Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 218

Search results for: web forensic

218 Forensic Imaging as an Effective Learning Tool for Teaching Forensic Pathology to Undergraduate Medical Students

Authors: Vasudeva Murthy Challakere Ramaswamy

Abstract:

Background: Conventionally forensic pathology is learnt through autopsy demonstrations which carry various limitations such as unavailability of cases in the mortuary, medico-legal implication and infection. Over the years forensic pathology and science has undergone significant evolution in this digital world. Forensic imaging is a technology which can be effectively utilized for overcoming the current limitations in the undergraduate learning of forensic curriculum. Materials and methods: demonstration of forensic imaging was done using a novel technology of autopsy which has been recently introduced across the globe. Three sessions were conducted in international medical university for a total of 196 medical students. The innovative educational tool was evacuated by using quantitative questionnaire with the scoring scales between 1 to 10. Results: The mean score for acceptance of new tool was 82% and about 74% of the students recommended incorporation of the forensic imaging in the regular curriculum. 82% of students were keen on collaborative research and taking further training courses in forensic imaging. Conclusion: forensic imaging can be an effective tool and also a suitable alternative for teaching undergraduate students. This feedback also supports the fact that students favour the use of contemporary technologies in learning medicine.

Keywords: forensic imaging, forensic pathology, medical students, learning tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
217 An Enhanced Digital Forensic Model for Internet of Things Forensic

Authors: Tina Wu, Andrew Martin

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The expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) brings a new level of threat. Attacks on IoT are already being used by criminals to form botnets, launch Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) and distribute malware. This opens a whole new digital forensic arena to develop forensic methodologies in order to have the capability to investigate IoT related crimes. However, existing proposed IoT forensic models are still premature requiring further improvement and validation, many lack details on the acquisition and analysis phase. This paper proposes an enhanced theoretical IoT digital forensic model focused on identifying and acquiring the main sources of evidence in a methodical way. In addition, this paper presents a theoretical acquisition framework of the different stages required in order to be capable of acquiring evidence from IoT devices.

Keywords: acquisition, Internet of Things, model, zoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
216 Corruption and Economic Performance in Nigeria: The Role of Forensic Accounting

Authors: Jamila Garba Audu, Peter Adamu

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This study investigates the role of forensic accounting in the fight against corruption in Nigeria for better utilization of public funds and economic growth and development of the Country. We adopted a trend analysis to show the performance of the Nigerian economy as well as the quality of institutions which government economic and political activities in the country. It is an established fact that Nigeria has performed badly since the 1960s to date in terms of institutional quality and economic development despite large amount of money obtained from the export of crude oil. It was revealed also that the fight against corruption has not been very successful in recent times because experts in the field of forensic accounting have not been utilized. With the successes recorded in dealing with fraud and embezzlement using forensic accounting, it has become imperative for the EFCC to use forensic accountants in the fight against corruption in the country. Also, there is the need to introduce very seriously, the teaching of forensic accounting in Nigerian Universities to train experts.

Keywords: corruption, economic performance, forensic accounting, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
215 Importance of New Policies of Process Management for Internet of Things Based on Forensic Investigation

Authors: Venkata Venugopal Rao Gudlur

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The Proposed Policies referred to as “SOP”, on the Internet of Things (IoT) based Forensic Investigation into Process Management is the latest revolution to save time and quick solution for investigators. The forensic investigation process has been developed over many years from time to time it has been given the required information with no policies in investigation processes. This research reveals that the current IoT based forensic investigation into Process Management based is more connected to devices which is the latest revolution and policies. All future development in real-time information on gathering monitoring is evolved with smart sensor-based technologies connected directly to IoT. This paper present conceptual framework on process management. The smart devices are leading the way in terms of automated forensic models and frameworks established by different scholars. These models and frameworks were mostly focused on offering a roadmap for performing forensic operations with no policies in place. These initiatives would bring a tremendous benefit to process management and IoT forensic investigators proposing policies. The forensic investigation process may enhance more security and reduced data losses and vulnerabilities.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Process Management, Forensic Investigation, M2M Framework

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214 The Conception of Implementation of Vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania

Authors: Eglė Bilevičiūtė, Vidmantas Egidijus Kurapka, Snieguolė Matulienė, Sigutė Stankevičiūtė

