Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9409

Search results for: word association test

9409 Analysis of Secondary School Students' Perceptions about Information Technologies through a Word Association Test

Authors: Fetah Eren, Ismail Sahin, Ismail Celik, Ahmet Oguz Akturk

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to discover secondary school students’ perceptions related to information technologies and the connections between concepts in their cognitive structures. A word association test consisting of six concepts related to information technologies is used to collect data from 244 secondary school students. Concept maps that present students’ cognitive structures are drawn with the help of frequency data. Data are analyzed and interpreted according to the connections obtained as a result of the concept maps. It is determined students associate most with these concepts—computer, Internet, and communication of the given concepts, and associate least with these concepts—computer-assisted education and information technologies. These results show the concepts, Internet, communication, and computer, are an important part of students’ cognitive structures. In addition, students mostly answer computer, phone, game, Internet and Facebook as the key concepts. These answers show students regard information technologies as a means for entertainment and free time activity, not as a means for education.

Keywords: word association test, cognitive structure, information technology, secondary school

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9408 Assessment of Association Between Microalbuminuria and Lung Function Test Among the Community of Jimma Town

Authors: Diriba Dereje

Abstract:

Background: Cardiac and renal disease are the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) affecting the community in a significant manner. The best and recommended method in halting CNCD is by working on prevention as early as possible. This is only possible if early surrogate markers are identified. As part of the stated solution, this study will identify an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Methodology: Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 adult in Jimma town. A systematic sampling technique was used in selecting participants to the study. In searching for the possible association, binary and multivariate logistic regression and t-test was conducted. Finally, the association between microalbuminuria and lung function test was well stated in the form of figures and written description. Result and Conclusion: A significant association was found between microalbuminuria and different lung function test parameters.

Keywords: microalbuminuria, lung function, association, test

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9407 The Effect of Whole Word Method on Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) of 3 to 6 Years Old Children with Cochlear Implant Having Normal IQ

Authors: Elnaz Dabiri, Somayeh Hamidnezhad

Abstract:

Background and Objective: This study aims at investigating the effect of whole word method on Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) of 3 to 6 years old children with cochlear implants having normal IQ. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental and interventional study, 20 children with cochlear implants, aged between 3and 6 years, and normal IQ were selected from Tabriz cochlear implants center using convenience sampling. Afterward, they were randomly bifurcated. The first group was educated by whole-word reading method along with traditional methods and the second group by traditional methods. Both groups had three sessions of 45-minutes each, every week continuously for a period of 3 months. Pre-test and post-test language abilities of both groups were assessed using the TOLD test. Results: Both groups before training have the same age, IQ, and MLU, but after training the first group shows a considerable improvement in MLU in comparison with the second group. Conclusions: Reading training by the whole word method have more effect on MLU of children with cochlear implants in comparison of the traditional method.

Keywords: cochlear implants, reading training, traditional methods, language therapy, whole word method, Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)

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9406 Discovering Word-Class Deficits in Persons with Aphasia

Authors: Yashaswini Channabasavegowda, Hema Nagaraj

Abstract:

Aim: The current study aims at discovering word-class deficits concerning the noun-verb ratio in confrontation naming, picture description, and picture-word matching tasks. A total of ten persons with aphasia (PWA) and ten age-matched neurotypical individuals (NTI) were recruited for the study. The research includes both behavioural and objective measures to assess the word class deficits in PWA. Objective: The main objective of the research is to identify word class deficits seen in persons with aphasia, using various speech eliciting tasks. Method: The study was conducted in the L1 of the participants, considered to be Kannada. Action naming test and Boston naming test adapted to the Kannada version are administered to the participants; also, a picture description task is carried out. Picture-word matching task was carried out using e-prime software (version 2) to measure the accuracy and reaction time with respect to identification verbs and nouns. The stimulus was presented through auditory and visual modes. Data were analysed to identify errors noticed in the naming of nouns versus verbs, with respect to the Boston naming test and action naming test and also usage of nouns and verbs in the picture description task. Reaction time and accuracy for picture-word matching were extracted from the software. Results: PWA showed a significant difference in sentence structure compared to age-matched NTI. Also, PWA showed impairment in syntactic measures in the picture description task, with fewer correct grammatical sentences and fewer correct usage of verbs and nouns, and they produced a greater proportion of nouns compared to verbs. PWA had poorer accuracy and lesser reaction time in the picture-word matching task compared to NTI, and accuracy was higher for nouns compared to verbs in PWA. The deficits were noticed irrespective of the cause leading to aphasia.

