Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5577

Search results for: women experience

5577 Reasons and Implications of the Use of Social Media by Kuwaiti Women

Authors: Bashayer Alsana

Abstract:

Communication technologies are changing the way we experience life. More specifically, such technologies have changed the interaction system through which women express themselves. Interaction with the other gender, accessibility to useful content, and creative public expression are but a few facets of the new living experience now being offered to women through the use of technology, especially in areas where females are bounded by societal taboos and traditions. An evaluation of the new female experience of expressing themselves through technology is yet to be done. This study aims to fill the void of research conducted around that topic. The study explores women’s use of communication technologies in Kuwait in terms of reasons and effects. women’s responses to survey questions present an overview of the new and changing female experience in this traditional middle eastern country, and draws a framework through which implications and suggestions for future research are discussed to better serve the advancement of women in developing countries.

Keywords: communications, kuwait, social media, women

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5576 Nakunan: An Exploratory Study on Filipino Mothers' Experience of Miscarriage

Authors: Micaella L. Gonzales, Joanne C. Alonzo, Nizza E. Regalado, Rosary L. Valenzuela

Abstract:

Culture functions as a lens through which individuals experience universal phenomena. This study explored Filipino mothers’ experience of miscarriage, or having been ‘nakunan’ - a colloquial term for fetal death. In addition, this study also aims to establish an understanding of the concept in Filipino society. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 Filipino women who had experienced miscarriage. Following thematic analysis, there emerged several themes within certain aspects (i.e. physical, psychological, inter-relational) of a woman’s life closely intertwined the experience, further reiterating the multidimensionality of the experience. Results show that Filipino values of family-centeredness and religiosity played a big part in women’s experiences. Family-centeredness was seen interwoven in the women’s self-concept and interrelations with others following her miscarriage, and religiosity came into play in the women’s personal definitions, perceived causes, and coping with what had happened to them.

Keywords: bereavement, fetal death, Filipino mothers, miscarriage

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
5575 Gender Based Violence and Women’s Health

Authors: Sangita Bharati

Abstract:

Violence against women is now well recognised as a public health problem and human rights violation of worldwide significance. It is an important risk factor for women's ill health, with far reaching consequences for both their physical and mental health. Gender based violence takes many forms and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm to the women throughout their lives. Gender based violence often manifests unequal power relation between men and women in society and the secondary status of the women because of which women have to suffer a range of health problems in silence. This paper will aim at describing a few problems related to women’s health which are directly linked to their experience as victims of gender based violence.

Keywords: violence, health, women, society

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5574 Afghan Women’s Definitions, Perceptions and Experience of Domestic Violence, a Qualitative Study with Afghan Women in Australia

Authors: Rojan Afrouz

Abstract:

The main aim of this study is understanding Afghan women’s perception of domestic violence and their experience of abuse by their family members. The voice of Afghan women has not been heard much particularly in Australia. Their families and communities have silenced some of them in the name of family honour and reputation, and others have not had the opportunity to talk about the issue. Although domestic violence is an issue in every country, research suggests that this is more likely to be considered acceptable behaviour in Afghanistan than elsewhere. Given the high public visibility of initiatives which aim to tackle domestic violence in Australia, it is entirely possible that Afghan women’s perceptions and beliefs about domestic violence will have changed since their arrival in this country. Thus, their understandings, perceptions and their experience of domestic violence have been investigated to improve the Afghan women’s situation in Australia. Methods: This qualitative study has been conducted among Afghan women who have lived in Australia less than ten years. Semi-structured interviews either face to face or by phone have been used to collect data for this study. The interviews have been audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Nvivo software has been used for data analysis. Findings: Participants’ definitions of domestic violence vary. They defined domestic violence in relation to their educational levels, their personal life and experience of domestic violence. Some women tended to change the definitions to be more relevant to their own life and experience. Many women had the knowledge of different domestic violence acts that have been distinguished as violent acts in Australia or other western countries. Some of the participants stated that they had the experience of domestic violence from their partner or one of the family members. Those who have been abused, their experiences were diverse and had been perpetrated by different family members. Majority of participants revealed the story of other women in their family and community that have been abused. Conclusion: Moving to Australia helped women to be aware of the issues and recognising that they are in the abusive relationships. However, intersecting multiple identities in a complex system of oppression, domination or discrimination makes the experience of domestic violence more complicated among Afghan community in Australia that cannot be addressed easily.