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The Council of European Union (EU Council) has stressed on several occasions the need for a concerted, comprehensive and effective solution to delinquency problems in EU communities. In the context of establishing a European Forensic Science Area and the development of forensic science infrastructure in Europe, EU Council believes that forensic science can significantly contribute to the efficiency of law enforcement, crime prevention and combating crimes. Lithuanian scientists have consolidated to implement a project named “Conception of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 implementation in Lithuania” (the project is funded for the period of 1 March 2014 - 31 December 2016) with the objective to create a conception of implementation of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania by 1) evaluating the current status of Lithuania’s forensic system and opportunities for its improvement; 2) analysing achievements and knowledge in investigation of crimes listed in conclusions of EU Council on the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 including creation of a European Forensic Science Area and the development of forensic science infrastructure in Europe: trafficking in human beings, organised crime and terrorism; 3) analysing conceptions of criminalistics, which differ in different EU member states due to the variety of forensic schools, and finding means for their harmonization. Apart from the conception of implementation of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania, the project is expected to suggest provisions that will be relevant to other EU countries as well. Consequently, the presented conception of implementation of vision for European Forensic Science 2020 in Lithuania could initiate a project for a common vision of European Forensic Science and contribute to the development of the EU as an area of freedom, security and justice. The article presents main ideas of the project of the conception of the vision for European Forensic Science 2020 of EU Council and analyses its legal background, as well as prospects of and challenges for its implementation in Lithuania and the EU.

Keywords: EUROVIFOR, standardization, vision for European Forensic Science 2020, Lithuania

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
213 Financial Statement Fraud: The Need for a Paradigm Shift to Forensic Accounting

Authors: Ifedapo Francis Awolowo

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The unrelenting series of embarrassing audit failures should stimulate a paradigm shift in accounting. And in this age of information revolution, there is need for a constant improvement on the products or services one offers to the market in order to be relevant. This study explores the perceptions of external auditors, forensic accountants and accounting academics on whether a paradigm shift to forensic accounting can reduce financial statement frauds. Through Neo-empiricism/inductive analytical approach, findings reveal that a paradigm shift to forensic accounting might be the right step in the right direction in order to increase the chances of fraud prevention and detection in the financial statement. This research has implication on accounting education on the need to incorporate forensic accounting into present day accounting curriculum. Accounting professional bodies, accounting standard setters and accounting firms all have roles to play in incorporating forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum. Particularly, there is need to alter the ISA 240 to make the prevention and detection of frauds the responsibilities of bot those charged with the management and governance of companies and statutory auditors.

Keywords: financial statement fraud, forensic accounting, fraud prevention and detection, auditing, audit expectation gap, corporate governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
212 Adoption and Diffusion of Valuation Standards in the Forensic Accounting Community and in Courts: Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors

Authors: Matteo Manera, Mariateresa Torchia, Gregory Moscato

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Forensic accounting is a hot subject of research in accounting. Valuation remains one of the major topics for practitioners. Valuation standards are a powerful instrument that can contribute to a fair process: their use aims at reducing subjectivity and arbitrary decisions in courts. In most jurisdictions, valuation standards are not the law: forensic accountants are not obliged to use valuation standards when they perform valuation works for judges. To date, as far as we know, no literature work has investigated adoption and diffusion of valuation standards in the forensic accounting space. In this paper, we analyze the spread of valuation standards through the lenses of isomorphism and -as corollaries- of Agency Theory and Signaling Theory. Because of lack of research in the particular area of valuation standards adoption, the present work relies on qualitative, exploratory research, based on semi-structured interviews conducted (up to saturation) with expert forensic accountants. Our work digs into motivations behind adoption and diffusion, as well into perceptions of forensic accountants around benefits of valuation standards and into barriers to their diffusion: the result is that, while the vast majority of forensic accountants praise the great work of the standards setters in introducing valuation standards, it might be that less than 50% of forensic accountants actually use valuation standards, in courts. Our preliminary findings, to be supported or refuted by future research, lead us to address a “trilogy” of recommendations to the stakeholders involved in the process of adoption and diffusion of valuation standards in courts.

Keywords: forensic accounting, valuation standards, adoption of standards, motivations, benefits, barriers, Isomorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
211 Filtering and Reconstruction System for Grey-Level Forensic Images

Authors: Ahd Aljarf, Saad Amin

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Images are important source of information used as evidence during any investigation process. Their clarity and accuracy is essential and of the utmost importance for any investigation. Images are vulnerable to losing blocks and having noise added to them either after alteration or when the image was taken initially, therefore, having a high performance image processing system and it is implementation is very important in a forensic point of view. This paper focuses on improving the quality of the forensic images. For different reasons packets that store data can be affected, harmed or even lost because of noise. For example, sending the image through a wireless channel can cause loss of bits. These types of errors might give difficulties generally for the visual display quality of the forensic images. Two of the images problems: noise and losing blocks are covered. However, information which gets transmitted through any way of communication may suffer alteration from its original state or even lose important data due to the channel noise. Therefore, a developed system is introduced to improve the quality and clarity of the forensic images.

