Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3024

Search results for: women’s leadership

3024 Theorizing Women’s Political Leadership: Cross-National Comparison

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

Abstract:

Since women obtained the right to vote in 1893 for the first time in New Zealand, they have tried to participate actively into politics but still the world has a few women in political leadership. The article asks which factors might influence the appearance of women leadership in politics. The article investigates two factors such as political context, personal factors. Countries where economic development is stable and political democracy is consolidated have a tendency of appearance of women political leadership but in less developed and politically unstable countries, women politicians can be in power with their own reasons. For the personal factor, their feminist propensity is studied but there is no relationship between the appearance of women leaders and their feminist propensity.

Keywords: women political leadership, political context, slow track, transitory countries, feminist propensity

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3023 Stereotypes and Glass Ceiling Barriers for Young Women’s Leadership

Authors: Amna Khaliq

Abstract:

In this article, the phenomena of common stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers in women’s career advancement in men dominating society are explored. A brief background is provided on the misconception for women as soft, delicate, polite and compassionate at a workplace in the place of strong head and go-getter. Then, the literature review supports that stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers are still in existence for young women’s leadership. Increased encouragement, emotional intelligence, and better communication skills are recommended to parents, educators, and employers to prepare young women for senior leadership roles. Young women need mentorship from other women with no competition.

Keywords: Gender inequality, Glass ceiling, Stereotypes, Leadership

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3022 Challenges of Women Leadership in a Patriarchy Society: Implications for Development of African Women

Authors: Catherine Oluyemo

Abstract:

In Africa, patriarchy has manifested itself in the socio-cultural, political, economic and legal institutions. The decree of the father as the male head of the family has contributed to the powerlessness of women in African nations. To buttress this perception, in his work Meno, Plato made a declaration in the platonic dialogue that the desirable quality of a man should be the capacity to administer the state, and in the administration of it to benefit his friends and harm his enemies; and he must also be careful not to suffer harm himself. Furthermore, he said: a woman's good worth may also be easily described as ordering her house, keep what is indoors, and obey her husband. The works of Aristotle portrayed women as morally, intellectually, and physically inferior to men; they saw women as the property of men; claimed that women's role in society was to reproduce and serve men in the household; and saw male domination of women as natural and virtuous. This has been sustained for ages and is incessantly impinging on the involvement of women in African leadership positions. The purpose of this paper is to make sense of the concept of patriarchy in relations to women participation in Africa leadership, and its challenges in the participation of women in the leadership positions of Africa. It seeks to discover what women should do to make their voices heard, to participate in leadership arrangements so as to actualize their potentials in contributing to the development of Africa.

Keywords: women, leadership, patriarchy, development, actualize, potentials

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3021 A South African Perspective on Self-Leadership Development for Women Engineering Students

Authors: A. S. Lourens, B. Du Plooy

Abstract:

Across the world, initiatives have been introduced to encourage women to enter into and remain in engineering fields. However, research has shown that many women leave engineering or suffer a loss of self-esteem and self-confidence compared to their male counterparts. To address this problem, a South African comprehensive university developed a self-leadership intervention pilot study in 2013, aimed at improving the self-efficacy of its female engineering students and increasing retention rates. This paper is a qualitative, descriptive and interpretive study of the rationale and operational aspects of the Women in Engineering Leadership Association’s (WELA) self-leadership workshop. The objectives of this paper are to provide a framework for the design of a self-leadership workshop and to provide insight into the process of developing such a workshop specifically for women engineering students at a South African university. Finally, the paper proposes an evaluation process for the pilot workshop, which also provides a framework to improve future workshops. It is anticipated that the self-leadership development framework will be applicable to other higher education institutions wishing to improve women engineering student’s feelings of self-efficacy and therefore retention rates of women in engineering.

Keywords: self-leadership, women in engineering, co-curricular interventions, self-efficacy

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3020 A South African Perspective on Self-Leadership Development for Women Engineering Students – A Pilot Study

Authors: A. S. Lourens, B. Du Plooy

Abstract:

Across the world, initiatives have been introduced to encourage women to enter into and remain in engineering fields. However, research has shown that many women leave engineering or suffer a loss of self-esteem and self-confidence compared to their male counterparts. To address this problem, a South African comprehensive university developed a self-leadership intervention pilot study in 2013, aimed at improving the self-efficacy of its female engineering students and increasing retention rates. This paper is a qualitative, descriptive, and interpretive study of the rationale and operational aspects of the Women in Engineering Leadership Association’s (WELA) self-leadership workshop. The objectives of this paper are to provide a framework for the design of a self-leadership workshop and to provide insight into the process of developing such a workshop specifically for women engineering students at a South African university. Finally, the paper proposes an evaluation process for the pilot workshop, which also provides a framework to improve future workshops. It is anticipated that the self-leadership development framework will be applicable to other higher education institutions wishing to improve women engineering student’s feelings of self-efficacy and therefore retention rates of women in engineering.

