Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 466

Search results for: wood wool

466 Microwave-Assisted Eradication of Wool

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed


An environmentally and ecologically acceptable method for eradication of wool fabrics based on microwave irradiation (MWI) was described. The process would be a suitable alternative for mothproofing of wool using toxic degradative chemical or biological methods. The effect of microwave irradiation and exposure time on the extent of eradication of wool fabrics from moth larvae was monitored. The inherent properties of the MW-irradiated wool fabrics; viz. tensile properties, alkali solubility, and yellowing index, were not adversely altered.

Keywords: microwave, wool, fabric, moth, eradication, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
465 Wash Fastness of Textile Fibers Dyed with Natural Dye from Eucalyptus Wood Steaming Waste

Authors: Ticiane Rossi, Maurício C. Araújo, José O. Brito, Harold S. Freeman


Natural dyes are gaining interest due their expected low risk to human health and to the environment. In this study, the wash fastness of a natural coloring matter from the liquid waste produced in the steam treatment of eucalyptus wood in textile fabrics was investigated. Specifically, eucalyptus wood extract was used to dye cotton, nylon and wool in an exhaust dyeing process without the addition of the traditional mordanting agents and then submitted to wash fastness analysis. The resulting dyed fabrics were evaluated for color fastness. It was found that wash fastness of dyed fabrics was very good to cotton and excellent to nylon and wool.

Keywords: eucalyptus, natural dye, textile fibers, wash fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
464 Survey of the Elimination of Red Acid Dye by Wood Dust

Authors: N. Ouslimani, T. Abadlia, M. Fadel


This work focused on the elimination of acid textile dye (red bermacide acid dye BN-CL-200), widely used for dyeing wool and polyamide fibers, by adsorption on a natural material, wood sawdust, in the static mode by keeping under continuous stirring, a specific mass of the adsorbent, with a dye solution of known concentration. The influence of various parameters is studied like the influence of particle size, mass, pH and time. The best results were obtained with 0.4 mm grain size, mass of 3g, Temperature of 20 °C, pH 2 and Time contact of 120 min.

Keywords: acid dye, environment, wood sawdust, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
463 An Easy-Applicable Method for In situ Silver Nanoparticles Preparation into Wool Fibers

Authors: Salwa Mowafi, Mohamed Rehan, Hany Kafafy


In this study, three different systems including room temperature, conventional water bath heating and microwave irradiation technique will be employed in the fabrication of silver nanoparticle-wool fibers. The silver nanoparticles will be synthesized in-situ incorporated into wool fibers under redox active bio-template of wool protein which facilitates the reduction of Ag+ to nanoparticulate Ag0. Silver NPs incorporated wool fiber will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, FTIR, TGA, silver content and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanism of binding Ag NPs in-situ incorporated wool fibers matrix will be discussed. The effect of silver nanoparticles on the coloration, antimicrobial, UV-protection and catalytic properties of the wool fibers will be evaluated. The overall results of this study indicate that the Ag NPs in-situ incorporated wool fibers will be applied as colorants for wool fibers with improving in its multi-functionality properties. So, this study provides a simple approach for innovative protein fibers design by applying the optical properties of Plasmonic noble metal nanoparticles.

Keywords: microwave irradiation technique, multi-functionality properties, silver nanoparticles, wool fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
462 Thermal Properties and Water Vapor Permeability for Cellulose-Based Materials