Keywords: image filtering, image reconstruction, image processing, forensic images

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
210 Proposition on Improving Environmental Forensic System in China

Authors: Huilei Wang, Yuanfeng Wang

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In the early period of China, economy developed rapidly at the cost of environment. Recently, it is generally recognized that the heavily polluted environment not only puts a brake on economic development but also paces negative impact on people’ health as well as probably next decades of generations. Accordingly, the latest Environmental Protection Law revised in 2014 makes a clear-cut division of environmental responsibility and regulates stricter penalties of breaching law. As the new environmental law is enforced gradually, environmental forensic is increasingly required in the process of ascertaining facts in judicial proceedings of environmental cases. Based on the outcomes of documentary analysis for all environmental cases judged on the basis of new environmental law, it is concluded that there still exists problems in present system of environmental forensic. Thus, this paper is aimed to make proposition on improving Chinese environmental forensic system, which involves: (i) promoting capability of environmental forensic system (EFS) to handle professional questions; (ii) develop price mechanism; (iii) multi-departments cooperate to establish unifying and complete EFS system;(iv) enhance the probative value of results of EFS. Such protocol for amending present regulation on environmental forensic is of significant importance because a quality report of environmental forensic will contributes to providing strong probative evidence of culprits’ activity of releasing contaminant into environment, degree of damages for victims and above all, causality between the behavior of public nuisance and damages.

Keywords: China, environmental cases, environmental forensic system, proposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
209 The Forensic Analysis of Engravers' Handwriting

Authors: Olivia Rybak-Karkosz

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The purpose of this paper is to present the result of scientific research using forensic handwriting analysis. It was conducted to verify the stability and lability of handwriting of engravers and check if gravers transfer their traits from handwriting to plates and other surfaces they rework. This research methodology consisted of completing representative samples of signatures of gravers written on a piece of paper using a ballpen and signatures engraved on other surfaces. The forensic handwriting analysis was conducted using the graphic-comparative method (graphic method), and all traits were analysed. The paper contains a concluding statement of the similarities and differences between the samples.

Keywords: artist’s signatures, engraving, forensic handwriting analysis, graphic-comparative method

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208 The Forensic Handwriting Analysis of a Painter’s Signature: Claude Monet’s Case

Authors: Olivia Rybak-Karkosz

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This paper's purpose was to present a case study on a questioned Claude Monet's signature forensic handwriting analysis. It is an example taken from the author’s experience as a court handwriting expert. A comparative study was conducted to determine whether the signature resembles similarities (and if so, to what measure) with the features representing the writing patterns and their natural variability typical for Claude Monet. It was conducted to check whether all writing features are within the writer's normal range of variation. The paper emphasizes the difficulties and challenges encountered by the forensic handwriting expert while analysing the questioned signature.

Keywords: artist’s signatures, authenticity of an artwork, forensic handwriting analysis, graphic-comparative method

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207 DNA as an Instrument in Constructing Narratives and Justice in Criminal Investigations: A Socio-Epistemological Exploration

Authors: Aadita Chaudhury

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Since at least the early 2000s, DNA profiling has achieved a preeminent status in forensic investigations into criminal acts. While the criminal justice system has a long history of using forensic evidence and testing them through establish technoscientific means, the primacy of DNA in establishing 'truth' or reconstructing a series of events is unparalleled in the history of forensic science. This paper seeks to elucidate the ways in which DNA profiling has become the most authoritative instrument of 'truth' in criminal investigations, and how it is used in the legal process to ascertain culpability, create the notion of infallible evidence, and advance the search for justice. It is argued that DNA profiling has created a paradigm shift in how the legal system and the general public understands crime and culpability, but not without limitations. There are indications that even trace amounts of DNA evidence can point to causal links in a criminal investigation, however, there still remains many rooms to create confusion and doubt from empirical evidence within the narrative of crimes. Many of the shortcomings of DNA-based forensic investigations are explored and evaluated with regards to claims of the authority of biological evidence and implications for the public understanding of the elusive concepts of truth and justice in the present era. Public misinformation about the forensic analysis processes could produce doubt or faith in the judgements rooted in them, depending on other variables presented at the trial. A positivist understanding of forensic science that is shared by the majority of the population does not take into consideration that DNA evidence is far from definitive, and can be used to support any theories of culpability, to create doubt and to deflect blame.