Keywords: nouns, verbs, aphasia, naming, description

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9405 Fat-Tail Test of Regulatory DNA Sequences

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu

Abstract:

The statistical properties of CRMs are explored by estimating similar-word set occurrence distribution. It is observed that CRMs tend to have a fat-tail distribution for similar-word set occurrence. Thus, the fat-tail test with two fatness coefficients is proposed to distinguish CRMs from non-CRMs, especially from exons. For the first fatness coefficient, the separation accuracy between CRMs and exons is increased as compared with the existing content-based CRM prediction method – fluffy-tail test. For the second fatness coefficient, the computing time is reduced as compared with fluffy-tail test, making it very suitable for long sequences and large data-base analysis in the post-genome time. Moreover, these indexes may be used to predict the CRMs which have not yet been observed experimentally. This can serve as a valuable filtering process for experiment.

Keywords: statistical approach, transcription factor binding sites, cis-regulatory modules, DNA sequences

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9404 An Overview of the Moderating Effect of Overall Satisfaction on Hotel Image and Customer Loyalty

Authors: Nimit Soonsan

Abstract:

Hotel image is a key business issue in today’s hotel market. The current study points to develop and test a relationship of hotel image, overall satisfaction, and future behavior. This paper hypothesizes the correlations among four constructs, namely, hotel image, overall satisfaction, positive word-of-mouth, and intention to revisit. Moreover, this paper will test the mediating effect of overall satisfaction on hotel image and positive word-of-mouth and intention to revisit. These relationships are surveyed for a sample of 244 international customers staying budget hotel in Phuket, Thailand. The structural equation modeling indicates that hotel image directly affects overall satisfaction and indirectly affects future behavior that positive word-of-mouth and intention to revisit. In addition, overall satisfaction had significant influence on future behavior that positive word-of-mouth and intention to revisit, and the mediating role of overall satisfaction is also confirmed in this study. Managerial implications are provided, limitations noted, and future research directions suggested.

Keywords: hotel image, satisfaction, loyalty, moderating

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9403 Investigating the Associative Network of Color Terms among Turkish University Students: A Cognitive-Based Study

Authors: R. Güçlü, E. Küçüksakarya

Abstract:

Word association (WA) gives the broadest information on how knowledge is structured in the human mind. Cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, and applied linguistics are the disciplines that consider WA tests as substantial in gaining insights into the very nature of the human cognitive system and semantic knowledge. In this study, Berlin and Kay’s basic 11 color terms (1969) are presented as the stimuli words to a total number of 300 Turkish university students. The responses are analyzed according to Fitzpatrick’s model (2007), including four categories, namely meaning-based responses, position-based responses, form-based responses, and erratic responses. In line with the findings, the responses to free association tests are expected to give much information about Turkish university students’ psychological structuring of vocabulary, especially morpho-syntactic and semantic relationships among words. To conclude, theoretical and practical implications are discussed to make an in-depth evaluation of how associations of basic color terms are represented in the mental lexicon of Turkish university students.

Keywords: color term, gender, mental lexicon, word association task

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9402 Word of Mouth and Its Impact on Marketing

Authors: Fatima Naz, Ayesha Tariq

Abstract:

In view of growing of the internet users for e-commerce and taking into account, the emergent impact of word of mouth phenomenon this research has different aims. The aims of this study were built following dissimilar discussion with teachers and colleagues enlightening that word of mouth information for online purchasing do not have the same effect for everybody. Then they were born following dissimilar researchers together with what was already done in previous researches and what was completed. As a result different aims were drawn; the initial aim of this research is to study the attention of the customers in the word of mouth to power their online purchasing activities. The next aim is to analyze the people influenced by the interest of word of mouth. The following aim is to examine the marketing behavior bearing in mind the internet progress and word of mouth, their consideration for word of mouth marketing. In the form of research questions the aims of the study are: 1) How community utilizes and multiplies word of mouth information about online purchasing experience? 2) How communities perceive the word of mouth marketing? 3) How marketers take the word of mouth phenomenon and how they handle it?

Keywords: belief, power, inspiration, self-expression, positive attitude to online marketing, forwarding of contents, purchasing decision, standard marketing

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9401 Conformational Switch of hRAGE upon Self-Association

Authors: Ikhlas Ahmed, Jamillah Zamoon

Abstract:

The human receptor for advanced glycation end product is a plasma membrane receptor with an intrinsically disordered region. The protein consists of three extracellular domains, a single membrane spanning transmembrane domain, and a cytosolic domain which is intrinsically disordered and responsible for signaling. The disordered nature of the cytosolic domain allows it to be dynamic in solution. This receptor self-associates to higher forms. The association is triggered by ligand, metal or by the extracellular domain. Fluorescence spectroscopy technique is used to test the self-association of the different concentrations of the cytosolic domain. This work has concluded that the cytosolic domain of this receptor also self-associates. Moreover, the self-association does not require ligand or metal.