Authors: Stanislavs Gendelis, Maris Sinka, Andris Jakovics


Insulation materials made from natural sources have become more popular for the ecologisation of buildings, meaning wide use of such renewable materials. Such natural materials replace synthetic products which consume a large quantity of energy. The most common and the cheapest natural materials in Latvia are cellulose-based (wood and agricultural plants). The ecological aspects of such materials are well known, but experimental data about physical properties remains lacking. In this study, six different samples of wood wool panels and a mixture of hemp shives and lime (hempcrete) are analysed. Thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements were carried out for wood wool and cement panels using the calibrated hot plate device. Water vapor permeability was tested for hempcrete material by using the gravimetric dry cup method. Studied wood wool panels are eco-friendly and harmless material, which is widely used in the interior design of public and residential buildings, where noise absorption and sound insulation is of importance. They are also suitable for high humidity facilities (e.g., swimming pools). The difference in panels was the width of used wood wool, which is linked to their density. The results of measured thermal conductivity are in a wide range, showing the worsening of properties with the increasing of the wool width (for the least dense 0.066, for the densest 0.091 W/(m·K)). Comparison with mineral insulation materials shows that thermal conductivity for such materials are 2-3 times higher and are comparable to plywood and fibreboard. Measured heat capacity was in a narrower range; here, the dependence on the wool width was not so strong due to the fact that heat capacity value is related to mass, not volume. The resulting heat capacity is a combination of two main components. A comparison of results for different panels allows to select the most suitable sample for a specific application because the dependencies of the thermal insulation and heat capacity properties on the wool width are not the same. Hempcrete is a much denser material compared to conventional thermal insulating materials. Therefore, its use helps to reinforce the structural capacity of the constructional framework, at the same time, it is lightweight. By altering the proportions of the ingredients, hempcrete can be produced as a structural, thermal, or moisture absorbent component. The water absorption and water vapor permeability are the most important properties of these materials. Information about absorption can be found in the literature, but there are no data about water vapor transmission properties. Water vapor permeability was tested for a sample of locally made hempcrete using different air humidity values to evaluate the possible difference. The results show only the slight influence of the air humidity on the water vapor permeability value. The absolute ‘sd value’ measured is similar to mineral wool and wood fiberboard, meaning that due to very low resistance, water vapor passes easily through the material. At the same time, other properties – structural and thermal of the hempcrete is totally different. As a result, an experimentally-based knowledge of thermal and water vapor transmission properties for cellulose-based materials was significantly improved.

Keywords: heat capacity, hemp concrete, thermal conductivity, water vapor transmission, wood wool

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461 Characterization of the Physical Properties of Sheep Wool Fiber in Amhara National Regional State

Authors: Erkihun Zelalem


Ethiopian’s sheep population, estimated to be 25.5 million heads, is found widely distributed across the diverse agro-ecological zones of the country. In the past, there were many projects that done to improve production of meat, milk and productivity of sheep breed. However, no significance research has been done so far on production of wool fiber in Ethiopia which could be taken as a potential fiber next to cotton. The measurement of the sheep wool fiber physical properties is critically important, technical, commercial and certification point of view. A total of 24 sheep from different breeds (Menz, Tikur, Farta and Washera) were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard measurements for wool fiber length (WFL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of wool fiber diameter (FDCV), breaking strength, elongation, crimp, cleanness and moisture content. Based on the result all parameters shows that there is a great potential of getting of wool fiber from the skin of sheep and according to the standards of its property and grading system based on wool fiber fineness is medium to course. These types of fibers can be making carpets, blankets, rugs, coverings and other products.

Keywords: Fiber, Fineness, Carpet, Fleece, Raw Wool

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
460 Preparation of Wool Fiber/Keratin/PVA Film and Study on Their Structure and Properties

Authors: Min Wu, Shuming Shen, Xuhong Yang, Rencheng Tang


Every year, numerous organic wastes from fiber byproducts of the wool textile industry, poor quality raw wools not fit for spinning, horns, nails and feathers from butchery are disposed. These wastes are abundant in keratin which is a renewable material. Wool fiber/keratin/PVA composites with different proportions were prepared in this study, and the influence of the proportions on their structure and properties were studied, aiming to understand the potential application of keratin in the field of biomedicine, degradable wrapper, and cosmetics film, and provide a new way to reuse keratin wastes. The urea / sodium sulfide / sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) method was used to dissolve the wool. After filtration and dialysis, the wool keratin solution was achieved. Then the keratin solution and polyvinal (PVA) solution were blended in different proportions, and the wool fibers cut into a certain length were cast into the blended solution. Thereby, various wool fiber/keratin/PVA composite films with different proportions were formed through pouring the solution into a flat box and drying at room temperature. The surface morphology, molecular structure, and mechanical property of the composite films were studied. The results showed that, there are α-helix structure, β-sheet and random coil conformations in the pure keratin film, as well as in the wool fiber. Compared with wool fiber, the crystallinity of keratin decreased. PVA can obviously improve the mechanical property of the blended film. When the blended ratio of keratin and PVA is 20:80, the mechanical property of the blended film is greatly improved. The composite films with 8%-16% of wool fibers have better flexibility than those without wool fibers.

