Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7257

Search results for: water vapour permeable

7257 Investigation of Textile Laminates Structure and Electrical Resistance

Authors: A. Gulbiniene, V. Jankauskaite


Textile laminates with breathable membranes are used extensively in protective footwear. Such polymeric membranes act as a barrier to liquid water and soil entry from the environment, but are sufficiently permeable to water vapour to allow significant amounts of sweat to evaporate and affect the comfort of the wearer. In this paper the influence of absorbed humidity amount on the electrical properties of textiles lining laminates with and without polymeric membrane is presented. It was shown that textile laminate structure and its layers have a great influence on the water vapour absorption. Laminates with polyurethane foam layers show lower ability to absorb water vapour. Semi-permeable membrane increases absorbed humidity amount. The increase of water vapour absorption ability decreases textile laminates' electrical resistance. However, the intensity of the decrease in electrical resistance depends on the textile laminate layers' nature. Laminates with polyamide layers show significantly lower electrical resistance values.

Keywords: electrical resistance, humid atmosphere, textiles laminate, water vapour absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
7256 Power Generation through Water Vapour: An Approach of Using Sea/River/Lake Water as Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Riad


As present world needs more and more energy in a low cost way, it needs to find out the optimal way of power generation. In the sense of low cost, renewable energy is one of the greatest sources of power generation. Water vapour of sea/river/lake can be used for power generation by using the greenhouse effect in a large flat type water chamber floating on the water surface. The water chamber will always be kept half filled. When water evaporates by sunlight, the high pressured gaseous water will be stored in the chamber. By passing through a pipe and by using aerodynamics it can be used for power generation. The water level of the chamber is controlled by some means. As a large amount of water evaporates, an estimation can be highlighted, approximately 3 to 4 thousand gallons of water evaporates from per acre of surface (this amount will be more by greenhouse effect). This large amount of gaseous water can be utilized for power generation by passing through a pipe. This method can be a source of power generation.

Keywords: renewable energy, greenhouse effect, water chamber, water vapour

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
7255 Coating of Cotton with Blend of Natural Rubber and Chloroprene Containing Ammonium Acetate for Producing Moisture Vapour Permeable Waterproof Fabric

Authors: Debasish Das, Mainak Mitra, A.Chaudhuri


For the purpose of producing moisture vapor permeable waterproof cotton fabric to be used for protective apparel against rain, cotton fabric was coated with the blend of natural rubber and chloroprene rubber containing ammonium acetate as the water-soluble salt, employing a calendar coating technique. Rubber formulations also contained filler, homogenizer, and a typical sulphur curing system. Natural rubber and chloroprene blend in the blend ratio of 30: 70, containing 25 parts of sodium acetate per hundred parts of rubber was coated on the fabric. The coated fabric was vulcanized thereafter at 140oC for 3 h. Coated and vulcanized fabric was subsequently dipped in water for 45 min, followed by drying in air. Such set of treatments produced optimum results. Coated, vulcanized, washed and dried cotton fabric showed optimum developments in the property profiles in respect of waterproofness, breathability as revealed by moisture vapor transmission rate, coating adhesion, tensile properties, abrasion resistance, flex endurance and fire retardancy. Incorporation of highly water-soluble ammonium acetate salt in the coating formulation and their subsequent removal from vulcanized coated layer affected by post washing in consequent to dipping in the water-bath produced holes of only a few microns in the coating matrix of the fabric. Such microporous membrane formed on the cotton fabric allowed only transportation of moisture vapor through them, giving a moisture vapor transmission rate of 3734 g/m2/24h, while acting as a barrier for large liquid water droplet resisting 120cm of the water column in the hydrostatic water-head tester, rendering the coated cotton fabric waterproof. Examination of surface morphology of vulcanized coating by scanning electron microscopy supported the mechanism proposed for development of breathable waterproof layer on cotton fabric by the process employed above. Such process provides an easy and cost-effective route for achieving moisture vapor permeable waterproof cotton.