Keywords: domestic violence, intersectionality, immigration, afghan women

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5573 A Study of the Impact of Discrimination Experience on Life Satisfaction in Korean Women with Severe Disabilities

Authors: Soungwan Kim

Abstract:

The present study analyzed the effect of discrimination experience on the life satisfaction in women with severe disabilities and the mediating effect of disability acceptance. In verifying this mediating effect of disability acceptance between discrimination experience and life satisfaction, both discrimination experience and disability acceptance were found to be statistically significant in the first and second phases. Disability acceptance was found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between discrimination experience and life satisfaction. Based on this finding, measures for enhancing the quality of life in individuals with disabilities that experience low levels of life satisfaction were proposed.

Keywords: disability discrimination, disability acceptance, life satisfaction, mediating effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
5572 Women's Employment Issues in Georgia and Solutions Based on European Experience

Authors: N. Damenia, E. Kharaishvili, N. Sagareishvili, M. Saghareishvili

Abstract:

Women's Employment is one of the most important issues in the global economy. The article discusses the stated topic in Georgia, through historical content, Soviet experience, and modern perspectives. The paper discusses segmentation insa terms of employment and related problems. Based on statistical analysis, women's unemployment rate and its factors are analyzed. The level of employment of women in Transcaucasia (Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) is discussed and is compared with Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia). The study analyzes women’s level of development, according to the average age of marriage and migration level. The focus is on Georgia's Association Agreement with the EU in 2014, which includes economic, social, trade and political issues. One part of it is gender equality at workplaces. According to the research, the average monthly remuneration of women managers in the financial and insurance sector equaled to 1044.6 Georgian Lari, while in overall business sector average monthly remuneration equaled to 961.1 GEL. Average salaries are increasing; however, the employment rate remains problematic. For example, in 2017, 74.6% of men and 50.8% of women were employed from a total workforce. It is also interesting that the proportion of men and women at managerial positions is 29% (women) to 71% (men). Based on the results, the main recommendation for government and civil society is to consider women as a part of the country’s economic development. In this aspect, the experience of developed countries should be considered. It is important to create additional jobs in urban or rural areas and help migrant women return and use their working resources properly.

Keywords: employment of women, segregation in terms of employment, women's employment level in Transcaucasia, migration level

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5571 Women's Concerns in Disasters at Family Level in Iranian Context

Authors: Maryam Nakhaei, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Mitra Moodi, Leila Daddoust

Abstract:

Although individuals (men and women) experience disasters in different ways, because of important women’s roles in the family, we aim to shed more light on their issues in doing family. In this report, we present an overview of the main qualitative and quantitative findings of different projects have been conducted in the regions affected by disaster in Iran. This paper explores women’s needs and experiences after disaster at the family level in 'disaster response behavior', 'personal health' including reproductive health and needs of pregnant women, 'livelihood responsibilities', and 'marital relationships'. This clarification can help not only to ensure that their needs are adequately addressed but also to plan family based strategies which consider their strengths.

Keywords: disaster, family, women, Iran

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5570 Muslim Husbands’ Participation in Women’s Health and Illness: A Descriptive Exploratory Study Applied to Muslim Women in Indonesia

Authors: Restuning Widiasih, Katherine Nelson, Joan Skinner

Abstract:

Muslim husbands have significant roles in the family including their roles in women’s health and illness. However, studies that explore Muslim husbands’ participation in women’s health is limited. The objective of this study was to uncover Muslim husbands’ participation in women’ health and illness including cancer prevention and screening. A descriptive exploratory approach was used involving 20 Muslim women from urban and rural areas of West Java Province, Indonesia. Muslim women shared experience related to their husbands support and activities in women’s health and illness. The data from the interviews were analyzed using the Comparative Analysis for Interview (CAI). Women perceived that husbands fully supported their health by providing opportunities for activities, and reminding them about healthy food, their workloads, and family planning. Husbands actively involved when women faced health issues including sharing knowledge and experience, discussing any health problems, advising for medical check-ups, and accompanying them for treatments. The analysis also found that husbands were less active and offered less advice regarding prevention and early detection of cancer. This study highlights the significant involvement of Muslim husbands in women’s health and illness, yet a lack of support from husbands related to screening and cancer prevention. This condition could be a burden for Muslim women to participate in health programs related to cancer prevention and early detection. Health education programs to improve Muslim husbands’ understanding of women’s health is needed.