Keywords: DNA profiling, epistemology of forensic science, philosophy of forensic science, sociology of scientific knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
206 Punishment In Athenian Forensic Oratory

Authors: Eleni Volonaki

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In Athenian forensic speeches, the argumentation on punishment of the wrongdoers constitutes a fundamental ideal of exacting justice in court. The present paper explores the variation of approaches to punishment as a means of reformation, revenge, correction, education, example, chance to restoration of justice. As it will be shown, all these approaches reflect the social and political ideology of Athenian justice in the classical period and enhances the role of the courts and the importance of rhetoric in the process of decision-making. Punishment entails a wide range of penalties but also of ideological principles related to the Athenian constitution of democracy.

Keywords: punishment, athenian forensic speeches, justice, athenian democracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
205 Gender Identification Using Digital Forensics

Authors: Vinod C. Nayak

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In day-to-day forensic practice, identification is always a difficult task. Availability of anti-mortem and postmortem records plays a major rule in facilitating this tough task. However, the advent of digital forensic is a boon for forensic experts. This study has made use of digital forensics to establish identity by radiological dimensions of maxillary sinus using workstation software. The findings suggest a significant association between maxillary sinus dimensions and human gender. The author will be discussing the methods and results of the study in this e-poster.

Keywords: digital forensics, identification, maxillary sinus, radiology

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
204 Directing the Forensic Investigation of a Catastrophic Structure Collapse: The Jacksonville Parking Garage Collapse

Authors: William C. Bracken

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This paper discusses the forensic investigation of a fatality-involved catastrophic structure collapse and the special challenges faced when tasked with directing such an effort. While this paper discusses the investigation’s findings and the outcome of the event; this paper’s primary focus is on the challenges faced directing a forensic investigation that requires coordinating with governmental oversight while also having to accommodate multiple parties’ investigative teams. In particular the challenges discussed within this paper included maintaining on-site safety and operations while accommodating outside investigator’s interests. In addition this paper discusses unique challenges that one may face such as what to do about unethical conduct of interested party’s investigative teams, “off the record” sharing of information, and clandestinely transmitted evidence.

Keywords: catastrophic structure collapse, collapse investigation, Jacksonville parking garage collapse, forensic investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
203 Applying Massively Parallel Sequencing to Forensic Soil Bacterial Profiling

Authors: Hui Li, Xueying Zhao, Ke Ma, Yu Cao, Fan Yang, Qingwen Xu, Wenbin Liu

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Soil can often link a person or item to a crime scene, which makes it a valuable evidence in forensic casework. Several techniques have been utilized in forensic soil discrimination in previous studies. Because soil contains a vast number of microbiomes, the analyse of soil microbiomes is expected to be a potential way to characterise soil evidence. In this study, we applied massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to soil bacterial profiling on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Soils from different regions were collected repeatedly. V-region 3 and 4 of Bacterial 16S rRNA gene were detected by MPS. Operational taxonomic units (OTU, 97%) were used to analyse soil bacteria. Several bioinformatics methods (PCoA, NMDS, Metastats, LEfse, and Heatmap) were applied in bacterial profiles. Our results demonstrate that MPS can provide a more detailed picture of the soil microbiomes and the composition of soil bacterial components from different region was individualistic. In conclusion, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via MPS of the 16S rRNA gene has potential value in characterising soil evidences and associating them with their place of origin, which can play an important role in forensic science in the future.

Keywords: bacterial profiling, forensic, massively parallel sequencing, soil evidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
202 Determination of the Knowledge Level of Healthcare Professional's Working at the Emergency Services in Turkey about Their Approaches to Common Forensic Cases