Keywords: co-curricular interventions, self-efficacy, self-leadership, women in engineering

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3019 Exploring Women’S Leadership in China’S Sport National Governing Bodies

Authors: Han Zheng

Abstract:

This research is being conducted to explore women's leadership in China's National Governing Bodies ( in order to identify the barriers to women's leadership and provide feasible solutions. Extensive research has been undertaken internationally, which has identified and acknowledged the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions across multiple industries and global contexts. According to these studies, leadership specifically within the sports industry was both historically and is still currently male-dominated. Within China, the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions is also evident, which women only occupy 16% of the leadership in business enterprises and 5.6% in scientific and technological research institutions, yet there is limited research that has looked to examine why this is the case regarding women's leadership in China, especially within in sports industry. Therefore, this research gap drives the purpose, which aims to explore the current situation of women's leadership in sports National Governing Bodies (NGBs) in China. By using both questionnaires and interviews, data from NGBs in China will be collected. This research will achieve the following three goals: 1, determine the representation level of women's leadership in the target organizations. 2, identify barriers to women's leadership and their causes. 3, provide feasible solutions. Based on the multi-level framework, this study develops a "barrier matrix" framework: according to the analysis of the previous literature, it concludes that there are eight main barriers that hinder the development of women's leadership. The research combines qualitative and quantitative analysis, using questionnaires and interviews. Key findings according to the analysis of the primary data collected: 1. The average proportion of female occupational leadership in China's sports NGBs is less than 17.5%. 2. 50.8% of China's sports NGBs have no equal employment opportunity policy. 3. According to the preliminary qualitative analysis of the interviews, it is found that the core barriers affecting women's leadership development are mainly in the following areas: male-dominated culture and gender stereotyping (macro-level), biased organizational policies and procedures (meso-level), work-family conflicts and self-limiting behaviors (micro-level).

Keywords: women leadership, sport management, gender equality, sport leadership, sport NGBs

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3018 The Impact of Women’s Leadership in Panchayati Raj Institutions: Some of the Insights on Indian Rural Governance

Authors: Avneet Kaur

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India is a nation of villages. Traditionally, women had enjoyed a high social status in India. Our mythology, folklore and history are full of women who were epitomes of virtue, wisdom, power, and position. The important concern about their entry into the politics is of great importance all over the world. Women have performed excellently in social, economic and political sphere. However, the fact remains that despite constituting half of the population their representation among elected post continue to remain negligible in Panchayati Raj Institutions. Women in India suffered from many social economic handicaps such as illiteracy, economically dependent, social customs, traditions and rituals that are the main causes of their inactive participation in local governance. There is still widespread patriarchal outlook in the villages and the lack of experience on the part of women leadership are some of the major issues of debate. The implementation of the 73rd Amendment Act of the Indian Constitution in 1992 reserved 1/3 rd of the seats for women empowerment. It was a major step to encourage them to take part in the village politics. This kind of revolution was the beginning of women leadership in villages. The paper intends to study the role and importance of women leadership in Panchayati Raj Institutions in India. The paper is divided into four sections. First section deals with the introduction by taking into account the available research on this particular subject. Second section talks about the role played by women leadership in these institutions after the passing of 73rd Amendment Act. Third section deals with some of the critical insights of the study by discussing the problems faced by the active women’s leadership at the grassroots. Finally, the paper concludes with policy suggestions.

Keywords: women, leadership, grassroots, Panchayati Raj

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3017 Coping for Academic Women Departmental Heads during COVID-19: A Capabilities Approach Perspective

Authors: Juliet Ramohai

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This paper explores how women departmental heads in higher education experience leadership in a time of the COVID-19 crises. The focus is mostly on their care and coping as they work in virtual spaces. Most scholars have looked at the effects and challenges that different employees face while working from home during a lockdown. However, very few take a dedicated focus on women in leadership and the coping mechanisms and resources that they use for effective leadership during this difficult time. The paper draws on two aspects of Sen’s Capabilities approach, functionings, and agency, to cast a closer understanding of the institutional and individual coping mechanisms that might be at these women's disposal. The qualitative approach used for this paper and a feminist lens provides a critical and in-depth understanding of the real-life stories of the women and how they make sense of their virtual leadership. Data for this paper was collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 women in the positions of head of departments and analysed thematically using capabilities approach concepts as an analytical tool. The findings in this paper indicate that functionings and freedoms are tightly linked to institutional ethnographies. These ethnographies might support or hamper coping for women leaders, especially during times of crisis.