Keywords: moisture vapour permeability, waterproofness, chloroprene, calendar coating, coating adhesion, fire retardancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
7254 Baby Bed Sheets with a Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Knizkova, Vladimir Bajzik


Nowadays there are countless kinds of bedsheets or mattress covers for little children which should stop any liquid getting into the mattress. It is quite easy to wash the cover of the mattress, but it is almost impossible to clean the body of a mattress which is made of latex foam, wool or synthetic materials. Children bedsheets or mattress covers are often made with plastic coating which is not steam or air permeable and therefore is not very hygienic. This is our goal: by laminating a nanofiber membrane to a suitable bedsheet textile material, we can create a bedsheet which is waterproof but at the same time steam permeable and also partially breathable, thanks to the membrane. For the same reason, nanofiber membranes are widely used in outdoor clothing. The comfort properties and durability of the new nano-membrane bedsheet were studied. The following comfort properties were investigated: steam permeability - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 11902 hydrostatic resistances - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 811 and air permeability - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 9237. The durability or more precisely the wash resistance of the nano-membrane bedsheet was also measured by submitting the sheet to 30 washing cycles. The result of our work is a children's bedsheet with a nano-membrane. The nano-membrane is made of polyurethane to keep maximum flexibility and elasticity which are essential for this product. The comfort properties of this new bedsheet are very good especially its steam permeability and hydrostatic resistance.

Keywords: bed sheet, hydrostatic resistance, nanofiber membrane, water vapour permeable

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
7253 Flow Control around Bluff Bodies by Attached Permeable Plates

Authors: Gokturk Memduh Ozkan, Huseyin Akilli


The aim of present study is to control the unsteady flow structure downstream of a circular cylinder by use of attached permeable plates. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique and dye visualization experiments were performed in deep water and the flow characteristics were evaluated by means of time-averaged streamlines, Reynolds Shear Stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy concentrations. The permeable plate was made of a chrome-nickel screen having a porosity value of β=0.6 and it was attached on the cylinder surface along its midspan. Five different angles were given to the plate (θ=0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°) with respect to the centerline of the cylinder in order to examine its effect on the flow control. It was shown that the permeable plate is effective on elongating the vortex formation length and reducing the fluctuations in the wake region. Compared to the plain cylinder, the reductions in the values of maximum Reynolds shear stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy were evaluated as 72.5% and 66%, respectively for the plate angles of θ=45° and 60° which were also found to be suggested for applications concerning the vortex shedding and consequent Vortex-Induced Vibrations.

Keywords: bluff body, flow control, permeable plate, PIV, VIV, vortex shedding

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
7252 Numerical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Schlenkhoff


Recently, permeable breakwaters have been suggested to overcome the disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. These protection structures have minor impacts on the coastal environment and neighboring beaches where they provide a more economical protection from waves and currents. For regular waves, a numerical model is used (FLOW-3D, VOF) to investigate the hydraulic performance of a permeable breakwater. The model of permeable breakwater consists of a pair of identical vertical slotted walls with an impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at distant of 0.5 and 1.5 of the water depth from the first one. The numerical model is validated by comparisons with previous laboratory data and semi-analytical results of the same model. A good agreement between the numerical results and both laboratory data and semi-analytical results has been shown and the results indicate the applicability of the numerical model to reproduce most of the important features of the interaction. Through the numerical investigation, the friction factor of the model is carefully discussed.

Keywords: coastal structures, permeable breakwater, slotted wall, numerical model, energy dissipation coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
7251 Ultrafine Non Water Soluble Drug Particles

Authors: Shahnaz Mansouri, David Martin, Xiao Dong Chen, Meng Wai Woo


Ultrafine hydrophobic and non-water-soluble drugs can increase the percentage of absorbed compared to their initial dosage. This paper provides a scalable new method of making ultrafine particles of substantially insoluble water compounds specifically, submicron particles of ethanol soluble and water insoluble pharmaceutical materials by steaming an ethanol droplet to prepare a suspension and then followed by immediate drying. This suspension is formed by adding evaporated water molecules as an anti-solvent to the solute of the samples and in early stage of precipitation continued to dry by evaporating both solvent and anti-solvent. This fine particle formation has produced fast dispersion powder in water. The new method is an extension of the antisolvent vapour precipitation technique which exposes a droplet to an antisolvent vapour with reference to the dissolved materials within the droplet. Ultrafine vitamin D3 and ibuprofen particles in the submicron ranges were produced. This work will form the basis for using spray dryers as high-throughput scalable micro-precipitators.