Authors: E. Tuğba Topçu, Ebru E. Kazan, Erhan Büken

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Emergency nurses are the first health care professional to generally observe the patients, communicate patients’ family or relatives, touch the properties of patients and contact to laboratory sample of patients. Also, they are the encounter incidents related crime, people who engage in violence or suspicious injuries frequently. So, documentation of patients’ condition came to the hospital and conservation of evidence are important in the inquiry of forensic medicine. The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge level of healthcare professional working at the emergency services regarding their approaches to common forensic cases. The study was comprised of 404 healthcare professional working (nurse, emergency medicine technician, health officer) at the emergency services of 6 state hospitals, 6 training and 6 research hospitals and 3 university hospitals in Ankara. Data was collected using questionnaire form which was developed by researches in the direction of literature. Questionnaire form is comprised of two sections. The first section includes 17 questions related demographic information about health care professional and 4 questions related Turkish laws. The second section includes 43 questions to the determination of knowledge level of health care professional’s working in the emergency department, about approaches to frequently encountered forensic cases. For the data evaluation of the study; Mann Whitney U test, Bonferroni correction Kruskal Wallis H test and Chi Square tests have been used. According to study, it’s said that there is no forensic medicine expert in the foundation by 73.4% of health care professionals. Two third (66%) of participants’ in emergency department reported daily average 7 or above forensic cases applied to the emergency department and 52.1% of participants did not evaluate incidents came to the emergency department as a forensic case. Most of the participants informed 'duty of preservation of evidence' is health care professionals duty related forensic cases. In result, we determinated that knowledge level of health care professional working in the emergency department, about approaches to frequently encountered forensic cases, is not the expected level. Because we found that most of them haven't received education about forensic nursing.Postgraduates participants, educated health professional about forensic nursing, staff who applied to sources about forensic nursing and staff who evaluated emergency department cases as forensic cases have significantly higher level of knowledge. Moreover, it’s found that forensic cases diagnosis score is the highest in health officer and university graduated. Health care professional’s deficiency in knowledge about forensic cases can cause defects in operation of the forensic process because of mistakes in collecting and conserving of evidence. It is obvious that training about the approach to forensic nursing should be arranged.

Keywords: emergency nurses, forensic case, forensic nursing, level of knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
201 Forensic Nursing in the Emergency Department: The Overlooked Roles

Authors: E. Tugba Topcu

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The emergency services are usually the first places to encounter forensic cases. Hence, it is important to consider forensics from the perspective of the emergency services staff and the physiological and psychological consequences that may arise as a result of behaviour by itself or another person. Accurate and detailed documentation of the situation in which the patient first arrives at the emergency service and preservation of the forensic findings is pivotal for the subsequent forensic investigation. The first step in determining whether or not a forensic case exists is to perform a medical examination of the patient. For each individual suspected to be part of a forensic case, police officers should be informed at the same time as the medical examination is being conducted. Violent events are increasing every year and with an increase in the number of forensic cases, emergency service workers have increasing responsibility and consequently play a key role in protecting, collecting and arranging the forensic evidence. In addition, because the emergency service workers involved in forensic events typically have information about the accused and/or victim, as well as evidence related to the events and the cause of injuries, police officers often require their testimony. However, both nurses and other health care personnel do not typically have adequate expertise in forensic medicine. Emergency nurses should take an active role for determining that whether any patient admitted to the emergency services is a clinical forensic patient the emergency service with injury and requiring possible punishment and knowing of their roles and responsibilities in this area provides legal protection as well as the protection of the judicial affair. Particularly, in emergency services, where rapid patient turnover and high workload exists, patient registration and case reporting may not exist. In such instances, the witnesses, typically the nurses, are often consulted for information. Knowledge of forensic medical matters plays a vital role in achieving justice. According to the Criminal Procedure Law, Article 75, Paragraph 3, ‘an internal body examination or the taking of blood or other biological samples from the body can be performed only by a doctor or other health professional member’. In favour of this item, the clinic nurse and doctor are mainly responsible for evaluating forensic cases in emergency departments, performing the examination, collecting evidence, and storing and reporting data. The courts place considerable importance on determining whether a suspect is the victim or accused and, thus, in terms of illuminating events, it is crucial that any evidence is gathered carefully and appropriately. All the evidence related to the forensic case including the forensic report should be handed over to the police officers. In instances where forensic evidence cannot be collected and the only way to obtain the evidence is the hospital environment, health care personnel in emergency services need to have knowledge about the diagnosis of forensic evidence, the collection of evidence, hiding evidence and provision of the evidence delivery chain.

Keywords: emergency department, emergency nursing, forensic cases, forensic nursing

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
200 Digital Forensic Exploration Framework for Email and Instant Messaging Applications

Authors: T. Manesh, Abdalla A. Alameen, M. Mohemmed Sha, A. Mohamed Mustaq Ahmed

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Email and instant messaging applications are foremost and extensively used electronic communication methods in this era of information explosion. These applications are generally used for exchange of information using several frontend applications from various service providers by its users. Almost all such communications are now secured using SSL or TLS security over HTTP communication. At the same time, it is also noted that cyber criminals and terrorists have started exchanging information using these methods. Since communication is encrypted end-to-end, tracing significant forensic details and actual content of messages are found to be unattended and severe challenges by available forensic tools. These challenges seriously affect in procuring substantial evidences against such criminals from their working environments. This paper presents a vibrant forensic exploration and architectural framework which not only decrypts any communication or network session but also reconstructs actual message contents of email as well as instant messaging applications. The framework can be effectively used in proxy servers and individual computers and it aims to perform forensic reconstruction followed by analysis of webmail and ICQ messaging applications. This forensic framework exhibits a versatile nature as it is equipped with high speed packet capturing hardware, a well-designed packet manipulating algorithm. It regenerates message contents over regular as well as SSL encrypted SMTP, POP3 and IMAP protocols and catalyzes forensic presentation procedure for prosecution of cyber criminals by producing solid evidences of their actual communication as per court of law of specific countries.