Keywords: capability approach, women leaders, higher education, COVID-19

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3016 Women Doing Leadership in Higher Education: Drawing on Individual Experiences to Analyse On-Going Gender Inequality in the Sector

Authors: Sarah Barnard, John Arnold, Fehmidah Munir, Sara Bosley

Abstract:

Gender issues in higher education continue to represent a complex issue as institutions grapple with the role that organisations can play in combatting inequality. Schemes like Athena SWAN and the Aurora leadership programme in the UK context are attempting to tackle some of the issues around representation and the recognition of women in the sector. This paper is the first of its kind in reporting findings from a mixed-methods longitudinal study on both professional services and academic women in higher education in the UK. Online surveys have been completed by over 2,000 women in the sector. The qualitative elements include interviews with women and their mentors, and diaries with a select group of women. So far results have shown that contrary to the stereotype of women lacking leadership skills or having no desire to go into higher roles, women in the sector consistently assessed their leadership abilities positively, especially but not only regarding interpersonal interaction and facilitation. Over 80% of women agreed that they felt confident about putting themselves forward for positions of responsibility at work. However, qualitative data shows that confidence remains a salient term for how women talk about the challenges they have faced at work. This suggests that the work needed to challenge systemic gender issues requires action to be driven above the individual level. Overall, academics reported more negative experiences than professional services staff. Similarly BAME women’s responses are more negative. Therefore, the study offers some information on the differential experiences of women. In conclusion, women in higher education are undertaking considerable ‘below the radar’ leadership activities in what they perceive to be a somewhat inhospitable hostile workplace culture. The significant amount of effort expended in the sector is affecting slow, partial impacts on gender inequalities.

Keywords: gender, higher education, leadership, longitudinal research

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3015 The Impact of Misogyny on Women's Leadership in the Local Sphere of Government: The Case of Dr. Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality

Authors: Josephine Eghonghon Ahiante, Barry Hanyane

Abstract:

To give effect to the constitutional rights of gender equality, the South African government instituted various legislative policy frameworks and legislations to equalise the public service. Nonetheless, gender inequality in senior management positions remains a rift in government institutions, particularly the local sphere of government. The methodology for gathering and analysing data for this study was based on both primary and secondary data sources, namely literature review, qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, triangulation, and inductive and deductive thematic analysis. The study found that misogynist tendencies which are manifest in organisational culture suffocate the good intentions of government in ensuring social justices, leadership diversity, and women equality. It also demonstrates that traditional gender role expectation still informs the ground in which senior management positions are allocated, men perceive women as non-leadership fit and discriminate against them during recruitment, selection, and promotion into high positions. The analyses from the study portray that, while government legislation and framework has been instrumental in the leadership acceleration of women, much more has to be done to deconstruct internalised leadership stereotypes on women's gender roles and leadership requirements. The study recommends that gender bias training intervention is needed to teach public employees on management excellence.

Keywords: gender, leadership, misogyny, orgnisational cultural, patriachy

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3014 Exploratory Study of Contemporary Models of Leadership

Authors: Gadah Alkeniah

Abstract:

Leadership is acknowledged internationally as fundamental to school efficiency and school enhancement nevertheless there are various understandings of what leadership is and how it is realised in practice. There are a number of educational leadership models that are considered important. However, the present study uses a systematic review method to examine and compare five models of the most well-known contemporary models of leadership as well as introduces the dimension of each model. Our results reveal that recently the distributed leadership has grown in popularity within the field of education. The study concludes by suggesting future directions in leadership development and education research.

Keywords: distributed leadership, instructional leadership, leadership models, moral leadership, strategic leadership, transformational leadership

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3013 The Construction of Women’s Leadership in the Swedish Armed Forces in the Context of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda

Authors: Sofia Sutera

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Despite the introduction of the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Agenda in 2000, thanks to the UNSCR 1325 and subsequent resolutions, and the clear stance of the UN towards the support of increased participation of women in peace and security processes, women’s leadership in this context remains very low. Considering specifically the framework of peacekeeping operations, the aim of this paper is to analyze the way women’s leadership is constructed in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF). In the context of the WPS Agenda, Sweden has been chosen as a case study because of the relevance of its singular feminist policies (the statement in 2014 from Wallström, previous and current Minister for Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister, that Sweden is pursuing a feminist foreign policy is a clear example). Moreover, the SAF adopted in 2016 the Handbok Gender. This policy addresses explicitly the gender perspective embraced by the Swedish military institution, a sui-generis organization even in the Scandinavian reality. Indeed, the SAF has assumed a clear commitment to represent its institution as gender aware and gender equal. The theoretical perspective utilized in this research, which focuses specifically on women, is feminism and particularly a feminist constructivist approach, with an institutional focus on the military institution, has been chosen. Taking into account the specificity of the feminist research, the above-mentioned gender policy has been examined by means of a critical discourse analysis (CDA) whose main aim is to investigate the social structures of discourse and the power relationships inherent to it. Thus, CDA appears to be quite relevant in order to understand the construction of women’s leadership in the Handbok Gender. Nevertheless, even in a country which officially identifies as feminist and which is characterized by a peculiar military institution, the conclusions of this analysis revealed that women’s leadership in peacekeeping operations remains very low.