Keywords: single droplet drying, nano size particles, non-water-soluble drugs, precipitators

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
7250 Influence of Hydrolytic Degradation on Properties of Moisture Membranes Used in Fire-Protective Clothing

Authors: Rachid El Aidani, Phuong Nguyen-Tri, Toan Vu-Khanh


This study intends to show the influence of the hydrolytic degradation on the properties of the e-PTFE/NOMEX® membranes used in fire-protective clothing. The modification of water vapour permeability, morphology and chemical structure was examined by MOCON Permatran, electron microscopy scanning (SEM), and ATR-FTIR, respectively. A decrease in permeability to water vapour of the aged samples was observed following closure of transpiration pores. Analysis of fiber morphology indicates the appearance of defects at the fibers surface with the presence of micro cavities as well as the of fibrils. ATR-FTIR analysis reveals the presence of a new absorption band attributed to carboxylic acid terminal groups generated during the amide bond hydrolysis.

Keywords: hydrolytic ageing, moisture membrane, water vapor permeability, morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
7249 Simulation of Ammonia-Water Two Phase Flow in Bubble Pump

Authors: Jemai Rabeb, Benhmidene Ali, Hidouri Khaoula, Chaouachi Bechir


The diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle consists of a generator bubble pump, an absorber, an evaporator and a condenser, and usually operates with ammonia/water/ hydrogen or helium as the working fluid. The aim of this paper is to study the stability problem a bubble pump. In fact instability can caused a reduction of bubble pump efficiency. To achieve this goal, we have simulated the behaviour of two-phase flow in a bubble pump by using a drift flow model. Equations of a drift flow model are formulated in the transitional regime, non-adiabatic condition and thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases. Equations resolution allowed to define void fraction, and liquid and vapour velocities, as well as pressure and mixing enthalpy. Ammonia-water mixing is used as working fluid, where ammonia mass fraction in the inlet is 0.6. Present simulation is conducted out for a heating flux of 2 kW/m² to 5 kW/m² and bubble pump tube length of 1 m and 2.5 mm of inner diameter. Simulation results reveal oscillations of vapour and liquid velocities along time. Oscillations decrease with time and with heat flux. For sufficient time the steady state is established, it is characterised by constant liquid velocity and void fraction values. However, vapour velocity does not have the same behaviour, it increases for steady state too. On the other hand, pressure drop oscillations are studied.

Keywords: bubble pump, drift flow model, instability, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
7248 Assessment the Capacity of Retention of a Natural Material for the Protection of Ground Water

Authors: Hakim Aguedal, Abdelkader Iddou, Abdalla Aziz, Abdelhadi Bentouami, Ferhat Bensalah, Salah Bensadek


The major environmental risk of soil pollution is the contamination of groundwater by infiltration of organic and inorganic pollutants that can cause a serious pollution. To prevent the migration of this pollution through this structure, many studies propose the installation of layers, which play a role of a barrier that inhibiting the contamination of groundwater by limiting or slowing the flow of rainwater carrying pollution through the layers of soil. However, it is practically impossible to build a barrier layer that let through only water, but it is possible to design a structure with low permeability, which reduces the infiltration of dangerous pollutant. In an environmental context of groundwater protection, the main objective of this study was to investigate the environmental and appropriate suitability method to preserve groundwater, by establishment of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) intermediate in soil. Followed the influence of several parameters allow us to find the most effective materials and the most appropriate way to incorporate this barrier in the soil.

Keywords: Ground water, protection, permeable reactive Barrier, soil pollution.