Keywords: forensics, network sessions, packet reconstruction, packet reordering

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
199 Assessment of DNA Degradation Using Comet Assay: A Versatile Technique for Forensic Application

Authors: Ritesh K. Shukla

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Degradation of biological samples in terms of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and protein) are the major challenges in the forensic investigation which misleads the result interpretation. Currently, there are no precise methods available to circumvent this problem. Therefore, at the preliminary level, some methods are urgently needed to solve this issue. In this order, Comet assay is one of the most versatile, rapid and sensitive molecular biology technique to assess the DNA degradation. This technique helps to assess DNA degradation even at very low amount of sample. Moreover, the expedient part of this method does not require any additional process of DNA extraction and isolation during DNA degradation assessment. Samples directly embedded on agarose pre-coated microscopic slide and electrophoresis perform on the same slide after lysis step. After electrophoresis microscopic slide stained by DNA binding dye and observed under fluorescent microscope equipped with Komet software. With the help of this technique extent of DNA degradation can be assessed which can help to screen the sample before DNA fingerprinting, whether it is appropriate for DNA analysis or not. This technique not only helps to assess degradation of DNA but many other challenges in forensic investigation such as time since deposition estimation of biological fluids, repair of genetic material from degraded biological sample and early time since death estimation could also be resolved. With the help of this study, an attempt was made to explore the application of well-known molecular biology technique that is Comet assay in the field of forensic science. This assay will open avenue in the field of forensic research and development.

Keywords: comet assay, DNA degradation, forensic, molecular biology

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
198 Forensic Analysis of Thumbnail Images in Windows 10

Authors: George Kurian, Hongmei Chi

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Digital evidence plays a critical role in most legal investigations. In many cases, thumbnail databases show important information in that investigation. The probability of having digital evidence retrieved from a computer or smart device has increased, even though the previous user removed data and deleted apps on those devices. Due to the increase in digital forensics, the ability to store residual information from various thumbnail applications has improved. This paper will focus on investigating thumbnail information from Windows 10. Thumbnail images of interest in forensic investigations may be intact even when the original pictures have been deleted. It is our research goal to recover useful information from thumbnails. In this research project, we use various forensics tools to collect left thumbnail information from deleted videos or pictures. We examine and describe the various thumbnail sources in Windows and propose a methodology for thumbnail collection and analysis from laptops or desktops. A machine learning algorithm is adopted to help speed up content from thumbnail pictures.

Keywords: digital forensic, forensic tools, soundness, thumbnail, machine learning, OCR

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197 The Application of Insects in Forensic Investigations

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Hadi Shirzad, Samaneh Nabavi, Somayeh Khanjani

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Forensic entomology is the science of study and analysis of insects evidences to aid in criminal investigation. Being aware of the distribution, biology, ecology and behavior of insects, which are founded at crime scene can provide information about when, where and how the crime has been committed. It has many application in criminal investigations. Its main use is estimation of the minimum time after death in suspicious death. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in criminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. Because insects attack to the decomposing corpse and spawning on it from the initial stages. Forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index by studying the insects population and the developing larval stages.In addition, toxicological and molecular studies of these insects can reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim. It also be used to detect drugs and poisons, and determination of incident location. Gathering robust entomological evidences is made possible for experts by recent Techniques. They can provide vital information about death, corpse movement or burial, submersion interval, time of decapitation, identification of specific sites of trauma, post-mortem artefacts on the body, use of drugs, linking a suspect to the scene of a crime, sexual molestations and the identification of suspects.