Keywords: feminism, peacekeeping operations, swedish armed forces, UNSCR 1325, women's leadership, WPS agenda

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3012 The Effects of Three Leadership Styles on Individual Performance

Authors: Leilei Liang

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Leadership is commonly classified as formal leadership and informal leadership, which ignores and neglects the effects of 3rd type leadership. The emergence of 3rd type of leadership is closely related to special relations. To figure out the mechanism and effects of 3rd type leadership as well as the impacts of formal leadership and informal leadership on employee performance, this study collects data from 350 participants through a survey and proposes three hypotheses respectively from the perspective of expectation theory. The analytical results provide strong evidence for two of the three hypotheses, which demonstrate the positive correlation between formal leadership and individual performance and the negative relationship between 3rd type leadership and individual performance. This study contributes to leadership literature by putting forward the concept of the 3rd type of leadership. In addition, the effects of formal leadership, informal leadership, and 3rd type leadership on individual performance are discussed respectively in this study.

Keywords: formal leadership, informal leadership, 3rd leadership, individual performance, expectation theory

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3011 Women Educational Leaders in an Age of Accountability

Authors: Ann Vibert, Heather Hemming

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This paper presentation summarizes the findings and implications of research on the plight and practices of women educational leaders in public school systems and in one university. The authors, both women university administrators, are also scholars and researchers of education. The research project on which this paper presentation is based proposed to examine how women educational leaders imagined, experienced, and carried out their leadership roles in the context of a growing local and global accountability-based performativity discourse which is reshaping educational work especially for women, we argue, in both public school and post-secondary sites. The research employed critical ethnographic interviews with 20 women educational leaders in P-12 school systems and three women university level educational leaders. Data were collected on women educational leaders’ perceptions of the effects of accountability and performativity discourses on the nature of their work. Specifically, leaders were asked to speak to whether they experienced a growth in managerial work as a consequence of increased accountability demands; how they experienced their work changing as a consequence of accountability and performativity demands; how these changes impacted the central values they enacted in their work as women educational leaders changes; and how they responded to/negotiated/accommodated changes in the nature of their work developing as a consequence of accountability and performativity frameworks. Findings from the research data and analyses confirm and extend recent scholarly work on the gendered nature of performativity and accountability discourses and frameworks, and their differential effects across differing genders. The oral presentation we propose here focusses on those findings in terms of similarities for women educational leaders across different educational contexts.

Keywords: women in educational leadership, gender and educational performativity, accountability and women leaders, gender and educational leadership

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3010 The Constitution of Kenya, 2010, and the Feminist Legal Theory

Authors: Tecla Rita Karendi, Andy Cons Matata

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Although before and at the advent of colonial administration, several women such as Mekatilili wa Menza and Muthoni Nyanjiru took up leadership positions in resisting the colonial administration. Kenya is generally considered a patriarchal society. Many women who tried to take up positions of leadership in postcolonial Kenya, such as the Nobel Prize winner Wangari Maathai, were branded as prostitutes or generally immoral women. However, the Constitution of Kenya, 2010, has since made a huge impact not only in the area of affirmative action but also in various aspects of the feminist legal theory such as the constitutional requirement that no more than two-thirds of the members of the elective or appointive bodies should be of the same gender. This favours women who are often sidelined in elective posts such as parliament or county assemblies and state-appointed posts in the parastatals and commissions. The constitution also recognizes the right to abortion, which was outrightly outlawed in the independence constitution. Certain practices adverse to women’s health, such as wife inheritance, female genital mutilation, and property rights, are either outlawed or framed to recognized women’s rights. The education of the girl-child is also now considered a priority, unlike in the past. Despite these developments, a lot remains to be done.

Keywords: feminist legal theory, constitution of Kenya, 2010, affirmative action, leadership

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3009 Leadership Development of Professional Ethiopian Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: Insights Gained through an Onsite Culturally Embedded Workshop

Authors: Araceli Martinez Ortiz, Gillian Bayne, Solomon Abraham

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This paper describes research led by faculty from three American universities and four Ethiopian universities on the delivery of professional leadership development for early-career female Ethiopian university instructors in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. The objective was to carry out a case study focused on the impact of an innovative intervention program designed to assist in the empowerment and leadership development related to teaching effectiveness, scholarly activity participation, and professional service participation by female instructors. This research was conducted utilizing a case study methodology for the weeklong intervention and a survey to capture the voices of the leadership program participants. The data regarding insights into the challenges and opportunities for women in these fields is presented. The research effort project expands upon existing linkages between universities to support professional development and research effort in this region of the world. Findings indicate the positive reception of this kind of professional development by the participating women. Survey data also reflects the particular cultural challenges professional women in STEM education face in Ethiopia as well as the global challenges of balancing family expectations with career development.

Keywords: Ethiopian women, STEM leadership, professional development, gender equity

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3008 Comparative Perceptions on Gender, Leadership, and Diversity

Authors: Saloni Diwakar, Hansika Kapoor

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The study undertook comparative analyses between 130 male and female managers in a power/electric company, relating to prevalent perceptions about gendered leadership, leadership efficacy, perceived organizational support, and diversity and inclusiveness. Results showed no significant difference in POS, leadership aspirations, expression, and self- and other leadership efficacy between male and female managers. However, within-groups analyses revealed that female managers reported a disparity between self and other leadership efficacy (value), to a far greater extent than male managers (value). Additionally, females reported a dip in POS during middle management, as compared to junior management, whereas men reported a steady increase in POS from junior, middle on to senior management. Descriptively, both men and women reported preferring gender neutral leadership traits, as compared to male or female centered traits, and both genders least preferred male centered leadership traits. Compared to women, male managers were found to significantly undervalue diversity and inclusion initiatives. Subjective feedback was elicited to corroborate quantitative output. Also, female participants provided subjective feedback regarding efficacy of existing D&I practices in the organization. Findings and implications are discussed relevant to existing gender inclusion agendas.