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
7247 Experimental Study on Recycled Aggregate Pervious Concrete

Authors: Ji Wenzhan, Zhang Tao, Li Guoyou


Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world. At the same time, the world produces a large amount of construction waste each year. Waste concrete is processed and treated, and the recycled aggregate is used to make pervious concrete, which enables the construction waste to be recycled. Pervious concrete has many advantages such as permeability to water, protection of water resources, and so on. This paper tests the recycled aggregate obtained by crushing high-strength waste concrete (TOU) and low-strength waste concrete (PU), and analyzes the effect of porosity, amount of cement, mineral admixture and recycled aggregate on the strength of permeable concrete. The porosity is inversely proportional to the strength, and the amount of cement used is proportional to the strength. The mineral admixture can effectively improve the workability of the mixture. The quality of recycled aggregates had a significant effect on strength. Compared with concrete using "PU" aggregates, the strength of 7d and 28d concrete using "TOU" aggregates increased by 69.0% and 73.3%, respectively. Therefore, the quality of recycled aggregates should be strictly controlled during production, and the mix ratio should be designed according to different use environments and usage requirements. This test prepared a recycled aggregate permeable concrete with a compressive strength of 35.8 MPa, which can be used for light load roads and provides a reference for engineering applications.

Keywords: recycled aggregate, permeable concrete, compressive strength, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
7246 Experimental and Semi-Analytical Investigation of Wave Interaction with Double Vertical Slotted Walls

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Schlenkhoff, R. Rousta, R. Abdelaziz


Vertical slotted walls can be used as permeable breakwaters to provide economical and environmental protection from undesirable waves and currents inside the port. The permeable breakwaters are partially protection and have been suggested to overcome the environmental disadvantages of fully protection breakwaters. For regular waves a semi-analytical model is based on an eigenfunction expansion method and utilizes a boundary condition at the surface of each wall are developed to detect the energy dissipation through the slots. Extensive laboratory tests are carried out to validate the semi-analytic models. The structure of the physical model contains two walls and it consists of impermeable upper and lower part, where the draft is based a decimal multiple of the total depth. The middle part is permeable with a porosity of 50%. The second barrier is located at a distant of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 times of the water depth from the first one. A comparison of the theoretical results with previous studies and experimental measurements of the present study show a good agreement and that, the semi-analytical model is able to adequately reproduce most the important features of the experiment.

Keywords: permeable breakwater, double vertical slotted walls, semi-analytical model, transmission coefficient, reflection coefficient, energy dissipation coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
7245 Investigation of Bubble Growth During Nucleate Boiling Using CFD

Authors: K. Jagannath, Akhilesh Kotian, S. S. Sharma, Achutha Kini U., P. R. Prabhu


Boiling process is characterized by the rapid formation of vapour bubbles at the solid–liquid interface (nucleate boiling) with pre-existing vapour or gas pockets. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an important tool to study bubble dynamics. In the present study, CFD simulation has been carried out to determine the bubble detachment diameter and its terminal velocity. Volume of fluid method is used to model the bubble and the surrounding by solving single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the fluids throughout the domain. In the simulation, bubble is generated by allowing water-vapour to enter a cylinder filled with liquid water through an inlet at the bottom. After the bubble is fully formed, the bubble detaches from the surface and rises up during which the bubble accelerates due to the net balance between buoyancy force and viscous drag. Finally when these forces exactly balance each other, it attains a constant terminal velocity. The bubble detachment diameter and the terminal velocity of the bubble are captured by the monitor function provided in FLUENT. The detachment diameter and the terminal velocity obtained is compared with the established results based on the shape of the bubble. A good agreement is obtained between the results obtained from simulation and the equations in comparison with the established results.