Keywords: composite film, keratin, mechanical property, morphological structure, PVA, wool fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
459 Fluorescent Analysis of Gold Nanoclusters-Wool Keratin Addition to Copper Ions

Authors: Yao Xing, Hong Ling Liu, Wei Dong Yu


With the increase of global population, it is of importance for the safe water supply, while, the water-monitoring method with the capability of rapidness, low-cost, green and robustness remains unsolved. In this paper, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin is added into copper ions measured by fluorescent method in order to probe copper ions in aqueous solution. The fluorescent results show that gold nanoclusters-wool keratin exhibits high stability of pHs, while it is sensitive to temperature and time. Based on Gauss fitting method, the results exhibit that the slope of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin with pH resolution under acidic condition is higher compared to it under alkaline solutions. Besides, gold nanoclusters-wool keratin added into copper ions shows a fluorescence turn-off response transferring from red to blue under UV light, leading to the dramatically decreased fluorescent intensity of gold nanoclusters-wool keratin solution located at 690 nm. Moreover, the limited concentration of copper ions tested by gold nanoclusters-wool keratin system is around 1 µmol/L, which meets the need of detection standards. The fitting slope of Stern-Volmer plot at low concentration of copper ions is larger than it at high concentrations, which indicates that aggregated gold nanoclusters are from small amounts to large numbers with the increasing concentration of copper ions. It is expected to provide novel method and materials for copper ions testing with low cost, high efficiency, and easy operability.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, copper ions, wool keratin, fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
458 Natural Dyeing on Wool Fabrics Using Some Red Rose Petals

Authors: Emrah Çimen, Mustafa Demirelli, Burcu Yilmaz Şahinbaşkan, Mahmure Üstün Özgür


Natural colours are used on a large area such as textile, food and pharmaceutical industries by many researchers. When tannic acid is used together with metal salts for dyeing with natural dyes, antibacterial and fastness properties of textile materials are increased. In addition, the allegens are removed on wool fabrics. In this experimental work, some red rose petals were applied as a natural dye with three different dyeing methods and eight different mordant salts. The effect of tannic acid and different metal salts on dyeing of wool fabric was studied. Colour differences ΔECMC (2:1) and fastness properties of dyed fabrics were investigated and compared with each other. Finally, dark colours and adequate colour fastness results (4+) were obtained after dyeing of wool fabrics with FeSO4.7H2O, FeCl3.6H2O and CuCl2.2H2O in the presence of the tannic acid.

Keywords: natural dye, red rose petals, tannic acid, mordant salts, wool fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 509
457 Study on Parallel Shear Stress of Cement-Wood Composites Using Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. in natura and Treated with CCA

Authors: Rodrigo D. S. Oliveira, Sarah David-Muzel, Maristela Gava, Victor A. De Araujo, Glaucia A. Prates, Juliana Cortez-Barbosa


Improper disposal of treated wood waste is a problem of the timber sector, since this residue is toxic, due to the harmful characteristics of the preservative substances. An environmentally friendly alternative is the use of this waste for the production of cement-wood composites. The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using wood treated with CCA (Chromated Cooper Arsenate) in cement-wood. Specimens of Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. were produced with wood raw in natura and treated with CCA. A test was performed to determine the parallel shear stress of samples after 14 days of drying, according to the Brazilian Standard NBR-7215/97. Based on the analyzed results it is concluded that the use of wood treated with CCA is not feasible in cement-wood production, because the composite samples of treated wood showed lower mechanical strength in shear stress than those with wood in natura.