Keywords: gendered leadership, diversity, inclusivity, perceived organizational support

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3007 Gender and Change of Socio-Cultural Behavior: A Case Study of Sarangkot VDC of Kaski District

Authors: Padam Pandey, Madhu Sudan Dhakal

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As a consequence of being a patrimonial society, most of the Nepalese women work inside the house and take care their children. Men are always regarded to be responsible for managing fund to fulfill the family requirement. Outgoing men of 25-35 for employment in foreign country is a common practice. In the absence of man, women aged of 20-45 have to be active in society. The responsibility of women is not only looking after inside the house but also leading the society. This study analysis gender aspect of household work and involvement in the society. This study shows that women are leading 56% different organizations in the society where 51% women spend more than 54% time in community development work. The involvement of man in the house work has significantly increased. The women leadership has succeeded to show the transparency in all the community development activities. It shows a model of social harmony, solidarity, and unity in the Sarankot Village Development Committee. Social behavior change towards women is a milestone of sustainable community development. This study recommends that the equal participation is essential to sustain community development.

Keywords: gender, women leadership, social harmony, unity sustainable development

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3006 Intersectionality and Sensemaking: Advancing the Conversation on Leadership as the Management of Meaning

Authors: Clifford Lewis

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This paper aims to advance the conversation of an alternative view of leadership, namely ‘leadership as the management of meaning’. Here, leadership is considered as a social process of the management of meaning within an employment context, as opposed to a psychological trait, set of behaviours or relational consequence as seen in mainstream leadership research. Specifically, this study explores the relationship between intersectional identities and the management of meaning. Design: Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducted with women and men of colour working in the South African private sector organisations in various leadership positions. Employing an intersectional approach using gender and race, participants were selected by using purposive and snowball sampling concurrently. Thematic and Axial coding was used to identify dominant themes. Findings: Findings suggest that, both gender and race shape how leaders manage meaning. Findings also confirm that intersectionality is an appropriate approach when studying the leadership experiences of those groups who are underrepresented in organisational leadership structures. The findings points to the need for further research into the differential effects of intersecting identities on organisational leadership experiences and that ‘leadership as the management of meaning’ is an appropriate approach for addressing this knowledge gap. Theoretical Contribution: There is a large body of literature on the complex challenges faced by women and people of colour in leadership but there is relatively little empirical work on how identity influences the management of meaning. This study contributes to the leadership literature by providing insight into how intersectional identities influence the management of meaning at work and how this impacts the leadership experiences of largely marginalised groups. Practical Implications: Understanding the leadership experiences of underrepresented groups is important because of both legal mandates and for building diverse talent for organisations and societies. Such an understanding assists practitioners in being sensitive to simplistic notions of challenges individuals might face in accessing and practicing leadership in organisations. Advancing the conversation on leadership as the management of meaning allows for a better understanding of complex challenges faced by women and people of colour and an opportunity for organisations to systematically remove unfair structural obstacles and develop their diverse leadership capacity.

Keywords: intersectionality, diversity, leadership, sensemaking

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3005 A Literature Review of Servant Leadership and Criticism of Advanced Research

Authors: So-Jung Kim, Kyoung-Seok Kim, Yeong-Gyeong Choi

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Although there are many theories and discussion of leadership, the necessity of having a new leadership paradigm was emphasized. The existing leadership characteristic of instruction and control revealed its limitations. Market competition becomes fierce and economic recession never ends worldwide. Of the leadership theories, servant leadership was introduced recently and is in line with the environmental changes of the organization. Servant leadership is a combination of two words, 'servant' and 'leader' and can be defined as the role of the leader who focuses on doing voluntary work for others with altruistic ethics, makes members, customers, and local communities a priority, and makes a commitment to satisfying their needs. This leadership received attention as one field of leadership in the late 1990s and secured its legitimacy. This study discusses the existing research trends of leadership, the concept, behavior characteristics, and lower dimensions of servant leadership, compares servant leadership with the existing leadership researches and diagnoses if servant leadership is a useful concept for further leadership researches. Finally, this study criticizes the limitations in the existing researches on servant leadership.