Keywords: bubble growth, computational fluid dynamics, detachment diameter, terminal velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
7244 Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids through a Porous Media Due to a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects

Authors: Yohannes Yirga, Daniel Tesfay


The convective heat and mass transfer in nanofluid flow through a porous media due to a permeable stretching sheet with magnetic field, viscous dissipation, and chemical reaction and Soret effects are numerically investigated. Two types of nanofluids, namely Cu-water and Ag-water were studied. The governing boundary layer equations are formulated and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Keller box method. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number as well as for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for selected values of the governing parameters. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier linearly stretching sheet problems in the literature.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
7243 Antimicrobial Activity of Eucalyptus globulus Essential Oil: Disc Diffusion versus Vapour Diffusion Methods

Authors: Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Ferhat Mohamed Amine


Essential Oils (EO) produced by medicinal plants have been traditionally used for respiratory tract infections and are used nowadays as ethical medicines for colds. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the Algerian EGEO against some respiratory tract pathogens by disc diffusion and vapour diffusion methods at different concentrations. The chemical composition of the EGEO was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Fresh leaves of E. globulus on steam distillation yielded 0.96% (v/w) of essential oil whereas the analysis resulted in the identification of a total of 11 constituents, 1.8 cineole (85.8%), α-pinene (7.2%) and β-myrcene (1.5%) being the main components. By disc diffusion method, EGEO showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive more than Gram-negative bacteria. The Diameter of Inhibition Zone (DIZ) varied from 69 mm to 75 mm for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (Gram +) and from 13 to 42 mm for Enterobacter sp and Escherichia coli (Gram-), respectively. However, the results obtained by both agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods were different. Significantly higher antibacterial activity was observed in the vapour phase at lower concentrations. A. baumanii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most susceptible strains to the oil vapour with DIZ varied from 38 to 42 mm. Therefore, smaller doses of EO in the vapour phase can be inhibitory to pathogenic bacteria. Else, the DIZ increased with increase in the concentration of the oil. There is growing evidence that EGEO in the vapour phase are effective antibacterial systems and appears worthy to be considered for practical uses in the treatment or prevention of patients with respiratory tract infections or as air decontaminants in the hospital. The present study indicates that EGEO has considerable antimicrobial activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.

Keywords: eucalyptus globulus, essential oils, respiratory tract pathogens, antimicrobial activity, vapour phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
7242 Pulsed Vortex Flow in Low–Temperature Range Heat Pipes

Authors: A. V. Seryakov


The work presents part calculation and part experimental research of the intensification of heat-transfer characteristics of medium-temperature heat pipes. Presented is a vapour jet nozzle, similar to the Laval nozzle, surrounded by a capillary-porous insert along the full length of the heat pipe axial to the direction of heat flow. This increases velocity of the vapour flow, heat-transfer coefficient and pulse rate of two-phase vapour flow.

Keywords: medium-temperature range heat pipes, capillary-porous insert, capillary steam injectors, Laval nozzle, condensation sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
7241 Exergy Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717

Authors: Ali Dinarveis


This paper compares the energy and exergy efficiency of a vapour compression refrigeration system using refrigerants of different groups. In this study, five different refrigerants including R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717 have been studied. EES Program is used to solve the thermodynamic equations. The results of this analysis are shown graphically. Based on the results, energy and exergy efficiencies for R717 are higher than the other refrigerants. Also, the energy and exergy efficiencies will be decreased with increasing the condensing temperature and decreasing the evaporating temperature.

Keywords: Energy, Exergy, Refrigeration, thermodynamic, vapour

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
7240 Isothermal Vapour-Liquid Equilibria of Binary Mixtures of 1, 2-Dichloroethane with Some Cyclic Ethers: Experimental Results and Modelling

Authors: Fouzia Amireche-Ziar, Ilham Mokbel, Jacques Jose


The vapour pressures of the three binary mixtures: 1, 2- dichloroethane + 1,3-dioxolane, + 1,4-dioxane or + tetrahydropyrane, are carried out at ten temperatures ranging from 273 to 353.15 K. An accurate static device was employed for these measurements. The VLE data were reduced using the Redlich-Kister equation by taking into consideration the vapour pressure non-ideality in terms of the second molar virial coefficient. The experimental data were compared to the results predicted with the DISQUAC and Dortmund UNIFAC group contribution models for the total pressures P and the excess molar Gibbs energies GE.