Keywords: waste recovery, wood composites, cement-wood, wood preservation, chromated copper arsenate

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456 Improving Fire Resistance of Wood and Wood-Based Composites and Fire Testing Systems

Authors: Nadir Ayrilmis


Wood and wood-based panels are one of the oldest structural materials used in the construction industry due to their significant advantages such as good mechanical properties, low density, renewable material, low-cost, recycling, etc. However, they burn when exposed to a flame source or high temperatures. This is very important when the wood products are used as structural or hemi-structural materials in the construction industry, furniture industry, so on. For this reason, the fire resistance is demanded property for wood products. They can be impregnated with fire retardants to improve their fire resistance. The most used fire retardants, fire-retardant mechanism, and fire-testing systems, and national and international fire-durability classifications and standard requirements for fire-durability of wood and wood-based panels were given in this study.

Keywords: fire resistance, wood-based panels, cone calorimeter, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
455 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Capacity of Fabric Treated with Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato Extract

Authors: Kyung Hwa Hong, Eunmi Koh


Wool and cotton fabrics are pretreated by a tannic acid aqueous solution to increase their dyeability and then dyed by Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato (PSP) extract. The dyed fabrics are then investigated by various analysis techniques. The results revealed that wool and cotton fabrics can be dyed bluish red through the pretreatment and dyeing process. Both wool and cotton fabrics only pretreated with tannic acid display decreased L* value but no significant changes in a* and b* values as the concentration of tannic acid increases. And, as expected, the pretreated fabrics are even darker and show a richer purple color after the dyeing process with the PSP extract. With regard to the colorfastness of wool and cotton fabrics dyed by PSP extract in cleaning circumstances, such as dry-cleaning (for wool) and washing (for cotton), the wool and cotton fabrics had a 4.0 and 4.0 grade of colorfastness to dry-cleaning and washing, respectively. However, they both exhibited significantly inferior colorfastness to light (grade of 1.5). Thus, it was found that there is still a need for improvement with regard to color fastness, particularly against light. On the other hand, the wool and cotton fabrics also showed antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics. In addition, both the wool and cotton fabrics showed potential antibacterial ability (>99%) against Staphylococcus aureus; however, they showed somewhat insufficient antibacterial ability (60.8% for wool and 94.8% for cotton) against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Also, their antioxidant abilities increased up to ca. 90% with an increase in the tannic acid concentration (up to 0.5%). However, after the dyeing process, the antibacterial and antioxidant ability tended to decrease. This is assumed to have occurred because functional moieties such as phenolic acids were detached from the pretreated fabrics into the hot water (the dyeing solution) during the dyeing process. Therefore, further study would be necessary to derive the optimum treatment and dyeing conditions so as to maximize the coloring effect and functionalities of the fabrics.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, purple-fleshed sweet potato, fabrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
454 The Utilization of Bamboo for Wood Bamboo Composite in Lieu of Materials Furniture: Case Study of Furniture Industry in Jepara Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Nurrizka Ramadhan


Today,Demand for wood increase in rapid rate. Wood is widely used for many things range from building materials to furniture materials. This makes the forest area in Indonesia dropped dramatically, it is estimated that the area of Indonesiaan forest in 2020 will be only about 16 million hectares. The more forest in Indonesia loss, people are required to look for another material to subtitute wood for the furniture. Jepara, a city with the largest furniture industry in Indonesia, requires a large supply of wood, it can reach 300.000 – 500.000 cubic meters per year. Most of the furniture in Jepara use teak, mahogany, and rosewood. Though teak wood is a rare species that must be protected. Today the availability of bamboo in Indonesia is very big. With cheap price, and the period of rapid growth makes bamboo can be used as a substitute for wood for the furniture industry in the future. By making use bamboo to make wood bamboo composite to replace the use of wood for furniture material. This paper is about the use of bamboo as a substitute for wood bamboo composite for the furniture industry. Expected in future, wood can be replaced by a wood bamboo composite.

Keywords: bamboo, composite, furniture, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
453 Single-Element Simulations of Wood Material in LS-DYNA

Authors: Ren Zuo Wang


In this paper, in order to investigate the behavior of the wood structure, the non-linearity of wood material model in LS-DYNA is adopted. It is difficult and less efficient to conduct the experiment of the ancient wood structure, hence LS-DYNA software can be used to simulate nonlinear responses of ancient wood structure. In LS-DYNA software, there is material model called *MAT_WOOD or *MAT_143. This model is to simulate a single-element response of the wood subjected to tension and compression under the parallel and the perpendicular material directions. Comparing with the exact solution and numerical simulations results using LS-DYNA, it demonstrates the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed simulation method.

