workplace. Family-friendly policies have long been thought to be an alleviator of work-life conflict through helping employees balance the demands in both work and family. Particularly, for women, this could be a facilitator of their integration into the workplace. However, little research has looked at how family-friendly policies may also have a gender differential in effect, as opposed to traditional notions of having universal efficacy. This study investigates both how and how much the gender dimension impacts work-family conflict. In addition to disentangling the reasons for gender gaps existing in work-life conflict for women, this study highlights what can be done at an organizational level to alleviate these conflicts. Most importantly, the policies recommendations derived from this study serve as an avenue for more active participation for women in the workplace and can be considered as a pathway for promoting greater gender egalitarianism and fairness in a traditionally gender-segregated society.

Keywords: family-friendly policies, Hong Kong, work-family conflict, workplace

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451 Alzheimer’s Disease Measured in Work Organizations

Authors: Katherine Denise Queri

Abstract:

The effects of sick workers have an impact in administration of labor. This study aims to provide knowledge on the disease that is Alzheimer’s while presenting an answer to the research question of when and how is the disease considered as a disaster inside the workplace. The study has the following as its research objectives: 1. Define Alzheimer’s disease, 2. Evaluate the effects and consequences of an employee suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, 3. Determine the concept of organizational effectiveness in the area of Human Resources, and 4. Identify common figures associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The researcher gathered important data from books, video presentations, and interviews of workers suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and from the internet. After using all the relevant data collection instruments mentioned, the following data emerged: 1. Alzheimer’s disease has certain consequences inside the workplace, 2. The occurrence of Alzheimer’s Disease in an employee’s life greatly affects the company where the worker is employed, and 3. The concept of workplace efficiency suggests that an employer must prepare for such disasters that Alzheimer’s disease may bring to the company where one is employed. Alzheimer’s disease can present disaster in any workplace.

Keywords: administration, Alzheimer's disease, conflict, disaster, employment

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450 Health Ramifications of Workplace Bullying: Gender, Race and Sexual Orientation as Risk Factors

Authors: Kathleen Canul

Abstract:

Bullying is on the rise according to several recent studies. Workplace bullying has garnered less attention than other forms yet incidence rates range from 35-45%. The consequences of being bullied at work are broad, ranging from physiological to psychological to occupational. As the bullying progresses, employees begin to exhibit physical and psychological symptoms. Blood pressure rises, along with other cardiac related concerns. For men, covert coping with job unfairness was associated with a four-fold risk of heart attack and death. Gastrointestinal distress, headaches, muscle tension, sleep disorders and exhaustion are also common. Workplace bullying appears to contribute to the risk of subsequent psychotropic medication, as well. Emotionally, anxiety and depression increase along with lowered self-esteem and problems concentrating on the duties of the job. In an attempt to cope, individuals may succumb to unhealthy practices involving food, alcohol and other drugs. Patterns of bullying vary by gender, race, and ethnicity, as well as sexual orientation, with women, ethnic minorities and LGBTQ employees reporting higher rates of bullying in the workplace. Not only is this an issue of inequity on the job, but also a problem of health disparities as there are few mental health professionals confident and competent in dealing with workplace bullying issues, and the lack of culturally competent clinicians exacerbates this inequality in receiving adequate care. Alone, the topic of workplace bullying is not unique; however, the diverse experiences of underrepresented groups who disproportionately are affected on the job and suffer untreated, health related concerns represent a significant and emerging problem requiring attention. Conference participants who have experienced, witnessed or help those bullied on the job would benefit most from this review of the literature on the consequences of bullying experienced by diverse and underrepresented groups in the workplace.

Keywords: bullying, ethnic minorities, health disparities, workplace conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 211