Keywords: disquac model, dortmund UNIFAC model, excess molar Gibbs energies GE, VLE

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
7239 Study and Analysis of Permeable Articulated Concrete Blocks Pavement: With Reference to Indian Context

Authors: Shrikant Charhate, Gayatri Deshpande


Permeable pavements have significant benefits like managing runoff, infiltration, and carrying traffic over conventional pavements in terms of sustainability and environmental impact. Some of the countries are using this technique, especially at locations where durability and other parameters are of importance in nature; however, sparse work has been done on this concept. In India, this is yet to be adopted. In this work, the progress in the characterization and development of Permeable Articulated Concrete Blocks (PACB) pavement design is described and discussed with reference to Indian conditions. The experimentation and in-depth analysis was carried out considering conditions like soil erosion, water logging, and dust which are significant challenges caused due to impermeability of pavement. Concrete blocks with size 16.5’’x 6.5’’x 7’’ consisting of arch shape (4’’) at beneath and ½” PVC holes for articulation were casted. These blocks were tested for flexural strength. The articulation process was done with nylon ropes forming series of concrete block system. The total spacing between the blocks was kept about 8 to 10% of total area. The hydraulic testing was carried out by placing the articulated blocks with the combination of layers of soil, geotextile, clean angular aggregate. This was done to see the percentage of seepage through the entire system. The experimental results showed that with the shape of concrete block the flexural strength achieved was beyond the permissible limit. Such blocks with the combination could be very useful innovation in Indian conditions and useful at various locations compared to the traditional blocks as an alternative for long term sustainability.

Keywords: connections, geotextile, permeable ACB, pavements, stone base

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
7238 Stability Analysis of Three-Dimensional Flow and Heat Transfer over a Permeable Shrinking Surface in a Cu-Water Nanofluid

Authors: Roslinda Nazar, Amin Noor, Khamisah Jafar, Ioan Pop


In this paper, the steady laminar three-dimensional boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a copper (Cu)-water nanofluid in the vicinity of a permeable shrinking flat surface in an otherwise quiescent fluid is studied. The nanofluid mathematical model in which the effect of the nanoparticle volume fraction is taken into account is considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation which is then solved numerically using the function bvp4c from Matlab. Dual solutions (upper and lower branch solutions) are found for the similarity boundary layer equations for a certain range of the suction parameter. A stability analysis has been performed to show which branch solutions are stable and physically realizable. The numerical results for the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are obtained, presented and discussed in detail for a range of various governing parameters.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, shrinking surface, stability analysis, three-dimensional flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
7237 Thermodynamic Cycle Using Cyclopentane for Waste Heat Recovery Power Generation from Clinker Cooler Exhaust Flue Gas

Authors: Vijayakumar Kunche


Waste heat recovery from Pre Heater exhaust gases and Clinker cooler vent gases is now common place in Cement Industry. Most common practice is to use Steam Rankine cycle for heat to power conversion. In this process, waste heat from the flue gas is recovered through a Heat Recovery steam generator where steam is generated and fed to a conventional Steam turbine generator. However steam Rankine cycle tends to have lesser efficiency for smaller power plants with less than 5MW capacity and where the steam temperature at the inlet of the turbine is less than 350 deg C. further a steam Rankine cycle needs treated water and maintenance intensive. These problems can be overcome by using Thermodynamic cycle using Cyclopentane vapour in place of steam. This innovative cycle is best suited for Heat recovery in cement plants and results in best possible heat to power conversion efficiency. This paper discusses about Heat Recovery Power generation using innovative thermal cycle which uses Cyclopentane vapour in place of water- steam. And how this technology has been adopted for a Clinker cooler hot gas from mid-tap.

Keywords: clinker cooler, energy efficiency, organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
7236 Mechanisms Leading to the Protective Behavior of Ethanol Vapour Drying of Probiotics

Authors: Shahnaz Mansouri, Xiao Dong Chen, Meng Wai Woo


A new antisolvent vapour precipitation approach was used to make ultrafine submicron probiotic encapsulates. The approach uses ethanol vapour to precipitate submicron encapsulates within relatively large droplets. Surprisingly, the probiotics (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus) showed relatively high survival even under destructive ethanolic conditions within the droplet. This unusual behaviour was deduced to be caused by the denaturation and aggregation of the milk protein forming an ethanolic protective matrix for the probiotics. Skim milk droplets which is rich in casein and contains naturally occurring minerals provided higher ethanolic protection when compared whey protein isolate and lactose droplets.