Keywords: fluorescence spectroscopy, hRAGE, IDP, Self-association

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9400 Transcription Skills and Written Composition in Chinese

Authors: Pui-sze Yeung, Connie Suk-han Ho, David Wai-ock Chan, Kevin Kien-hoa Chung

Abstract:

Background: Recent findings have shown that transcription skills play a unique and significant role in Chinese word reading and spelling (i.e. word dictation), and written composition development. The interrelationships among component skills of transcription, word reading, word spelling, and written composition in Chinese have rarely been examined in the literature. Is the contribution of component skills of transcription to Chinese written composition mediated by word level skills (i.e., word reading and spelling)? Methods: The participants in the study were 249 Chinese children in Grade 1, Grade 3, and Grade 5 in Hong Kong. They were administered measures of general reasoning ability, orthographic knowledge, stroke sequence knowledge, word spelling, handwriting fluency, word reading, and Chinese narrative writing. Orthographic knowledge- orthographic knowledge was assessed by a task modeled after the lexical decision subtest of the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD). Stroke sequence knowledge: The participants’ performance in producing legitimate stroke sequences was measured by a stroke sequence knowledge task. Handwriting fluency- Handwriting fluency was assessed by a task modeled after the Chinese Handwriting Speed Test. Word spelling: The stimuli of the word spelling task consist of fourteen two-character Chinese words. Word reading: The stimuli of the word reading task consist of 120 two-character Chinese words. Written composition: A narrative writing task was used to assess the participants’ text writing skills. Results: Analysis of covariance results showed that there were significant between-grade differences in the performance of word reading, word spelling, handwriting fluency, and written composition. Preliminary hierarchical multiple regression analysis results showed that orthographic knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency were unique predictors of Chinese written composition even after controlling for age, IQ, and word reading. The interaction effects between grade and each of these three skills (orthographic knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency) were not significant. Path analysis results showed that orthographic knowledge contributed to written composition both directly and indirectly through word spelling, while handwriting fluency contributed to written composition directly and indirectly through both word reading and spelling. Stroke sequence knowledge only contributed to written composition indirectly through word spelling. Conclusions: Preliminary hierarchical regression results were consistent with previous findings about the significant role of transcription skills in Chinese word reading, spelling and written composition development. The fact that orthographic knowledge contributed both directly and indirectly to written composition through word reading and spelling may reflect the impact of the script-sound-meaning convergence of Chinese characters on the composing process. The significant contribution of word spelling and handwriting fluency to Chinese written composition across elementary grades highlighted the difficulty in attaining automaticity of transcription skills in Chinese, which limits the working memory resources available for other composing processes.

Keywords: orthographic knowledge, transcription skills, word reading, writing

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9399 Using Maximization Entropy in Developing a Filipino Phonetically Balanced Wordlist for a Phoneme-Level Speech Recognition System

Authors: John Lorenzo Bautista, Yoon-Joong Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a set of Filipino Phonetically Balanced Word list consisting of 250 words (PBW250) were constructed for a phoneme-level ASR system for the Filipino language. The Entropy Maximization is used to obtain phonological balance in the list. Entropy of phonemes in a word is maximized, providing an optimal balance in each word’s phonological distribution using the Add-Delete Method (PBW algorithm) and is compared to the modified PBW algorithm implemented in a dynamic algorithm approach to obtain optimization. The gained entropy score of 4.2791 and 4.2902 for the PBW and modified algorithm respectively. The PBW250 was recorded by 40 respondents, each with 2 sets data. Recordings from 30 respondents were trained to produce an acoustic model that were tested using recordings from 10 respondents using the HMM Toolkit (HTK). The results of test gave the maximum accuracy rate of 97.77% for a speaker dependent test and 89.36% for a speaker independent test.

Keywords: entropy maximization, Filipino language, Hidden Markov Model, phonetically balanced words, speech recognition

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9398 Effects of Word Formation Dissimilarities on Youruba Learners of English

Authors: Pelumi Olowofoyeku

Abstract:

English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. For instance, in Nigeria, English language is been taught and learned as a second language; therefore second learners of English in Nigeria have certain problems they contend with. Because of the dissimilarities in word formation patterns of English and Yoruba languages, Yoruba learners of English mostly found in the south west of Nigeria, and some parts of Kwara, Kogi, and Edo states of Nigeria have problems with word formation patterns in English. The objectives of this paper therefore, are: to identify the levels of word formation dissimilarities in English and Yoruba languages and to examine the effects of these dissimilarities on the Yoruba learners of English. The data for this paper were graded words purposely selected and presented to selected students of Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Oto-Ijanikin, Lagos, who are Yoruba learners of English. These respondents were randomly selected to form words which are purposively selected to test the effects of word formation dissimilarities between Yoruba (the respondent’s first language) and English language on the respondents. The dissimilarities are examined using contrastive analysis tools. This paper reveals that there are differences in the word formation patterns of Yoruba and English languages. The writer believes that there is need for language teachers to undertake comparative studies of the two languages involved for methodological reasons. The author then suggests that teachers should identify the problem areas and systematically teach their students. The paper concludes that although English and Yoruba word formation patterns differ very significantly in many respects, there exist language universals in all languages which language educators should take advantage of in teaching.