Keywords: descriptive exploratory study, Muslim husbands, Muslim women, women's health and illness

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5569 Sexual Behaviours among Iranian Men and Women Aged 15 to 49 Years in Metropolitan Tehran, Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Mahnaz Motamedi, Mohammad Shahbazi, Shahrzad Rahimi-Naghani, Mehrdad Salehi

Abstract:

Introduction and Aim: This study assessed sexual behaviours among men and women aged 15 to 49 years in Tehran. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 755 men and women aged 15 to 49 years who were residents of Tehran. To select the participants, a multistage, cluster, random sampling method was used and included different regions of Tehran. The data were collected using the WHO-endorsed Questionnaire of Sexual and Reproductive Health. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS version 20. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) behaviours was a scale variable that was constructed from items of six sections: sexual experiences, characteristics of the first sexual partner, characteristics of the first intercourse, next sexual contact and the consequences of the first sexual contact, homosexual experiences and the causes of sexual abstinence. Results: The mean age at the time of sexual intercourse with penetration (vaginal, anal) was 19.88 in men and 21.82 in women. Multivariate analysis using linear regression showed that by controlling for other variables, gender had a significant relationship with having sexual experience, mean age of first sexual intercourse, and being multi-partner. Thus, women with sexual experience were 0.158 units less than men. The mean age of first intercourse in women was 1.57 units higher than men and being a multi-partner in women was 0.247 less than men (P < 0.001). Sexual experience in very religious and relatively religious individuals was 0.332 and 0.218 units less than those for whom religion did not matter (P < 0.001). 25.6% of men and 40.7% of women who did not have sexual experience at the time of the study stated that their reason for abstinence was their unwillingness to have sex (P < 0.05). 35.9% of men and 16.5% of women stated that the reason for abstinence was not providing a suitable opportunity (P < 0.001). 4.7% of men and 1.7% of women had sexual attraction to the same sex. The difference between men and women was significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Sexual relation is also present in singles and younger groups and is not limited to married or final marriage candidates. Therefore, more evaluation should be done in national research and interventions for sexual and reproductive health services should be done at the macro level of policy making.

Keywords: sexual behaviours, Iranian men and women, Iran, cross-sectional study

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5568 Age at Menarche and Menopause among Bidi Workers Women of Sagar District of Central India

Authors: Arun Kumar

Abstract:

For the present study a total of 219 women, from urban and rural areas of Sagar district of central India were selected. The mean age at menarche of rural women was found 13.89±1.17 years and for urban women, it was 13.78±1.12 years. The difference between the mean age at menarche of urban and rural women was statistically insignificant (t=0.580, p≤0.05). Mean age at menopause among rural women was (47.4±4.92). The difference between the mean of urban and rural women was statistically insignificant (t=0.739 and p≤0.05). These findings indicate that rural women experience menopause at a later age as compared to their urban counterparts.

Keywords: menarche, menopause, urban, rural, Bidi workers

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5567 Correlates of Work-Family Role Conflict and Well-Being: A Comparative Analysis by Gender

Authors: Liat Kulik

Abstract:

The main goal of the present study was to examine gender differences in the variables that explain the experience of role conflict and well-being among Jewish working fathers and mothers in the Israel. The experience of work-family conflict arises from simultaneous pressures from the work and family domains that are mutually incompatible. In light of the expansion of women's role set following the addition of paid employment outside of the home, most of the studies dealing with the impact of multiple roles on well-being have been conducted among women. However, changes in gender roles in recent years have also affected men's role set, as reflected in the terms ‘new men’ and ‘new fathers’. Based on structural equation modeling, the study examined gender differences in variables that explain the experience of two types of role conflict – family interferes with work (FIW) and work interferes with family (WIF), as well as with the sense of well-being (positive and negative affect) among 611 employed Jewish mothers and fathers in Israel. The findings revealed that for women, both FIW and WIF conflict correlated negatively with well-being, whereas for men, a negative correlation with well-being was found only in the case of FIW conflict. For both men and women, egalitarian gender role ideology correlated with the dimension of positive effect, but the correlation was stronger for men. The findings highlight the contribution of egalitarian gender role ideology to alleviating the experience of role conflict and improving the emotional well-being of both men and women. Contrary to expectations, social support contributed more to mitigating negative effect among men than women. On the whole, the findings highlight the changes that men have experienced in the work-family system. In sum, the research findings shed new light on the masculine image in terms of the experience of FIW conflict. In contrast to the prevailing assumption that FIW role conflict is predominant among women, the findings of this study indicate that today, this type of role conflict is experienced equally by men and women whereas WIF conflict is predominant among men. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, levels of perceived social support were found to be similar for men and women, and men benefited from it even more than women did.

Keywords: FIW conflict, WIF conflict, social support, egalitarian gender role ideology, overload

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5566 Women Executives' Career Success in the Office of the Basic Education

Authors: Nipon Sasithornsaowapa

Abstract:

This research aims to study the impact of personality and family status on women executives’ career success of the primary education department of Thailand. The independent variable includes three factors, namely family status, personality, and knowledge-skill-experience, while the dependent variable is the career success. The population of this study includes 2,179 female management officials in the department of primary education. A total of 400 female managers is interviewed and utilized as a sample group. A questionnaire is developed and used as a research tool for data collection. Content analysis is performed to get the quantitative data. Descriptive statistics in this research is conducted by SPSS program. The findings revealed that personality and family status of samples have an influence on the overall career success of women executives in terms of their objective career success. However, in terms of specific factors of personality or family status, it is found that there is no relevance of each factor on the women executives’ career success. It can be concluded that the factor affecting the women executives’ career success is subjective career success including the happiness and enjoyment with the job not factor concerning materials. Their success is the result of each individual working experience. However, their personal characteristics do not affect their success.