Keywords: leadership philosophy, leadership theory, servant leadership, traditional leadership

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3004 Navigate the Labyrinth of Leadership: Leaders’ Experiences in Saudi Higher Education

Authors: Laila Albughayl

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The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore Saudi females’ leadership journeys as they navigate the labyrinth of leadership in higher education. To gain a better understanding of how these leaders overcame challenges and accessed support as they progressed through the labyrinth to top positions in Saudi higher education. The significance of this research derived from the premise that leaders need to acquire essential leadership competencies such as knowledge, skills, and practices to effectively lead through economic transformation, growing globalism, and rapidly developing technology in an increasingly diverse world. In addition, understanding Saudi women’s challenges in the labyrinth will encourage policymakers to improve the situation under which these women work. The metaphor ‘labyrinth’ for Eagly and Carli (2007) encapsulates the winding paths, dead ends, and maze-like pathways that are full of challenges and supports that women traverse to access and maintain leadership positions was used. In this study, ‘labyrinth’ was used as the conceptual framework to explore women leaders’ challenges and opportunities in leadership in Saudi higher education. A proposed model for efficient navigation of the labyrinth of leadership was used. This model focused on knowledge, skills, and behaviours (KSB) as the analytical framework for examining responses to the research questions. This research was conducted using an interpretivist qualitative approach. A case study was the methodology used. Semi-structured interviews were the main data collection method. Purposive sampling was used to select ten Saudi leaders in three public universities. In coding, the 6-step framework of thematic analysis for Braun and Clarke was used to identify, analyze, and report themes within the data. NVivo software was also used as a tool to assist with managing and organizing the data. The resultant findings showed that the challenges identified by participants in navigating the labyrinth of leadership in Saudi higher education replicated some of those identified in the literature. The onset findings also revealed that the organizational barriers in Saudi higher education came as the top hindrance to women’s advancement in the labyrinth of leadership, followed by societal barriers. The findings also showed that women’s paths in the labyrinth of leadership in higher education were still convoluted and tedious compared to their male counterparts. In addition, the findings revealed that Saudi women leaders use significant strategies to access leadership posts and effectively navigate the labyrinth; this was not indicated in the literature. In addition, the resultant findings revealed that there are keys that assisted Saudi female leaders in effectively navigating the labyrinth of leadership. For example, the findings indicated that spirituality (religion) was a powerful key that enabled Saudi women leaders to pursue and persist in their leadership paths. Based on participants' experiences, a compass for effective navigation of the labyrinth of leadership in higher education was created for current and aspirant Saudi women leaders to follow. Finally, the findings had several significant implications for practice, policy, theory, and future research.

Keywords: women, leadership, labyrinth, higher education

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3003 An Exploratory Study of Women in Political Leadership in Nigeria

Authors: Fayomi Oluyemi, Ajayi Lady

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This article raises the question of political leadership in the context of womens' roles and responsibilities in Nigeria. The leadership question in Nigeria is disquieting to both academics and policy actors. In a democratic society like Nigeria, the parameters for a well-deserved leadership position is characterised by variables of equity, competence, transparency, accountability, selflessness, and commitment to the tenets of democracy, but the failure of leadership is pervasive in all spheres of socio-political sectors in Nigeria. The paper appraises the activities of Nigerian women in the socio-political arena in Nigeria. It traces their leadership roles from pre-colonial through post-colonial eras with emphasis on 1914 till date. It is argued in the paper that gender imbalance in leadership is a bane to peaceful co-existence and development in Nigeria. It is a truism that gender-blind and gender biased political agendas can distort leadership activities. The extent of their contributions of the few outstanding women’s relative tranquility is highlighted in the theoretical discourse. The methodology adopted for this study is an exploratory study employing the extended case method (ECM). The study was carried out among some selected Nigerian women politicians and academics. Because of ECM's robustness as a qualitative research design, it has helped this study in identifying the challenges of these women thematically and also in constructing valid and reliable measures of the constructs. The study made use of ethnography and triangulation, the latter of which is used by qualitative researchers to check and establish validity in their studies by analyzing a research question from multiple perspectives, specifically Investigator triangulation which involves using several different investigators in the analysis process. Typically, this manifests as the evaluation team consisting of colleagues within a field of study wherein each investigator examines the question of political leadership with the same qualitative method (interview, observation, case study, or focus groups). In addition, data was collated through documentary sources like journals, books, magazines, newspapers, and internet materials. The arguments of this paper center on gender equity of both sexes in socio-political representation and effective participation. The paper concludes with the need to effectively maintain gender balance in leadership in order to enhance lasting peace and unity in Nigeria.

Keywords: gender, politics, leadership, women

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3002 Ending the Gender Gap in Educational Leadership: A U.S. Goal for a Balanced Administration by 2030

Authors: S. Dodd

Abstract:

This presentation examines the gender gap in leadership positions at colleges and universities within the United States. Despite the fact that women now outnumber men in earning doctorate degrees, women continue to hold far fewer positions of educational leadership, and still, earn less money than men do at every level. Considering the lack of female representation in positions of leadership, there are clearly outside variables preventing women from attaining these positions, despite their educational attainment. Following this study, the American Council on Education (ACE) set a goal to achieve an equal percentage of females holding college presidency positions by the year 2030. This goal is particularly ambitious, especially when considering the gender disparity at all ranks in higher education. Men still hold nearly 70% of all full professorships at degree-granting institutions. Even when women are equally represented in numbers, men typically hold a higher rank and are more likely to be tenured. Across all four-year colleges and universities in the United States, men earn more money than women at every rank and in every discipline. There are over twice as many men than women represented on governing boards, who help formed and uphold campus policies. The fact that the low percentage of female presidents has remained static for many years deepens the challenge for the ACE. Although emphasizing the need to create greater opportunities for women in educational administration is admirable, it is difficult to simplify the social forces that create and uphold the status quo of male leadership. When aiming to ensure 'women' hold 50% of all college presidency positions, it is important to consider how the intersections of race, social class, and other factors also correlate with lower job status. This presentation explores how gendered notions of leadership begin in a child’s early years and are carried into future careers, and how these conceptualizations impact the creation and upholding of educational policies at every academic level. Current research that emphasizes the importance establishing a bottom-up approach to a gender equity infrastructure for children early in their educational careers will be discussed. A top-down approach starting with female college presidents is incomplete and insufficient if the mindsets of the youth who will one day be entering those institutions of higher education are not also taken into consideration. Although ACE has established this lofty goal for female college presidencies by the year 2030, a road map for this will ensue, has not yet been provided. The talent pool of women who are educated and experienced for such positions is vast, but acknowledging the social barriers existing for women in these positions will be crucial to making the changes necessary for these leadership opportunities to be long lasting and successful.

Keywords: equity, higher education, leadership, women

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3001 Exploring the State of Leadership Effectiveness of Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Ojeka Alexandra

Abstract:

The study investigated the leadership effectiveness of leaders of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The study sought to examine the leadership styles adopted, the leadership energy and effectiveness of the leaders of two tertiary institutions. The research was undertaken at two institutions, one Polytechnic and one University. The population of the study was the lecturers and the heads of departments of the two institutions. The leadership matrix and leadership effectiveness index questionnaires were employed to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The preferred and practiced styles were compared and contrasted to determine whether or not they were used to achieve goals and objectives of the lecturers and the organizations. The recommendations contribute towards the academic and professional development of the lecturers and their institutions.

Keywords: leadership, leadership effectiveness, leadership energy, tertiary institutions, and leadership styles

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3000 Inspiring Woman: The Emotional Intelligence Leadership of Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid

Authors: Eman S. Soliman, Sana Hawamdeh, Najmus S. Mahfooz

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine various components of applied emotional intelligence as demonstrated in the leadership style of Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid in pre and post-Islamic society. Methodology: The research used a qualitative research method, specifically historical and ethnographic techniques. Data collection included both primary and secondary sources. Data from sources were analyzed to document the use of emotional intelligent leadership behaviors throughout Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid leadership experience from 596 A.D. to 621 A.D. Findings: Demonstration of four cornerstones of emotional intelligence which are self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management. Apply them on khadejah Bint Khuwaylid leadership style reveal that she possess main behavioral competences in the form of emotionally self-aware, self-.confidence, adaptability, empathy and influence. Conclusions: Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid serves as a historical model of effective leadership that included the use of emotional intelligence in her leadership behavior. The inclusion of the effective portion of the brain created a successful leadership style that can be learned by present day and future leadership. The recommendations for future leaders are to include the use of emotionally self-aware and self-confidence, adaptability, empathy and influence as components of leadership. This will then demonstrate in a leadership a basic knowledge and understanding of feelings, the keenness to be emotionally open with others, the ability to prototype beliefs and values, and the use of emotions in future communications, vision and progress.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, leadership, Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid, women

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2999 Women as Catalysts for the Rehabilitation of the Traditional System of Governance in Nigeria

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

Abstract:

Before the advent of Colonialists on the shores of Nigeria between the 16th and 17th Centuries, there existed the traditional systems of governance which was successful with Women as active participants. However, the current state of politics in Nigeria reveals an obvious absence of women in the Country’s governance. Being that the economy rests on the quality of leaders and their constructive contribution to the plight of the masses, it becomes pertinent to exhaust all the avenues that may be open to good governance-women inclusive. It is against this backdrop that this paper attempts to compare the machinery that were in place in pre-colonial Nigerian governance that aided the womenfolk to successfully reign or assist in leadership with the seeming lack of interest by women in present times. Factors that militate against the women will also be highlighted. Furthermore, suggestions are made on how to revive these successful traditional systems of governance. The paper concludes by emphasising the role of women as the needed catalysts for this aforementioned rehabilitation of traditional systems and the impact of media in achieving this feat.