Keywords: word formation patterns, graded words, ESL, Yoruba learners

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9397 A Word-to-Vector Formulation for Word Representation

Authors: Sandra Rizkallah, Amir F. Atiya

Abstract:

This work presents a novel word to vector representation that is based on embedding the words into a sphere, whereby the dot product of the corresponding vectors represents the similarity between any two words. Embedding the vectors into a sphere enabled us to take into consideration the antonymity between words, not only the synonymity, because of the suitability to handle the polarity nature of words. For example, a word and its antonym can be represented as a vector and its negative. Moreover, we have managed to extract an adequate vocabulary. The obtained results show that the proposed approach can capture the essence of the language, and can be generalized to estimate a correct similarity of any new pair of words.

Keywords: natural language processing, word to vector, text similarity, text mining

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9396 Impact of Brand Image, Brand Personality and Brand Love on Word of Mouth: Pakistani Fashion Brands

Authors: Amna Asif, Rabia Naseem

Abstract:

In the domain of consumer-brand relationship, love for a fashion brand is a dominant idea. Brand executives incline to build more endearing brands, for example, Levi’s “Quality never goes out of style”. Though, the significance of this notion is not often debated in the literature of marketing. Moreover, the effect of brand image and personality on brand love has not been examined in any quantitative study in Pakistan. The current research aims to fill this study gap by evolving a causal framework integrating word-of-mouth, brand love, image, and personality to examine the relationships among them. Data was gathered through questionnaires survey, and it was filled by 409 university students. AMOS 20 was used to draw a path analysis and test the hypotheses. Results discovered that brand personality and brand image leads to brand love that ultimately impacts word-of-mouth. Results give thorough suggestions on which future research can be constructed.

Keywords: brand love, brand personality, brand image, fashion brands, word-of-mouth

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9395 Speech Identification Test for Individuals with High-Frequency Sloping Hearing Loss in Telugu

Authors: S. B. Rathna Kumar, Sandya K. Varudhini, Aparna Ravichandran

Abstract:

Telugu is a south central Dravidian language spoken in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India. The available speech identification tests in Telugu have been developed to determine the communication problems of individuals having a flat frequency hearing loss. These conventional speech audiometric tests would provide redundant information when used on individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss because of better hearing sensitivity in the low- and mid-frequency regions. Hence, conventional speech identification tests do not indicate the true nature of the communication problem of individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss. It is highly possible that a person with a high-frequency sloping hearing loss may get maximum scores if conventional speech identification tests are used. Hence, there is a need to develop speech identification test materials that are specifically designed to assess the speech identification performance of individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss. The present study aimed to develop speech identification test for individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss in Telugu. Individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss have difficulty in perception of voiceless consonants whose spectral energy is above 1000 Hz. Hence, the word lists constructed with phonemes having mid- and high-frequency spectral energy will estimate speech identification performance better for such individuals. The phonemes /k/, /g/, /c/, /ṭ/ /t/, /p/, /s/, /ś/, /ṣ/ and /h/are preferred for the construction of words as these phonemes have spectral energy distributed in the frequencies above 1000 KHz predominantly. The present study developed two word lists in Telugu (each word list contained 25 words) for evaluating speech identification performance of individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss. The performance of individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss was evaluated using both conventional and high-frequency word lists under recorded voice condition. The results revealed that the developed word lists were found to be more sensitive in identifying the true nature of the communication problem of individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss.

Keywords: speech identification test, high-frequency sloping hearing loss, recorded voice condition, Telugu

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9394 The Moderating Role of Test Anxiety in the Relationships Between Self-Efficacy, Engagement, and Academic Achievement in College Math Courses

Authors: Yuqing Zou, Chunrui Zou, Yichong Cao

Abstract:

Previous research has revealed relationships between self-efficacy (SE), engagement, and academic achievement among students in Western countries, but these relationships remain unknown in college math courses among college students in China. In addition, previous research has shown that test anxiety has a direct effect on engagement and academic achievement. However, how test anxiety affects the relationships between SE, engagement, and academic achievement is still unknown. In this study, the authors aimed to explore the mediating roles of behavioral engagement (BE), emotional engagement (EE), and cognitive engagement (CE) in the association between SE and academic achievement and the moderating role of test anxiety in college math courses. Our hypotheses are that the association between SE and academic achievement was mediated by engagement and that test anxiety played a moderating role in the association. To explore the research questions, the authors collected data through self-reported surveys among 147 students at a northwestern university in China. Self-reported surveys were used to collect data. The motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, 1991), the metacognitive strategies questionnaire (Wolters, 2004), and the engagement versus disaffection with learning scale (Skinner et al., 2008) were used to assess SE, CE, and BE and EE, respectively. R software was used to analyze the data. The main analyses used were reliability and validity analysis of scales, descriptive statistics analysis of measured variables, correlation analysis, regression analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis and moderated mediation analysis to look at the structural relationships between variables at the same time. The SEM analysis indicated that student SE was positively related to BE, EE, and CE and academic achievement. BE, EE, and CE were all positively associated with academic achievement. That is, as the authors expected, higher levels of SE led to higher levels of BE, EE, and CE, and greater academic achievement. Higher levels of BE, EE, and CE led to greater academic achievement. In addition, the moderated mediation analysis found that the path of SE to academic achievement in the model was as significant as expected, as was the moderating effect of test anxiety in the SE-Achievement association. Specifically, test anxiety was found to moderate the association between SE and BE, the association between SE and CE, and the association between EE and Achievement. The authors investigated possible mediating effects of BE, EE, and CE in the associations between SE and academic achievement, and all indirect effects were found to be significant. As for the magnitude of mediations, behavioral engagement was the most important mediator in the SE-Achievement association. This study has implications for college teachers, educators, and students in China regarding ways to promote academic achievement in college math courses, including increasing self-efficacy and engagement and lessening test anxiety toward math.

Keywords: academic engagement, self-efficacy, test anxiety, academic achievement, college math courses, behavioral engagement, cognitive engagement, emotional engagement

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9393 Evaluation Study of Easily Identification of Tactile Symbol on Body Soap Bottle

Authors: K. Doi, T. Nishimura, H. Fujimoto, Y. Hoshikawa, T. Wada

Abstract:

Japanese industrial standard (JIS) association established one JIS (JIS S 0021) regarding packaging accessible design for people with visual impairments and elderly people in 2000. Recently, tactile symbol on shampoo bottle has been known as one of package accessible design and more effectively used. However, it has been said that people with visual impairment have been not been in trouble with difficulty of identifying body soap bottle between three bottles such as body soap bottle, shampoo bottle, and conditioner bottle. Japanese low vision association asked JIS association to solve this problem. JIS association and Japan cosmetic industry association constituted one review team for solving the problem. The review team asked our research team to make a proposal regarding new tactile symbol on body soap bottle. We conducted user survey and maker survey regarding tactile symbol on body soap bottle with easily identification. Seven test tactile symbol marks were elected in our proposed tactile symbols. In this study, we evaluate easily identification of tactile symbol on body soap bottle. Six visual impaired subjects were participated in our experiment. These subjects were asked to identify body soap bottle between three bottles such as body soap bottle, shampoo bottle, and conditioner bottle. The test tactile symbol on body soap were presented in random order. The test tactile symbols were produced by use of our originally developed 3D raised equipment. From our study, test tactile symbol marks with easily identification were made a short list of our proposed tactile symbols. This knowledge will be helpful in revision of ISO 11156.

Keywords: tactile symbol, easily identification, body soap, people with visual impairments

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9392 Micro-Rest: Extremely Short Breaks in Post-Learning Interference Support Memory Retention over the Long Term

Authors: R. Marhenke, M. Martini

Abstract:

The distraction of attentional resources after learning hinders long-term memory consolidation compared to several minutes of post-encoding inactivity in form of wakeful resting. We tested whether an 8-minute period of wakeful resting, compared to performing an adapted version of the d2 test of attention after learning, supports memory retention. Participants encoded and immediately recalled a word list followed by either an 8 minute period of wakeful resting (eyes closed, relaxed) or by performing an adapted version of the d2 test of attention (scanning and selecting specific characters while ignoring others). At the end of the experimental session (after 12-24 min) and again after 7 days, participants were required to complete a surprise free recall test of both word lists. Our results showed no significant difference in memory retention between the experimental conditions. However, we found that participants who completed the first lines of the d2 test in less than the given time limit of 20 seconds and thus had short unfilled intervals before switching to the next test line, remembered more words over the 12-24 minute and over the 7 days retention interval than participants who did not complete the first lines. This interaction occurred only for the first test lines, with the highest temporal proximity to the encoding task and not for later test lines. Differences in retention scores between groups (completed first line vs. did not complete) seem to be widely independent of the general performance in the d2 test. Implications and limitations of these exploratory findings are discussed.

Keywords: long-term memory, retroactive interference, attention, forgetting

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9391 Histamine Skin Reactivity Increased with Body Mass Index in Korean Children

Authors: Jeong Hong Kim, Ju Wan Kang

Abstract:

Objective: Histamine skin prick testing is most commonly used to diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and histamine reactivity is used as a standardized positive control in the interpretation of a skin prick test. However, reactivity to histamine differs among individuals for reasons that are poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and histamine skin reactivity in children. Methods: A total of 451 children (246 boys, 205 girls) aged 7–8 years were enrolled in this study. The skin prick test was performed with 26 aeroallergens commonly found in Korea. Other information was collected, including sex, age, BMI, parental allergy history, and parental smoking status. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm the association between histamine skin reactivity and BMI. Results: The histamine wheal size was revealed to be associated with BMI (Spearman's Rho 0.161, p < 0.001). This association was confirmed by multivariate analysis, after adjusting for sex, age, parental allergy history, parental smoking status, and allergic sensitization (coefficient B 0.071, 95% confidence interval 0.030–0.112). Conclusions: Skin responses to histamine were primarily correlated with increased BMI. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implication of BMI when interpreting the results of skin prick test.