Keywords: career success, women executives, primary education, knowledge-skill-experience

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5565 Controlling Fear: Jordanian Women’s Perceptions of the Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Rana F. Obeidat, Suzanne S. Dickerson, Gregory G. Homish, Nesreen M. Alqaissi, Robin M. Lally

Abstract:

Background: Despite the fact that breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Jordanian women, practically nothing is known about their perceptions of early stage breast cancer and surgical treatment. Objective: To gain understanding of the diagnosis and surgical treatment experience of Jordanian women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Methods: An interpretive phenomenological approach was used for this study. A purposive sample of 28 Jordanian women who were surgically treated for early stage breast cancer within 6 months of the interview was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Results: Fear had a profound effect on Jordanian women’s stories of diagnosis and surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer. Women’s experience with breast cancer and its treatment was shaped by their pre-existing fear of breast cancer, the disparity in the quality of care at various health care institutions, and sociodemographic factors (e.g., education, age). Conclusions: Early after the diagnosis, fear was very strong and women lost perspective of the fact that this disease was treatable and potentially curable. To control their fears, women unconditionally trusted God, the health care system, surgeons, family, friends, and/or neighbors, and often accepted treatment offered by their surgeons without questioning. Implications for practice: Jordanian healthcare providers have a responsibility to listen to their patients, explore meanings they ascribe to their illness, and provide women with proper education and support necessary to help them cope with their illness.

Keywords: breast cancer, early stage, Jordanian, experience, phenomenology

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5564 Disclosing a Patriarchal Society: A Socio-Legal Study on the Indigenous Women's Involvement in Natural Resources Management in Kasepuhan Cirompang

Authors: Irena Lucy Ishimora, Eva Maria Putri Salsabila

Abstract:

The constellation on Indonesian Legal System that varies shows a structural injustice – as a result of patriarchy – exists from the biggest range as a country to the smallest such as a family. Women in their lives, carry out excessive responsibilities in the community. However, the unequal positions between men and women in the society restrain women to fulfill their constructed role. Therefore, increasing the chance for women to become the victim of structural injustice. The lack of authority given to women and its effects can be seen through a case study of the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s involvement in natural resources management. The decision to make the Mount Halimun-Salak as a National Park and the expansion itself did not involve nor consider the existence of indigenous people (Kasepuhan Ciromopang) – especially the women’s experience regarding natural resources management – has been significantly impacting the fulfillment of the indigenous women’s rights. Moreover, the adat law that still reflects patriarchy, made matters worse because women are restricted from expressing their opinion. The writers explored the experience of Cirompang indigenous women through in-depth interviews with them and analyzed it with several theories such as ecofeminism, woman’s access to land and legal pluralism. This paper is important to show how the decision and expansion of the National Park reduced the rights of access to land, natural resources, expressing an opinion, and participating in development. Reflecting on the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s conditions on natural resources management, this paper aims to present the implications of the regulations that do not acknowledge Indigenous women’s experience and the proposed solutions. First, there should be an integration between the law regarding indigenous people and traditional rights in a regulation to align the understanding of indigenous people and their rights. Secondly, Indonesia as a country that’s rich with diversity should ratify the ILO Convention no 169 to reaffirm the protection of Indigenous people’s rights. Last, considering the position of indigenous women that still experienced unjustness in the community, the government and NGOs must collaborate to provide adequate assistance for them.

Keywords: Cirompang indigenous women, indigenous women’s rights, structural injustice, women access to land

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5563 Welcome to 'Almanya': Effects of Displacement among Refugee Women

Authors: Carmen Nechita

Abstract:

This research explores the world of Syrian refugee women living in Dresden and their efforts to reconstruct their lives in the state of Saxony in Germany. The focus is on the initial period of adjustment and understanding how refugee women use culture, family ties, and tradition to contest and rebuild new relationships with the host country. Faced with a new status as “the refugee”, women have to re-imagine their ethno-cultural identity in order to cope with life in Diaspora. In order to understand the coping mechanism and the displacement effects on Syrian women, interviews with twelve refugee women were conducted. Traumatic experiences of loss and oppression are at the core of their confessions. While gender violence, abuse and patriarchal framework shape their narratives, this research argues that there is a need to look at this from a cultural perspective and try to distance ourselves from the western paradigm. The way Syrian women refute and rebuild their national and ethno-cultural identity in order to negotiate for themselves new space within German borders is explored. Two discourses are bridged: one of multiculturalism and one of tradition in order to explain how Syrian women experience western notions of family, womanhood and spousal dynamics. The process is painful, traumatic and marked by feelings of low self-worth, but in the end, new codes emerge and these women come out more empowered. The paper includes the migration experience and explores the ways in which Syrian refugee women tend to tell their complex stories, and how they reconstruct their identity in a new territory while faced with a different culture that discriminates against them. During the research, four distinct phases in the acculturation period were identified: “the survival”, “the honeymoon period”, “the isolation period” and “the anger period”. Each phase is analyzed in order to understand what triggers them, how women migrate from one phase to another and what can be done to make the process easier. This paper contributes to the field of refugee studies by offering a thorough understanding of the initial phases of the acculturation process in the case of Syrian refugee women. The study examines the fleeing and settlement experience in order to understand the complex ways that refugee women cope with the traumatic experience of settlement in another country and in a different culture. *Almanya: The Arabic word for Germany.

Keywords: displacement, migration, refugee women, Syria

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5562 The Effect of Emotional Support towards Quality of Work Life on Balinese Working Women

Authors: I. Ketut Yoga Adityawira, Putu Ayu Novia Viorica, Komang Rahayu Indrawati

Abstract:

In addition to work and take care of the family, Balinese women also have a role to participate in social activities in Bali. So this will have an impact on the quality of work life of Balinese women. One way to reduce the impact of the fulfillment of the role of Balinese women namely through emotional support. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women. Data were retrieved by quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest design. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) through SPSS 17.0 for Windows. The number of subjects in this research is 30 people with the criteria: Balinese Women, aged 27 to 55 years old, have a minimum of two years experience of work and has been married. The analysis showed that there is no effect of emotional support towards the quality of work life on Balinese working women, with information there is no significant of probability value p = 0.304 (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Balinese women, emotional support, quality of work life, working women

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5561 Experiences and Impacts of Attachment among Women with Insecure Attachment in Cohabitation: Implications for Therapeutic Practice

Authors: Ka Yan Chan

Abstract:

Cohabitation among couples has been increasingly common in recent decades. Nonetheless, insufficient attention was given to the impact of attachment on cohabitation. This study discussed the experience of cohabitation among women with insecure attachment by collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews. Through thematic analysis, the study explored the characteristics of the women, formation of cohabitation, struggles, coping mechanisms, and the impacts of cohabitation on the women. Moreover, the influences of the family-of-origin on cohabitation and the needs of the women were explored. The findings indicated that insecure attachment and the family-of-origin had significant effects on cohabitation and the interaction among the cohabitating couples. Women with insecure attachment were more likely to enter cohabitation unconsciously and without discussing what cohabitation means for the relationship with their partners. The findings also suggested that committing to marriage was not the only method for the women to feel secure in the relationship. Instead, long-lasting love and care, as well as reliability from their partners, could satisfy their emotional needs. More importantly, the findings revealed that repairing attachment problems and dealing with challenges in life stage transition are associated with positive impacts on the cohabitation experience. Additionally, to meet the needs of diverse family structures and to provide all-rounded support for enhancing the wellbeing of individuals, cohabitants, and couples, a comprehensive intervention model of relationship enrichment was discussed.

Keywords: cohabitation, family-of-origin, insecure attachment, relationship enrichment

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5560 Trauma after Childbirth: The Mediating Effects of Subjective Experience

Authors: Grace Baptie, Jackie Andrade, Alison Bacon, Alyson Norman

Abstract:

Background: Many women experience their childbirth as traumatic, and 4-6% of mothers present with postnatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of their birth. Aims: To measure the relationship between obstetric and subjective experience of childbirth on mothers’ experience of postnatal trauma and identify salient aspects of the birth experience considered traumatic. Methods: Women who had given birth within the last year completed an online mixed-methods survey reporting on their subjective and obstetric birth experience as well as symptoms of postnatal trauma, depression and anxiety. Findings: 29% of mothers experienced their labour as traumatic and 15% met full or partial criteria for PTSD. Feeling supported and in control mediated the relationship between obstetric intervention and postnatal trauma symptoms. Five key themes were identified from the qualitative data regarding aspects of the birth considered traumatic including: obstetric complications; lack of control; concern for baby; psychological trauma and lack of support. Conclusion: Subjective birth experience is a significantly stronger predictor of postnatal trauma than level of medical intervention, the psychological consequences of which can be buffered by an increased level of support and control.