Keywords: Forensic entomology, post mortem interval, insects, larvae

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196 Lateral Cephalometric Radiograph to Determine Sex in Forensic Investigations

Authors: Paulus Maulana

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Forensic identification is to help investigators determine a person's identity. Personal identification is often a problem in civil and criminal cases. Orthodontists like all other dental professionals can play a major role by maintaining lateral cephalogram and thus providing important or vital information or can clues to the legal authorities in order to help them in their search. Radiographic lateral cephalometry is a measurement method which focused on the anatomical points of human lateral skull. Sex determination is one of the most important aspects of the personal identification in forensic. Lateral cephalogram is a valuable tool in identification of sex as reveal morphological details of the skull on single radiograph. This present study evaluates the role of lateral cephalogram in identification of sex that parameters of lateral cephalogram are linear measurement and angle measurement. The linear measurements are N-S ( Anterior cranial length), Sna-Snp (Palatal plane length), Me-Go (menton-gonion), N-Sna ( Midfacial anterior height ), Sna-Me (Lower anterior face height), Co-Gn (total mandibular length). The angle measurements are SNA, SNB, ANB, Gonial, Interincical, and facial.

Keywords: lateral cephalometry, cephalogram, sex, forensic, parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
195 A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Forensic Soil Analysis: Tested Using a Simulated Crime Scene

Authors: Samara A. Testoni, Vander F. Melo, Lorna A. Dawson, Fabio A. S. Salvador

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Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.

Keywords: clay mineralogy, forensic soils analysis, sequential analyses, kaolinite, gibbsite

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
194 A Case Study of Misinterpretation of Results in Forensic DNA Cases Due to Expression of Y- Chromosome in Females

Authors: Garima Chaudhary

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The gender of an individual in forensic DNA analysis is normally accessed by using the STR multiplexes with the incorporated gender based marker amelogenin or in other words by presence or absence of Y-Chromosome, but it may not be true in all the cases. We hereby report an interesting case of a phenotypic female carrying a male karyotype (46XY). In the alleged murder case, the deceased female with XY genotype was noticed. The expression of 18 Y-linked genes was studied to measure the extent of expression. Expression at 4 loci was observed that might have caused the misinterpretation in forensic casework. This clinical situation of the deceased in this case was diagnosed as testicular feminization syndrome, which characterize a female phenotype with a male karyotype (46, XY). Most of these cases have SRY (testis determining factor). The genetic explanation of this phenomenon is not very clear. Here, we are discussing the impact of such situations of genetic discrepancy in forensic interpretation of results. In the presented murder case of a phenotypic female, sexual assault was also suspected. For confirmation vaginal swabs and micro slides were also sent to us for DNA examination. After DNA analysis using STR markers, Y-chromosome was detected in the samples which supporting the suspicion of sexual assault before murder. When the reference blood sample of the deceased was analyzed, it was found to be case of testicular feminization syndrome. Interesting inferences were made from the results obtained.

Keywords: DNA profiling, forensic case study, Y chromosome, females

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
193 Forensic Comparison of Facial Images for Human Identification

Authors: D. P. Gangwar

Abstract:

Identification of human through facial images has got great importance in forensic science. The video recordings, CCTV footage, passports, driver licenses and other related documents are invariably sent to the laboratory for comparison of the questioned photographs as well as video recordings with suspected photographs/recordings to prove the identity of a person. More than 300 questioned and 300 control photographs received in actual crime cases, received from various investigation agencies, have been compared by me so far using various familiar analysis and comparison techniques such as Holistic comparison, Morphological analysis, Photo-anthropometry and superimposition. On the basis of findings obtained during the examination huge photo exhibits, a realistic and comprehensive technique has been proposed which could be very useful for forensic.

Keywords: CCTV Images, facial features, photo-anthropometry, superimposition

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192 A Unified Approach for Digital Forensics Analysis

Authors: Ali Alshumrani, Nathan Clarke, Bogdan Ghite, Stavros Shiaeles

Abstract:

Digital forensics has become an essential tool in the investigation of cyber and computer-assisted crime. Arguably, given the prevalence of technology and the subsequent digital footprints that exist, it could have a significant role across almost all crimes. However, the variety of technology platforms (such as computers, mobiles, Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV), Internet of Things (IoT), databases, drones, cloud computing services), heterogeneity and volume of data, forensic tool capability, and the investigative cost make investigations both technically challenging and prohibitively expensive. Forensic tools also tend to be siloed into specific technologies, e.g., File System Forensic Analysis Tools (FS-FAT) and Network Forensic Analysis Tools (N-FAT), and a good deal of data sources has little to no specialist forensic tools. Increasingly it also becomes essential to compare and correlate evidence across data sources and to do so in an efficient and effective manner enabling an investigator to answer high-level questions of the data in a timely manner without having to trawl through data and perform the correlation manually. This paper proposes a Unified Forensic Analysis Tool (U-FAT), which aims to establish a common language for electronic information and permit multi-source forensic analysis. Core to this approach is the identification and development of forensic analyses that automate complex data correlations, enabling investigators to investigate cases more efficiently. The paper presents a systematic analysis of major crime categories and identifies what forensic analyses could be used. For example, in a child abduction, an investigation team might have evidence from a range of sources including computing devices (mobile phone, PC), CCTV (potentially a large number), ISP records, and mobile network cell tower data, in addition to third party databases such as the National Sex Offender registry and tax records, with the desire to auto-correlate and across sources and visualize in a cognitively effective manner. U-FAT provides a holistic, flexible, and extensible approach to providing digital forensics in technology, application, and data-agnostic manner, providing powerful and automated forensic analysis.