Keywords: whey, skim milk, probiotic, antisolvent, precipitation, encapsulation, denaturation, aggregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
7235 Hygrothermal Properties of Raw Earth Material

Authors: Ichrak Hamrouni, Tariq Ouahbi, Natalija Lhuissier, Saïd Taibi, Mehrez Jemai, Olivier Crumeyrolle, Hatem Zenzri


Raw earth is the oldest building technique used for over 11 centuries, thanks to its various benefits. The most known raw earth construction technics are compressed earth blocks, rammed earth, raw earth concrete, and daub. The raw earth can be stabilized with hydraulic binders, mixed by fibers, or hyper-compacted in order to improve its mechanical behaviour. Moreover, raw earth is characterized by a low thermal conductivity what make it a good thermal insulator, and it has a very important capacity to condense and evaporate relative humidity. In this context, many researches have been developed. They have shown that the mechanical characteristics of earth materials increase with the hyper-compaction and adding fibers or hydraulic binders. Besides, other researches have been determined the thermal and hygroscopic properties of raw earth. They have shown that this material able to contribute to moisture and heat control in constructions. Its hygrothermal properties are better than fired earth bricks and concrete. The aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal and hygrometric behavior of raw earth material using experimental tests allows to determine the main Hygrothermal properties such as the water Vapour permeability and thermal conductivity and compare the results with those of other building materials such as fired clay bricks and cement concrete is presented.

Keywords: raw earth material, hygro-thermal, thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability, building materials, building materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
7234 Potential Application of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Essential Oil as Antibacterial Drug in Aromatherapy

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed Amine, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid


The Lamiaceae family is widely spread in Algeria. Due to the application of Thymus species growing wild in Algeria as a culinary herb and in folk medicine, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate antimicrobial activities of their essential oils and relate them with their chemical composition, for further application in food and pharmaceutical industries as natural valuable products. The extraction of the Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) was obtained by steam distillation. Chemical composition of the TVEO was determined by Gas Chromatography. A total of thirteen compounds were identified. Carvacrol (83.8%) was the major component, followed by cymene (8.15%) and terpinene (4.96%). Antibacterial action of the TVEO against 23 clinically isolated bacterial strains was determined by using agar disc diffusion and vapour diffusion methods at different doses. By disc diffusion method, TVEO showed potent antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria more than gram-negative strains and antibiotic discs. The Diameter of Inhibition Zone (DIZ) varied from 25 to 60 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilisand E. coli. However, the results obtained by both agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods were different. Significantly higher antibacterial effect was observed in the vapour phase at lower doses. S. aureus and B. subtilis were the most susceptible strains to the oil vapour. Therefore, smaller doses of EO in the vapour phase can be inhibitory to pathogenic bacteria. There is growing evidence that TVEO in vapour phase are effective antiseptic systems and appears worthy to be considered for practical uses in the treatment of human infections oras air decontaminants in hospital. TVEO has considerable antibacterial activity deserving further investigation for clinical applications. Also whilst the mode of action remains mainly undetermined, this experimental approach will need to continue.

Keywords: antimicrobial drugs, carvacrol, disc diffusion, Thymus vulgaris, vapour diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
7233 Laboratory Analysis of Stormwater Runoff Hydraulic and Pollutant Removal Performance of Pervious Concrete Based on Seashell By-Products