Keywords: LS-DYNA, wood structure, single-element simulations, MAT_143

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
452 Fermentation of Wood Waste by Treating with H₃PO₄-Acetone for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Keonwook Nam, Young Hoon Roh


Wood waste is a potentially significant resource for economic and environment-friendly recycling. Wood waste represents a key sustainable source of biomass for transformation into bioethanol. Unfortunately, wood waste is highly recalcitrant for biotransformation, which limits its use and prevents economically viable conversion into bioethanol. As a result, an effective pretreatment is necessary to degrade cellulose of the wood waste, which improves the accessibility of cellulase. In this work, a H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment was selected among the various pretreatment methods and used to dissolve cellulose and lignin. When the H₃PO₄ and acetone were used, 5–6% of the wood waste was found to be very appropriate for saccharification. Also, when the enzymatic saccharification was conducted in the mixture of the wood waste and 0.05 M citrate buffer solution, glucose and xylose were measured to be 80.2 g/L and 9.2 g/L respectively. Furthermore, ethanol obtained after 70 h of fermentation by S. cerevisiae was 30.4 g/L. As a result, the conversion yield from wood waste to bioethanol was calculated to be 57.4%. These results show that the pretreated wood waste can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production and that the H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment can effectively increase the yield of ethanol production.

Keywords: wood waste, H₃PO₄-acetone, bioethanol, fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
451 The Affect of Water Quality on the Ultrasonic Attenuation of Bone Mimic

Authors: A. Elsariti, T. Evans


The propagation mechanisms in the trabecular bone are poorly understood and have been the subject of extended debate; also, steel wool has been evaluated as a potential bone mimic, Its advantages are ready availability, low cost and a wide range of sizes. In this study, both distilled and tap water were used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in coarse steel wool. It is clear from the results that the attenuation of coarse steel wool increased as the distance between the transducers decreased, and it is higher in tap water than distilled water. At 9cm distance between the transducers the attenuation was approximately 0.97 and 4.7 dB in distilled and tap water respectively. While it is 6.97 and 12.2 dB in distilled and tap water respectively at distance 4cm. This change in the attenuation between both distilled and tap water is probably due to gas bubbles in the tap water.

Keywords: bone mimic, porosity, tap water, distilled water, ultrasonic attenuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
450 Innovative Textile Design Using in-situ Ag NPs incorporation into Natural Fabric Matrix

Authors: M. Rehan, H. Mashaly, H. Emam, A. Abou El-Kheir, S. Mowafi


In this work, we will study a simple highly efficient technique to impart multi functional properties to different fabric substrates by in situ Ag NPs incorporation into fabric matrix. Ag NPs as a coloration and antimicrobial agent were prepared in situ incorporation into fabric matrix (Cotton and Wool) by using trisodium citrate as reducing and stabilizing agent. The Ag NPs treated fabric (Cotton and Wool) showed different color because of localized surface Plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of Ag NPs. The formation of Ag NPs was confirmed by UV/Vis spectra for the supernatant solutions and The Ag NPs treated fabric (Cotton and Wool) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The dependence of color properties characterized by colorimetric, fastness and antibacterial properties evaluated by Escherichia coli using counting method and the reaction parameters were studied. The results indicate that, the in situ Ag NPs incorporation into fabric matrix approach can simultaneously impart colorant and antimicrobial properties into different fabric substrates.