Keywords: allergy, body mass index, histamine, skin prick test

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9390 Math Word Problems: Context and Achievement

Authors: Irena Smetackova

Abstract:

The important part of school mathematics are word problems which represent the connection between school knowledge and life reality. To find the reasons why students consider word problems to be difficult, it is necessary to take into consideration the motivational settings, besides mathematical knowledge and reading skills. Our goal is to identify whether the familiar or unfamiliar context of math word problem influences solving success rate and if so, whether the reasons are motivational or cognitive. For this purpose, we conducted three steps study in group of fifty pupils 9-10 years old. In the first step, we asked pupils to create ‘the best’ word problems for entered numerical formula. The set of 19 word problems with different contexts were selected. In the second step, pupils were asked to evaluate (without solving) how they like each item and how easy it is for them. The 6 word problems with low preference and low estimated success rate were selected and combined with other 6 problems with high preference and success rate. In the third step, the same pupils were asked to solve the word problems. The analysis showed that pupils attitudes and solving toward word problems varied by the context. The strong gender patterns both in preferred contexts and in estimated success rates were identified however the real success rate did not differ so strongly. The success gap between word problems with and without preferred contexts were stronger than the gap between problems with and without real experience with the context. The hypothesis that motivational factors are more important than cognitive factors was confirmed.

Keywords: mathematics, context of reality, motivation, cognition, word problems

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9389 Hiding the Word to Learn the Meaning Distribution

Authors: Eduardo Antonio Mello Freitas

Abstract:

In Natural Language Processing, it is common to represent a word as a fixed vector or a contextualized vector in a sentence. But a single multidimensional vector can be insufficient to explain the complexity of word relations. It is easy to find a list of word meanings in a dictionary. But semantic cognition is about perception, memory, and meaning relations. The proposal is to create a meanings distribution hiding, fully or partially, the word under study. Before encoding the words, the approach starts replacing all instances of the understudy word with a special and unique token. Instead of many meanings of a word, the training uses many unique tokens of a meaning. Thus, the learning process becomes heavily dependent on neighbor words relationships. Inflections of the word under study and subwords can enrich the training in general. The algorithm looks for the best number of unique tokens clusters corresponding to the number of meanings. Gaussian models and fuzzy clustering can predict mixtures or cluster intersections, respectively. At the end of the learning process, each token has its location and part of the line context stored, making it feasible to validate the results. Then, the results confirm the effectiveness of meaning distribution to improve semantic cognition study.

Keywords: pattern recognition, word representation, polysemy, clustering analysis, cognitive linguistics

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9388 The Role of Brand Loyalty in Generating Positive Word of Mouth among Malaysian Hypermarket Customers

Authors: S. R. Nikhashemi, Laily Haj Paim, Ali Khatibi

Abstract:

Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test a hypothesized model explaining Malaysian hypermarket customers’ perceptions of brand trust (BT), customer perceived value (CPV) and perceived service quality (PSQ) on building their brand loyalty (CBL) and generating positive word-of-mouth communication (WOM). Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from 374 Malaysian hypermarket customers from Mydin, Tesco, Aeon Big and Giant in Kuala Lumpur, a metropolitan city of Malaysia. The data strongly supported the model exhibiting that BT, CPV and PSQ are prerequisite factors in building customer brand loyalty, while PSQ has the strongest effect on prediction of customer brand loyalty compared to other factors. Besides, the present study suggests the effect of the aforementioned factors via customer brand loyalty strongly contributes to generate positive word of mouth communication.

Keywords: brand trust, perceived value, Perceived Service Quality, Brand loyalty, positive word of mouth communication

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9387 The Algorithm of Semi-Automatic Thai Spoonerism Words for Bi-Syllable

Authors: Nutthapat Kaewrattanapat, Wannarat Bunchongkien

Abstract:

The purposes of this research are to study and develop the algorithm of Thai spoonerism words by semi-automatic computer programs, that is to say, in part of data input, syllables are already separated and in part of spoonerism, the developed algorithm is utilized, which can establish rules and mechanisms in Thai spoonerism words for bi-syllables by utilizing analysis in elements of the syllables, namely cluster consonant, vowel, intonation mark and final consonant. From the study, it is found that bi-syllable Thai spoonerism has 1 case of spoonerism mechanism, namely transposition in value of vowel, intonation mark and consonant of both 2 syllables but keeping consonant value and cluster word (if any). From the study, the rules and mechanisms in Thai spoonerism word were applied to develop as Thai spoonerism word software, utilizing PHP program. the software was brought to conduct a performance test on software execution; it is found that the program performs bi-syllable Thai spoonerism correctly or 99% of all words used in the test and found faults on the program at 1% as the words obtained from spoonerism may not be spelling in conformity with Thai grammar and the answer in Thai spoonerism could be more than 1 answer.