Keywords: catalysts, governance, media, rehabilitation

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2998 Leadership Lessons from Female Executives in the South African Oil Industry

Authors: Anthea Carol Nefdt

Abstract:

In this article, observations are drawn from a number of interviews conducted with female executives in the South African Oil Industry in 2017. Globally, the oil industry represents one of the most male-dominated organisational structures as well as cultures in the business world. Some of the remarkable women, who hold upper management positions, have not only emerged from the science and finance spheres (equally gendered organisations) but also navigated their way through an aggressive, patriarchal atmosphere of rivalry and competition. We examine various mythology associated with the industry, such as the cowboy myth, the frontier ideology and the queen bee syndrome directed at female executives. One of the themes to emerge from my interviews was the almost unanimous rejection of the ‘glass ceiling’ metaphor favoured by some Feminists. The women of the oil industry rather affirmed a picture of their rise to leadership positions through a strategic labyrinth of challenges and obstacles both in terms of gender and race. This article aims to share the insights of women leaders in a complex industry through both their reflections and a theoretical Feminist lens. The study is located within the South African context and given our historical legacy, it was optimal to use an intersectional approach which would allow issues of race, gender, ethnicity and language to emerge. A qualitative research methodological approach was employed as well as a thematic interpretative analysis to analyse and interpret the data. This research methodology was used precisely because it encourages and acknowledged the experiences women have and places these experiences at the centre of the research. Multiple methods of recruitment of the research participants was utilised. The initial method of recruitment was snowballing sampling, the second method used was purposive sampling. In addition to this, semi-structured interviews gave the participants an opportunity to ask questions, add information and have discussions on issues or aspects of the research area which was of interest to them. One of the key objectives of the study was to investigate if there was a difference in the leadership styles of men and women. Findings show that despite the wealth of literature on the topic, to the contrary some women do not perceive a significant difference in men and women’s leadership style. However other respondents felt that there were some important differences in the experiences of men and women superiors although they hesitated to generalise from these experiences Further findings suggest that although the oil industry provides unique challenges to women as a gendered organization, it also incorporates various progressive initiatives for their advancement.

Keywords: petroleum industry, gender, feminism, leadership

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2997 Women's Parliamentary Representation in Uganda: A Relative Analysis of the Pathways of Women on the Open vs. Affirmative Action Seat

Authors: Doreen Chemutai

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While women's parliamentary representation has increased over the years, most women contest the affirmative action seat (A.A). There is a lack of knowledge on why women prefer the affirmative seat vis- a- vis the open seat. This study argues that comparing women's path on the reserved and open seat to parliamentary representation enables us to pass judgment on why this trend continues. This paper provides a narrative analysis of women members of parliament's (MPs) trajectory in the open seat and Affirmative Action seat to parliamentary representation. Purposive sampling was used to select participants from the Northern Uganda districts of Kitgum, Pader, Oyam, Agago, and Gulu. The eight women MPs chosen for the study completed in-depth interviews exploring their qualifications, careers, and experiences before joining the political office, their party affiliation, and the kind of seat they currently occupy in the 10th parliament. Findings revealed similarities between women on the open and reserved to include; women generally irrespective of the seat they choose to contest for find it difficult to win elections because voters doubt women's effectiveness as leaders. All women as incumbents find it difficult to be re-elected because their evaluation is harsher than that for men. Findings also revealed that women representatives are motivated by their personal lived experiences, community work, educational leadership, and local leadership. The study establishes that the popularity of the party in a given geographical location and the opponents' quality will determine the success of the parliamentary candidate in question irrespective of whether one is contesting on the open or Affirmative seat. However, the study revealed differences between MPs' experiences in the quest for the parliamentary seat, females on the open seat are subjected to gender discrimination in elections by party leadership, stereotyped, and are victims of propaganda in the initial contesting stages. Women who win elections in the open seat have to be superior to their male opponents. In other circumstances where a woman emerges successful, she may be voted for due to other reasons beyond capability, such as physical appearance or sociability. On the other hand, MPs' revelations on affirmative action seats show that the political terrain is smoother despite larger constituencies. Findings show that women on the Affirmative Action seat do not move to the open seat because of the comfort associated with the seat and maintain consistency, since the constituencies doubt the motives of representatives who change from one seat to another. The study concludes that women MPs who contest on the open seat are likely to suffer structural barriers such as gender discrimination and political recruitment bias instead of women on the affirmative seat. This explains why the majority of women contest on the affirmative seat.

Keywords: affirmative action seats, open seats, parliamentary representation, pathways

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2996 The Effect of Leadership Styles on Continuous Improvement Teams

Authors: Paul W. Murray

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This research explores the relationship between leadership style and continuous improvement (CI) teams. CI teams have several features that are not always found in other types of teams, including multi-functional members, short time period for performance, positive and actionable results, and exposure to senior leadership. There is not only one best style of leadership for these teams. Instead, it is important to select the best leadership style for the situation. The leader must have the flexibility to change styles and the skill to use the chosen style effectively in order to ensure the team’s success.

Keywords: leadership style, lean manufacturing, teams, cross-functional

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2995 Crime against Women behind Closed Doors in Indian Society

Authors: Rasha Kumari Panda

Abstract:

The crime against women in closed door is an important burning issue in day to day life. Domestic violence has become daily part of women’s life. It affects the millions of the women throughout the India as it violates their human rights. Crime against women behind closed door is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, discrimination against women moreover, when the world is approaching towards modernization, worse the condition of women and girls in our society. This paper examines how the rights of women are being violated and suggests the remedial measures to empower women. Powerlessness of women is the root cause of violence has been specifically addressed.

Keywords: domestic violence, cruelty, dowry, statutes

Procedia PDF Downloads 257