Keywords: Ag NPs, coloration, antibacterial, wool, cotton fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
449 Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Radin Hakim, Nurhayati Abdullah


Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, rubber wood, slow pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
448 Assessment of Hygroscopic Characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis Wood

Authors: John Tosin Aladejana


Wood behave differently under different environmental conditions. The knowledge of the hygroscopic nature of wood becomes a key factor in selecting wood for use and required treatment. This study assessed the hygroscopic behaviour of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) wood. Void volume, volumetric swelling in the tangential, radial and longitudinal directions and volumetric shrinkage were used to assess the response of the wood when loosing or taking up moisture. Hevea brasiliensis wood samples cut into 20 × 20 × 60 mm taken longitudinally and transversely were used for the study and dried in the oven at 103 ± 2⁰C. The mean values for moisture content in green Hevea brasiliensis wood were 49.74 %, 51.14 % and 54.36 % for top, middle and bottom portion respectively while 51.77 %, 50.02 % and 53.45 % were recorded for outer, middle and inner portions respectively for the tree. The values obtained for volumetric shrinkage and swelling indicated that shrinkage and swelling were higher at the top part of H. brasiliensis. It was also observed that the longitudinal shrinkage was negligible while tangential direction showed the highest shrinkage among the wood direction. The values of the void volume obtained were 43.0 %, 39.0 % and 38.0 % at the top, middle and bottom respectively. The result obtained showed clarification on the wood density of hevea brasiliensis based on the position and portion of the wood species and the variation in moisture content, void volume, volumetric shrinkage and swelling were also revealed. This will provide information in the process of drying hevea brasiliensis wood to ensure better wood quality devoid of defects.

Keywords: moisture content, shrinkage, swelling, void volume

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
447 Conversion of Tropical Wood to Bio-oil and Charcoal by Using the Process of Pyrolysis

Authors: Kittiphop Promdee, Somruedee Satitkune, Chakkrich Boonmee, Tharapong Vitidsant


Conversion of tropical wood using the process of pyrolysis, which converts tropical wood into fuel products, i.e. bio-oil and charcoal. The results showed the high thermal in the reactor core was thermally controlled between 0-600°C within 60 minutes. The products yield calculation showed that the liquid yield obtained from tropical wood was at its highest at 39.42 %, at 600°C, indicating that the tropical wood had received good yields because of a low gas yield average and high solid and liquid yield average. This research is not only concerned with the controlled temperatures, but also with the controlled screw rotating and feeding rate of biomass.

Keywords: pyrolysis, tropical wood, bio-oil, charcoal, heating value, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
446 Analysis of Flexural Behavior of Wood-Concrete Beams

Authors: M. Li, V. D. Thi, M. Khelifa, M. El Ganaoui


This study presents an overview of the work carried out by the use of wood waste as coarse aggregate in mortar. The paper describes experimental and numerical investigations carried on pervious concrete made of wood chips and also sheds lights on the mechanical properties of this new product. The properties of pervious wood-concrete such as strength, elastic modulus, and failure modes are compared and evaluated. The characterization procedure of the mechanical properties of wood waste ash are presented and discussed. The numerical and tested load–deflection response results are compared. It was observed that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: wood waste ash, characterization, mechanical properties, bending tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
445 Wood Ashes from Electrostatic Filter as a Replacement for the Fly Ashes in Concrete

Authors: Piotr-Robert Lazik, Harald Garrecht


Many concrete technologists are looking for a solution to replace Fly Ashes that would be unavailable in a few years as an element that occurs as a major component of many types of concrete. The importance of such component is clear - it saves cement and reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that occurs during cement production. Wood Ashes from electrostatic filter can be used as a valuable substitute in concrete. The laboratory investigations showed that the wood ash concrete had a compressive strength comparable to coal fly ash concrete. These results indicate that wood ash can be used to manufacture normal concrete.

Keywords: wood ashes, fly ashes, electric filter, replacement, concrete technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
444 Influence of Stacking Sequence on Properties of Sheep-Wool/Glass Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Authors: G. B. Manjunatha


Natural fibers have been considerable demand in recent years due to their ecofriendly and renewable nature. The advantages of low density, acceptable specific properties, better thermal and insulate properties with low cost.In the present study, hybrid composite associating Sheep wool fiber and glass fiber reinforced with epoxy were developed and investigated the effect of stacking sequence on physical and chemical properties. The hybrid composite was designed for engineering applications as an alternative material to glass fiber composites. The hybrid composite laminates were fabricated by using hand lay-up technique at total fiber volume fraction of 60% (Sheep wool fiber 30% and Glass fiber 30%) and 40% reinforcement. The specimen preparation and testing were conducted as per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Three different stacking are used. The result shows that tensile and bending tests of sequence of glass fiber between sheep wool fiber have high strength and maximum bending compared to other sequence of composites. At the same time better moisture and chemical absorption were observed.