Keywords: algorithm, spoonerism, computational linguistics, Thai spoonerism

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9386 Lexical-Semantic Deficits in Sinhala Speaking Persons with Post Stroke Aphasia: Evidence from Single Word Auditory Comprehension Task

Authors: D. W. M. S. Samarathunga, Isuru Dharmarathne

Abstract:

In aphasia, various levels of symbolic language processing (semantics) are affected. It is shown that Persons with Aphasia (PWA) often experience more problems comprehending some categories of words than others. The study aimed to determine lexical semantic deficits seen in Auditory Comprehension (AC) and to describe lexical-semantic deficits across six selected word categories. Thirteen (n =13) persons diagnosed with post-stroke aphasia (PSA) were recruited to perform an AC task. Foods, objects, clothes, vehicles, body parts and animals were selected as the six categories. As the test stimuli, black and white line drawings were adapted from a picture set developed for semantic studies by Snodgrass and Vanderwart. A pilot study was conducted with five (n=5) healthy nonbrain damaged Sinhala speaking adults to decide familiarity and applicability of the test material. In the main study, participants were scored based on the accuracy and number of errors shown. The results indicate similar trends of lexical semantic deficits identified in the literature confirming ‘animals’ to be the easiest category to comprehend. Mann-Whitney U test was performed to determine the association between the selected variables and the participants’ performance on AC task. No statistical significance was found between the errors and the type of aphasia reflecting similar patterns described in aphasia literature in other languages. The current study indicates the presence of selectivity of lexical semantic deficits in AC and a hierarchy was developed based on the complexity of the categories to comprehend by Sinhala speaking PWA, which might be clinically beneficial when improving language skills of Sinhala speaking persons with post-stroke aphasia. However, further studies on aphasia should be conducted with larger samples for a longer period to study deficits in Sinhala and other Sri Lankan languages (Tamil and Malay).

Keywords: aphasia, auditory comprehension, selective lexical-semantic deficits, semantic categories

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9385 Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

Authors: Loke Mun Sei

Abstract:

Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.

Keywords: test automation tools, test case, test execution, test reporting

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
9384 How Message Framing and Temporal Distance Affect Word of Mouth

Authors: Camille Lacan, Pierre Desmet

Abstract:

In the crowdfunding model, a campaign succeeds by collecting the funds required over a predefined duration. The success of a CF campaign depends both on the capacity to attract members of the online communities concerned, and on the community members’ involvement in online word-of-mouth recommendations. To maximize the campaign's success probability, project creators (i.e., an organization appealing for financial resources) send messages to contributors to ask them to issue word of mouth. Internet users relay information about projects through Word of Mouth which is defined as “a critical tool for facilitating information diffusion throughout online communities”. The effectiveness of these messages depends on the message framing and the time at which they are sent to contributors (i.e., at the start of the campaign or close to the deadline). This article addresses the following question: What are the effect of message framing and temporal distance on the willingness to share word of mouth? Drawing on Perspectives Theory and Construal Level Theory, this study examines the interplay between message framing (Gains vs. Losses) and temporal distance (message while the deadline is coming vs. far) on intention to share word of mouth. A between-subject experimental design is conducted to test the research model. Results show significant differences between a loss-framed message (lack of benefits if the campaign fails) associated with a short deadline (ending tomorrow) compared to a gain-framed message (benefits if the campaign succeeds) associated with a distant deadline (ending in three months). However, this effect is moderated by the anticipated regret of a campaign failure and the temporal orientation. These moderating effects contribute to specifying the boundary condition of the framing effect. Handling the message framing and the temporal distance are thus the key decisions to influence the willingness to share word of mouth.

Keywords: construal levels, crowdfunding, message framing, word of mouth

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9383 A Structural Model to Examine Hotel Image and Overall Satisfaction on Future Behavior of Customers

Authors: Nimit Soonsan

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Hotel image is a key business issue in today’s hotel market and has been increasingly been recognized as a valuable and inimitable source of competitive advantage by many hotel. The current study attempted to develop and test a relationship of hotel image, overall satisfaction, and future behavior. Based on the above concepts, this paper hypothesizes the correlations among four constructs, namely, hotel image and overall satisfaction as antecedents of future behavior that positive word-of-mouth and intention to revisit. This study surveyed for a sample of 244 international customers staying budget hotel in Phuket, Thailand and using a structural equation modeling identified relationship between hotel image, overall satisfaction and future behavior. The major finding of structural equation modeling indicates that hotel image directly affects overall satisfaction and indirectly affects future behavior that positive word-of-mouth and intention to revisit. In addition, overall satisfaction had significant influence on future behavior that positive word-of-mouth and intention to revisit, and the mediating role of overall satisfaction is also confirmed in this study. Managerial implications are provided, limitations noted, and future research directions suggested.