Keywords: birth trauma, perinatal mental health, postnatal PTSD, subjective experience

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5559 A Study of Gender Differences in Expressing Pain

Authors: A. Estaji

Abstract:

The first part of the present paper studies the role of language in expressing pain. Pain is usually described as a personal and mental experience, so language has an important role in describing, expressing and measuring pain and sometimes it is believed that language is the only device for accessing this personal experience. The second part of this paper studies gender differences in expressing pain. Considering the biological, psychological and social differences between men and women, we raise this question whether men and women express their pain in the same way or differently. To answer this question, we asked 44 Farsi speaking participants to write about the most painful experience they had in the past. Qualitative analysis of the data shows that women, have expressed their pain more severely, have expressed their feelings about pain instead of describing the pain itself, have made their pain more personal and have given more details about the circumstances in which they experienced pain, while men have given a more neutral description of their pain and have given a description of their pain by distancing themselves from the painful event. Knowing these gender differences in expressing pain can help medical practitioners in assessing the pain level.

Keywords: discourse analysis, expressing pain, measuring pain, gender

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5558 Crime against Women behind Closed Doors in Indian Society

Authors: Rasha Kumari Panda

Abstract:

The crime against women in closed door is an important burning issue in day to day life. Domestic violence has become daily part of women’s life. It affects the millions of the women throughout the India as it violates their human rights. Crime against women behind closed door is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, discrimination against women moreover, when the world is approaching towards modernization, worse the condition of women and girls in our society. This paper examines how the rights of women are being violated and suggests the remedial measures to empower women. Powerlessness of women is the root cause of violence has been specifically addressed.

Keywords: domestic violence, cruelty, dowry, statutes

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5557 Factors Associated with Unintended Pregnancy amongst Currently Married Pregnant Women in Ilesa Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: O. S. Asaolu, A. Bolorunduro

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Background: Unwanted, mistimed and unintended pregnancy is an important public health issue and the most common cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. Unintended pregnancy is a potential hazard for every sexually active woman as it most times ends in unsafe abortion. The study aimed at assessing the pre-conception contraceptive use, prevalence of unintended pregnancies and the non-contraceptive factors associated with unintended pregnancy amongst currently married women in Osun state. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study among randomly selected 341 currently married pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ilesa town of Osun state was conducted in 5 health facilities. A random selection of 5 of the 22 health facilities in the state was done. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire and all completed questionnaires were analyzed with SPSS. Result: About two-fifth of the currently pregnant women (40%) who has never used an FP method reported that their current pregnancy was unintended. The results indicate that age of women, age at first sex, substance use, total children ever born of children, religion, and extramarital affairs were key predictors of unintended pregnancy. Women who have higher parity are more likely to experience unintended pregnancy compared to women with lower parity (odds ratio, 0.25). Furthermore, those women who don’t engage in extra marital affairs were less likely to experience unintended pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.3) compared to those who do not. Contribution to knowledge: The predicted probability, using logistic regression, has shown that women who engage in extramarital affairs and women with high parity are more likely to have unintended pregnancy. Conclusion: Behaviour change programs should aim to reduce unintended pregnancy by focusing mostly on identified factors so that the need for abortion is decreased and the overall well-being of the family is maintained and enhanced.

Keywords: unintended pregnancy, factors, pregnant women, Nigeria

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5556 Learning and Rethinking Language through Gendered Experiences

Authors: Neha Narayanan

Abstract:

The paper tries to explore the role of language in determining spaces occupied by women in everyday lives. It is inspired from an ongoing action research work which employs ‘immersion’- arriving at a research problematic through community research, as a methodology in a Kondh adivasi village, Kirkalpadu located in Rayagada district of the Indian state of Odisha. In the dominant development discourse, language is associated with either preservation or conservation of endangered language or empowerment through language. Beyond these, is the discourse of language as a structure, with the hegemonic quality to organise lifeworld in a specific manner. This rigid structure leads to an experience of constriction of space for women. In Kirkalpadu, the action research work is with young and unmarried women of the age 15-25. During daytime, these women are either in the agricultural field or in the bari -the backyard of the house whose rooms are linearly arranged one after the other ending with the kitchen followed by an open space called bari (in Odia) which is an intimate and gendered space- where they are not easily visible. They justify the experience of restriction in mobility and fear of moving out of the village alone by the argument that the place and the men are nihi-aaeh (not good). These women, who have dropped out of school early to contribute to the (surplus) labour requirement in the household, want to learn English to be able to read signboards when they are on the road, to be able to fill forms at a bank and use mobile phones to communicate with their romantic partner(s). But the incapacity to have within one’s grasp the province of language and the incapacity to take the mobile phone to the kind of requirements marked by the above mentioned impossible transactions with space restricts them to the bari of the house. The paper concludes by seeking to explore the possibilities of learning and rethinking languages which takes into cognizance the gendered experience of women and the desire of women to cross the borders and occupy spaces restricted to them.