Keywords: hybrid composites, mechanical properties, polymer composites, stacking sequence

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
443 The Experimental and Statistical Analysis of the Wood Strength against Pressure According to Different Wood Types, Sizes, and Coatings

Authors: Mustafa Altin, Gamze Fahriye Pehlivan, Sadiye Didem Boztepe Erkis, Sakir Tasdemir, Sevda Altin


In this study, an experimental study was executed related to the strength of wooden materials which have been commonly used both in the past and present against pressure and whether fire retardant materials used against fire have any effects or not. Totally, 81 samples which included three different wood species, three different sizes, two different fire retardants and two unprocessed samples were prepared. Compressive pressure tests were applied to the prepared samples, their variance analyses were executed in accordance with the obtained results and it was aimed to determine the most convenient wooden materials and fire-retardant coating material. It was also determined that the species of wood and the species of coating caused the decrease and/or increase in the resistance against pressure.

Keywords: resistance of wood against pressure, species of wood, variance analysis, wood coating, wood fire safety

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442 Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood

Authors: I. Domingos, B. Esteves, A. Figueirinha, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, J. Ferreira, H. Pereira


Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem. Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations. Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97. The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.

Keywords: adsorption, chromium, heat treatment, wood modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
441 Colorful Textiles with Antimicrobial Property Using Natural Dyes as Effective Green Finishing Agents

Authors: Shahid-ul-Islam, Faqeer Mohammad


The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of annatto, teak and flame of the forest natural dyes on color, fastness, and antimicrobial property of protein based textile substrate. The color strength (K/S) of wool samples at various concentrations of dyes were analysed using a Reflective Spectrophotometer. The antimicrobial activity of natural dyes before and after application on wool was tested against common human pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, by using micro-broth dilution method, disc diffusion assay and growth curve studies. The structural morphology of natural protein fibre (wool) was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Annatto and teak natural dyes proved very effective in inhibiting the microbial growth in solution phase and after application on wool and resulted in a broad beautiful spectrum of colors with exceptional fastness properties. The results encourage the search and exploitation of new plant species as source of dyes to replace toxic synthetic antimicrobial agents currently used in textile industry.

Keywords: annatto, antimicrobial agents, natural dyes, green textiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
440 Biotechonomy System Dynamics Modelling: Sustainability of Pellet Production

Authors: Andra Blumberga, Armands Gravelsins, Haralds Vigants, Dagnija Blumberga


The paper discovers biotechonomy development analysis by use of system dynamics modelling. The research is connected with investigations of biomass application for production of bioproducts with higher added value. The most popular bioresource is wood, and therefore, the main question today is about future development and eco-design of products. The paper emphasizes and evaluates energy sector which is open for use of wood logs, wood chips, wood pellets and so on. The main aim for this research study was to build a framework to analyse development perspectives for wood pellet production. To reach the goal, a system dynamics model of energy wood supplies, processing, and consumption is built. Production capacity, energy consumption, changes in energy and technology efficiency, required labour source, prices of wood, energy and labour are taken into account. Validation and verification tests with available data and information have been carried out and indicate that the model constitutes the dynamic hypothesis. It is found that the more is invested into pellets production, the higher the specific profit per production unit compared to wood logs and wood chips. As a result, wood chips production is decreasing dramatically and is replaced by wood pellets. The limiting factor for pellet industry growth is availability of wood sources. This is governed by felling limit set by the government based on sustainable forestry principles.