Keywords: digital forensics, evidence correlation, heterogeneous data, forensics tool

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191 A Software Tool for Computer Forensic Investigation Using Client-Side Web History Visualization

Authors: Francisca Onaolapo Oladipo, Peter Afam Ugwu

Abstract:

Records of user activities which are valuable for forensic investigation purposes are provided by web browsers -these records in most cases are not in visual formats that are easily understood, thereby requiring some extra processes. This paper describes the implementation of a software tool for client-side web history visualization providing suitable forensic evidence for investigative purposes. Visual C#, Perl and gnuplot were deployed on Windows Operating System (OS) environment to implement the system and the resulting tool parses and transforms a web browser history into a visual format that enables an investigator to quickly and efficiently explore, understand, and interpret the user online activities in the context of a specific investigation. The system was tested using two forensic cases: the client-side web history files generated by Mozilla Firefox browser was extracted using MozillaHistoryView utility, then parsed and visualized using bar and stacked column charts. From the visual representation, results of user web activities across various productive and non-productive websites were obtained.

Keywords: history, forensics, visualization, web activities

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190 Age–Related Changes of the Sella Turcica Morphometry in Adults Older Than 20-25 Years

Authors: Yu. I. Pigolkin, M. A. Garcia Corro

Abstract:

Age determination of unknown dead bodies in forensic personal identification is a complicated process which involves the application of numerous methods and techniques. Skeletal remains are less exposed to influences of environmental factors. In order to enhance the accuracy of forensic age estimation additional properties of bones correlating with age are required to be revealed. Material and Methods: Dimensional examination of the sella turcica was carried out on cadavers with the cranium opened by a circular vibrating saw. The sample consisted of a total of 90 Russian subjects, ranging in age from two months and 87 years. Results: The tendency of dimensional variations throughout life was detected. There were no observed gender differences in the morphometry of the sella turcica. The shared use of the sella turcica depth and length values revealed the possibility to categorize an examined sample in a certain age period. Conclusions: Based on the results of existing methods of age determination, the morphometry of the sella turcica can be an additional characteristic, amplifying the received values, and accordingly, increasing the accuracy of forensic biological age diagnosis.

Keywords: age–related changes in bone structures, forensic personal identification, sella turcica morphometry, body identification

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189 Anti-Forensic Countermeasure: An Examination and Analysis Extended Procedure for Information Hiding of Android SMS Encryption Applications

Authors: Ariq Bani Hardi

Abstract:

Empowerment of smartphone technology is growing very rapidly in various fields of science. One of the mobile operating systems that dominate the smartphone market today is Android by Google. Unfortunately, the expansion of mobile technology is misused by criminals to hide the information that they store or exchange with each other. It makes law enforcement more difficult to prove crimes committed in the judicial process (anti-forensic). One of technique that used to hide the information is encryption, such as the usages of SMS encryption applications. A Mobile Forensic Examiner or an investigator should prepare a countermeasure technique if he finds such things during the investigation process. This paper will discuss an extension procedure if the investigator found unreadable SMS in android evidence because of encryption. To define the extended procedure, we create and analyzing a dataset of android SMS encryption application. The dataset was grouped by application characteristics related to communication permissions, as well as the availability of source code and the documentation of encryption scheme. Permissions indicate the possibility of how applications exchange the data and keys. Availability of the source code and the encryption scheme documentation can show what the cryptographic algorithm specification is used, how long the key length, how the process of key generation, key exchanges, encryption/decryption is done, and other related information. The output of this paper is an extended or alternative procedure for examination and analysis process of android digital forensic. It can be used to help the investigators while they got a confused cause of SMS encryption during examining and analyzing. What steps should the investigator take, so they still have a chance to discover the encrypted SMS in android evidence?

Keywords: anti-forensic countermeasure, SMS encryption android, examination and analysis, digital forensic

Procedia PDF Downloads 63