Keywords: action research, gendered experience, language, space

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5555 Experience of Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Status of Women of Reproductive Age Group in a Rural Community in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ayodeji Adebayo, Tolulope Soyannwo, Oluwakemi A. Sigbeku

Abstract:

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with adverse health consequences. There is increasing evidence of association of IPV with mental health problems. Understanding the association between IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in the rural communities in Nigeria can provide information to improve maternal health status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between experience of IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted using a cluster sampling technique to select 283 non-pregnant women of reproductive age group (15-49 years Mental health was assessed based on respondents’ experience of any symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or low self-esteem. IPV was assessed over a period of 12 months and the forms of IPV assessed were emotional, physical and sexual. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on experience of IPV, reproductive history and factors influencing mental health. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression at 5% level of significance. The mean age of respondents was 26.1± 7.8 with 57.1% aged 15-24years. More than half (58.0%) were married. Overall, 60.7% of respondents had mental health problems while 84.8% experienced all categories of violence. The pattern of IPV includes physical violence (10.7%), emotional violence (82.7%) and sexual violence (20.8%). Women who experienced sexual violence by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental issues. Also, gynaecological morbidities are associated with increasing risk of mental health problems. The research demonstrates an urgent need for mental health policies to recognize the relationship between intimate partner violence, gynaecological morbidities and mental health problems in women in Nigeria.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, mental health, reproductive age group, women

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5554 An Interview and PhotoVoice Exploration of Sexual Education Provision to Women with Physical Disability and Potential Experiences of Violence

Authors: D. Beckwith

Abstract:

This research explored sexual identity for women with physical disability, both congenital and acquired. It also explored whether exposure to violence or negative risk-taking had played a role in their intimate relationships. This phenomenological research used semi-structured interviews and photo elicitation with the researcher’s insider knowledge adding experiential substance and understanding to the discussion. Findings confirm sexuality for women with physical disability is marginalised and de-gendered making it less of a priority for professionals and policy makers and emphasising the need to more effectively support women with disability in relation to their sexuality, sexual expression and violence.

Keywords: lived-experience, identity, PhotoVoice, sexuality, violence, women with physical disability

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5553 Becoming a Shakti: An Analysis of Western Women's Experiences of Tantra Practices

Authors: Caroline Jones

Abstract:

Research over the last decade suggests that there have been distinct changes in both women’s sexual behaviour and attitudes towards female sexuality in the UK. Areas such as discussing sex, participating in sexual activity outside of traditional monogamous relationships, and engaging in boudoir photography have all been explored by researchers. Women’s participation in tantric practices, however, is a relatively unexplored area of sexuality, despite an increasing number of Tantra schools opening in the UK. Tantra is a practice in which women are considered to have a higher consciousness than men, where the sexual role of women is deemed to be very different to a traditional Western sexually passive role. This research looks at this area, and is based on in-depth, semi-structured, thematically analysed interviews with women who have participated in tantric workshops and/or retreats across the country. The interviews investigate why women engage with such practices, what they feel they gain from the experience, and how shifting notions of appropriate sexual roles for women impact on their sexuality and life generally. While Tantra is still a minority activity in the UK, the findings shed light on not only these areas but also on women’s constructions of their sexuality, their relationships with their bodies and sexualities, and ways in which they express and engage with changing notions of female sexuality.

Keywords: sexuality, Tantra, gender, Shakti

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5552 Women's Menstrual Experience in India: A Psycho-Social Approach

Authors: Bhavna Rajagopal, Mrinmoyi Kulkarni

Abstract:

Today women experience more menstrual cycles than their ancestors did a hundred years ago, owing to early puberty, fewer pregnancies and dietary changes. Much of the research in menstruation is located in the medical domain with a focus on physical symptoms. The research in psychology is largely concerned with premenstrual syndrome (PMS), whereas the focus in sociology is on social and cultural practices relating to menstruation. Research that simultaneously studies the physical, psychological, social and cultural aspects is lacking. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to identify socio-cultural, psychological and physical factors that interact to influence a woman’s experience of menstruation in the urban setting. The study included seven unmarried women in the age group of 24-30 and data was obtained through a focus group discussion. The transcript of the focus group discussion was thematically analysed. Two major themes relating to the self and social experience of menstruation emerged. Themes relating to the self included menarcheal experiences, self-perception, mood and management of menstrual hygiene and symptoms while themes relating to social experience included the construction of menstruation by family and peers, and cultural factors. Attitudes towards the menstrual cycle appeared to be primarily influenced by severity of symptoms and the resulting disruption to daily life. Outcomes of this study have indicated that future research needs to study menstruation and its impact on women’s wellbeing by adopting a socio-ecological approach and by collecting data using the whole cycle approach across a woman’s reproductive years.