Keywords: bioenergy, biotechonomy, system dynamics modelling, wood pellets

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439 Effects of Duct Geometry, Thickness and Types of Liners on Transmission Loss for Absorptive Silencers

Authors: M. Kashfi, K. Jahani


Sound attenuation in absorptive silencers has been analyzed in this paper. The structure of such devices is as follows. When the rigid duct of an expansion chamber has been lined by a packed absorptive material under a perforated membrane, incident sound waves will be dissipated by the absorptive liners. This kind of silencer, usually are applicable for medium to high frequency ranges. Several conditions for different absorptive materials, variety in their thicknesses, and different shapes of the expansion chambers have been studied in this paper. Also, graphs of sound attenuation have been compared between empty expansion chamber and duct of silencer with applying liner. Plane waves have been assumed in inlet and outlet regions of the silencer. Presented results that have been achieved by applying finite element method (FEM), have shown the dependence of the sound attenuation spectrum to flow resistivity and the thicknesses of the absorptive materials, and geometries of the cross section (configuration of the silencer). As flow resistivity and thickness of absorptive materials increase, sound attenuation improves. In this paper, diagrams of the transmission loss (TL) for absorptive silencers in five different cross sections (rectangle, circle, ellipse, square, and rounded rectangle as the main geometry) have been presented. Also, TL graphs for silencers using different absorptive material (glass wool, wood fiber, and kind of spongy materials) as liner with three different thicknesses of 5 mm, 15 mm, and 30 mm for glass wool liner have been exhibited. At first, the effect of substances of the absorptive materials with the specific flow resistivity and densities on the TL spectrum, then the effect of the thicknesses of the glass wool, and at last the efficacy of the shape of the cross section of the silencer have been investigated.

Keywords: transmission loss, absorptive material, flow resistivity, thickness, frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
438 Extraction of Dye from Coconut Husk and Its Application on Wool and Silk

Authors: Deepali Rastogi


Natural dyes are considered to be eco-friendly as they cause no pollution and are safe to use. With the growing interest in natural dyes, new sources of natural dyes are being explored. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is native to tropical eastern region. It is abundantly available in Asia, Africa and South America. While coconut has tremendous commercial value in food, oil, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, the most important use of coconut husk has been as coir which is used for making mats, ropes, etc. In the present study an attempt has been made to extract dye from the coconut husk and study its application on wool and silk. Dye was extracted from coconut husk in an aqueous medium at three different pH. The coconut husk fibres were boiled in water at different pH of 4, 7 and 9 for one hour. On visual inspection of the extracted dye solution, maximum colour was found to be extracted at pH 9. The solution was obtained in neutral medium whereas, no dye was extracted in acidic medium. Therefore, alkaline medium at pH 9 was selected for the extraction of dye from coconut husk. The extracted dye was applied on wool and silk at three different pH, viz., 4, 7 and 9. The effect of pre- and post- mordanting with alum and ferrous sulphate on the colour value of coconut husk dye was also studied. The L*a*b*/L*c*h* values were measured to see the effect of the mordants on the colour values of all the dyed and mordanted samples. Bright golden brown to dark brown colours were obtained at pH 4 on both wool and silk. The colour yield was not very good at pH 7 and 9. Mordanting with alum resulted in darker and brighter shades of brown, whereas mordanting with ferrous sulphate resulted in darker and duller shades. All the samples were tested for colourfastness to light, rubbing, washing and perspiration. Both wool and silk dyed with dye extracted from coconut husk exhibited good to excellent wash, rub and perspiration fastness. Fastness to light was moderate to good.

Keywords: coconut husk, wool, silk, natural dye, mordants

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437 Olive Seed Tannins as Bioadhesives for Manufacturing Wood-Based Panels

Authors: Ajith K. A. Gedara, Iva Chianella, Jose L. Endrino, Qi Zhang


The olive seed is a by-product of the olive oil production industry. Biuret test and ferric chloride test revealed that water or alkali NaOH extractions of olive seed flour are rich in proteins and tannins. Both protein and tannins are well-known bio-based wood adhesives in the wood-based panel industry. In general, tannins-based adhesives show better mechanical and physical properties than protein wood adhesives. This paper explores different methods of extracting tannins from olive seed flour against the tannins yield and their applications as bio-based adhesives in wood-based panels. Once investigated, the physical and the mechanical properties of wood-based panels made using bio-adhesives based tannins extracted from olive seed flour revealed that the resulting products seemed to satisfy the Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A 5908:2015.

Keywords: bio-adhesives, olive seed flour, tannins, wood-based panels

Procedia PDF Downloads 29