Keywords: hotel image, satisfaction, word-of-mouth, revisit

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9382 A Supervised Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Arabic Diacritics

Authors: Alaa Alrakaf, Sk. Md. Mizanur Rahman

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Since the last two decades’ Arabic natural language processing (ANLP) has become increasingly much more important. One of the key issues related to ANLP is ambiguity. In Arabic language different pronunciation of one word may have a different meaning. Furthermore, ambiguity also has an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of Machine Translation (MT). The issue of ambiguity has limited the usefulness and accuracy of the translation from Arabic to English. The lack of Arabic resources makes ambiguity problem more complicated. Additionally, the orthographic level of representation cannot specify the exact meaning of the word. This paper looked at the diacritics of Arabic language and used them to disambiguate a word. The proposed approach of word sense disambiguation used Diacritizer application to Diacritize Arabic text then found the most accurate sense of an ambiguous word using Naïve Bayes Classifier. Our Experimental study proves that using Arabic Diacritics with Naïve Bayes Classifier enhances the accuracy of choosing the appropriate sense by 23% and also decreases the ambiguity in machine translation.

Keywords: Arabic natural language processing, machine learning, machine translation, Naive bayes classifier, word sense disambiguation

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
9381 Applying the Quad Model to Estimate the Implicit Self-Esteem of Patients with Depressive Disorders: Comparing the Psychometric Properties with the Implicit Association Test Effect

Authors: Yi-Tung Lin

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Researchers commonly assess implicit self-esteem with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The IAT’s measure, often referred to as the IAT effect, indicates the strengths of automatic preferences for the self relative to others, which is often considered an index of implicit self-esteem. However, based on the Dual-process theory, the IAT does not rely entirely on the automatic process; it is also influenced by a controlled process. The present study, therefore, analyzed the IAT data with the Quad model, separating four processes on the IAT performance: the likelihood that automatic association is activated by the stimulus in the trial (AC); that a correct response is discriminated in the trial (D); that the automatic bias is overcome in favor of a deliberate response (OB); and that when the association is not activated, and the individual fails to discriminate a correct answer, there is a guessing or response bias drives the response (G). The AC and G processes are automatic, while the D and OB processes are controlled. The AC parameter is considered as the strength of the association activated by the stimulus, which reflects what implicit measures of social cognition aim to assess. The stronger the automatic association between self and positive valence, the more likely it will be activated by a relevant stimulus. Therefore, the AC parameter was used as the index of implicit self-esteem in the present study. Meanwhile, the relationship between implicit self-esteem and depression is not fully investigated. In the cognitive theory of depression, it is assumed that the negative self-schema is crucial in depression. Based on this point of view, implicit self-esteem would be negatively associated with depression. However, the results among empirical studies are inconsistent. The aims of the present study were to examine the psychometric properties of the AC (i.e., test-retest reliability and its correlations with explicit self-esteem and depression) and compare it with that of the IAT effect. The present study had 105 patients with depressive disorders completing the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II and the IAT on the pretest. After at least 3 weeks, the participants completed the second IAT. The data were analyzed by the latent-trait multinomial processing tree model (latent-trait MPT) with the TreeBUGS package in R. The result showed that the latent-trait MPT had a satisfactory model fit. The effect size of test-retest reliability of the AC and the IAT effect were medium (r = .43, p < .0001) and small (r = .29, p < .01) respectively. Only the AC showed a significant correlation with explicit self-esteem (r = .19, p < .05). Neither of the two indexes was correlated with depression. Collectively, the AC parameter was a satisfactory index of implicit self-esteem compared with the IAT effect. Also, the present study supported the results that implicit self-esteem was not correlated with depression.

Keywords: cognitive modeling, implicit association test, implicit self-esteem, quad model

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9380 Expressivity of Word-Formation in English and Russian Advertising Lexicon

Authors: Voronina Ekaterina Borisovna

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The problem of expressivity of advertising lexicon is studied in the article. The comparison of English and Russian advertising lexicons is done. The objects of the analysis were English and Russian advertising texts, both printed advertising texts and texts extracted from the commercials. Some conclusions concerning the expressivity of advertising lexicon were made. Expressivity can be included in the semantic structure of words or created by word-formation means. Expressivity caused by morphological derivatives includes such facilities as derivational affixes, models and types of word formation.

Keywords: advertising lexicon, expressivity, word-formation means, linguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 263