Keywords: India, menstrual cycle, psychosocial approach, wellbeing

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5551 Comparison of Women’s Political Participation in Korea and China

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison of women’s political participation in Korea and China. Korean women are participated more in higher education. As the economic development and the women's social participation can enhance the possibility of women's political participation in advanced democratic countries, in Asian countries such as Korea and China in which Confucianism prohibited women to participate in public life and the process of nation building is different from western countries, the political power takes an initiative to implement policies for women's participation in politics and for women's consciousness.

Keywords: korea, china, women, political participation

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5550 Premature Menopause among Women in India: Evidence from National Family Health Survey-IV

Authors: Trupti Meher, Harihar Sahoo

Abstract:

Premature menopause refers to the occurrence of menopause before the age of 40 years. Women who experience premature menopause either due to biological or induced reasons have a longer duration of exposure to severe symptoms and adverse health consequences when compared to those who undergo menopause at a later age, despite the fact that premature menopause has a profound effect on the health of women. This study attempted to determine the prevalence and predictors of premature menopause among women aged 25-39 years, using data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) conducted during 2015–16 in India. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were used to carry out the result. The results revealed that the prevalence of premature menopause in India was 3.7 percent. Out of which, 2.1 percent of women had experienced natural premature menopause, whereas 1.7 percent had premature surgical menopause. The prevalence of premature menopause was highest in the southern region of India. Further, results of the multivariate model indicated that rural women, women with higher parity, early age at childbearing and women with smoking habits were at a greater risk of premature menopause. A sizeable proportion of women in India are attaining menopause prematurely. Unless due attention is given to this matter, it will emerge as a major problem in India in the future. The study also emphasized the need for further research to enhance knowledge on the problems of premature menopausal women in different socio-cultural settings in India.

Keywords: India, natural menopause, premature menopause, surgical menopause

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5549 Black Protests in Poland: Analysis of Women's Movement in Poland, 2016-2018

Authors: Aneta Ostaszewska

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to reflect on 'black protests' of women in Poland. 'Black protests' have been organized nationwide since October 2016 as a sign of opposition and resistance to anti-women government’s policy and its attempts to exacerbate abortion law. Women protest not only in the biggest cities (Warsaw, Cracow or Wroclaw) but in over 140 towns and villages all over Poland. The research represents qualitative methodological approach – an active research method. It has involved the observation, description, and analysis of 'black protests' carried out mainly in Warsaw (the capital of Poland). The focus has been on behavior and attitudes of protesting women: protesters’ slogans, statements, and views, the ways of dressing up, ways of participating and involvement in protests. Research also involves the analysis of social media discourse: the analysis of content published by women on social media. Black protests are an example of a grassroots social initiative of women in Poland. What unites women is opposition to government policy. The primary space of communication has become the Internet – especially social media (Facebook). A new social movement 'Dziewuchy dziewuchom' (Girls for girls) has been born as well as organization of 'Ogolnopolski Strajk Kobiet' (Nationwide women's strike) as a result of 'black protest'. These protests and marches became a way of emphasizing women’s subjectivity as well as political and civic activity.

Keywords: women, black protests, communitas, experience, Poland, abortion law

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5548 Childbirth Experiences Through the Lens of Vulnerable Women in Ecuador During the First Peak of COVID-19

Authors: Maria D. Gangotena

Abstract:

Objective: To understand the childbirth experiences and perceptions on skin-to-skin contact of vulnerable women impacted by the closure of public health services in Conocoto, Ecuador, during the first peak of COVID-19 (March 15th - June 15th, 2020). Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of twenty-six women who gave birth in a public health facility and live in Conocoto-Ecuador. The method used was a focus group facilitated during the summer of 2021. Each session was transcribed verbatim, and content and thematic analysis were performed. Results: Through critical pedagogy, women talked about their childbirth experiences during the first peak of the pandemic. The themes resulting from the data analysis were identified as four -The impact of the pandemic; the childbirth experience; skin-to-skin contact and immediate breastfeeding; lifelong learning, and resilience. And three subthemes -Social and economic environment, public health resource, and mental health. Most of the participants in the study lived a challenging childbirth experience. The women mentioned the complex economic and social environment of that community. The participants perceived a lack of resources at public health facilities, which affected the childbirth experience. The participants reported adverse consequences on mental health. They also said that they did not have access to breastfeeding counselling, and they could not have an enjoyable skin-to-skin contact with their newborns o lack of it. The participants reflect on the lifelong learning acquired during this challenging time and the resulting resilience. Conclusion: The preliminary findings suggest that a group of vulnerable women living in Conocoto-Ecuador, experienced health inequity and intersectionality when giving childbirth at public health services. They were not able to do skin-to-skin contact during the first peak of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, vulnerable women, childbirth, skin-to-skin contact, resilience

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