Authors: Jean-Jacques Randrianarimanana, Nassim Sebaibi, Mohamed Boutouil


In order to solve problems associated with stormwater runoff in urban areas and their effects on natural and artificial water bodies, the integration of new technical solutions to the rainwater drainage becomes even more essential. Permeable pavement systems are one of the most widely used techniques. This paper presents a laboratory analysis of stormwater runoff hydraulic and pollutant removal performance of permeable pavement system using pervious pavements based on seashell products. The laboratory prototype is a square column of 25 cm of side and consists of the surface in pervious concrete, a bedding of 3 cm in height, a geotextile and a subbase layer of 50 cm in height. A series of constant simulated rain events using semi-synthetic runoff which varied in intensity and duration were carried out. The initial vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the entire pervious pavement system was 0.25 cm/s (148 L/m2/min). The hydraulic functioning was influenced by both the inlet flow rate value and the test duration. The total water losses including evaporation ranged between 9% to 20% for all hydraulic experiments. The temporal and vertical variability of the pollutant removal efficiency (PRE) of the system were studied for total suspended solids (TSS). The results showed that the PRE along the vertical profile was influenced by the size of the suspended solids, and the pervious paver has the highest capacity to trap pollutant than the other porous layers of the permeable pavement system after the geotextile. The TSS removal efficiency was about 80% for the entire system. The first-flush effect of TSS was observed, but it appeared only at the beginning (2 to 6 min) of the experiments. It has been shown that the PPS can capture first-flush. The project in which this study is integrated aims to contribute to both the valorization of shellfish waste and the sustainable management of rainwater.

Keywords: hydraulic, pervious concrete, pollutant removal efficiency, seashell by-products, stormwater runoff

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
7232 Study on Pressurized Reforming System for the Application of Hydrogen Permeable Membrane Applying to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Kwangho Lee, Joongmyeon Bae


Fuel cells are spotlighted in the world for being highly efficient and environmentally friendly. A hydrogen fuel for a fuel cell is obtained from a number of sources. Most of fuel cell for APU(Auxiliary power unit) system using diesel fuel as a hydrogen source. Diesel fuel has many advantages, such as high hydrogen storage density, easy to transport and also well-infra structure. However, conventional diesel reforming system for PEMFC(Proton exchange membrane fuel cell) requires a large volume and complex CO removal system for the lower the CO level to less than 10ppm. In addition, the PROX(Preferential Oxidation) reaction cooling load is needed because of the strong exothermic reaction. However, the hydrogen separation membrane that we propose can be eliminated many disadvantages, because the volume is small and permeates only pure hydrogen. In this study, we were conducted to the pressurized diesel reforming and water-gas shift reaction experiment for the hydrogen permeable membrane application.

Keywords: hydrogen, diesel, reforming, ATR, WGS, PROX, membrane, pressure

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7231 MHD Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation and Velocity Slip

Authors: Rama Bhargava, Mania Goyal


The problem of magnetohydrodynamics boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretching surface in a second grade nanofluid under the effect of heat generation and partial slip is studied theoretically. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also considered. The boundary layer equations governed by the PDE’s are transformed into a set of ODE’s with the help of local similarity transformations. The differential equations are solved by variational finite element method. The effects of different controlling parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are examined. The numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically. The comparison confirmed excellent agreement. The present study is of great interest in coating and suspensions, cooling of metallic plate, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal-oil slurries, heat exchangers technology, materials processing exploiting.

Keywords: viscoelastic nanofluid, partial slip, stretching sheet, heat generation/absorption, MHD flow, FEM

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7230 Study of Geological Structure for Potential Fresh-Groundwater Aquifer Determination around Cidaun Beach, Cianjur Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Ilham Aji Dermawan, M. Sapari Dwi Hadian, R. Irvan Sophian, Iyan Haryanto


The study of the geological structure in the surrounding area of Cidaun, Cianjur Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia was conducted around the southern coast of Java Island. This study aims to determine the potentially structural trap deposits of freshwater resources in the study area, according to that the study area is an area directly adjacent to the beach, where the water around it did not seem fresh and brackish due to the exposure of sea water intrusion. This study uses the method of geomorphological analysis and geological mapping by taking the data directly in the field within 10x10 km of the research area. Geomorphological analysis was done by calculating the watershed drainage density value and roundness of watershed value ratio. The goal is to determine the permeability of the sub-soil conditions, rock constituent, and the flow of surface water. While the field geological mapping aims to take the geological structure data and then will do the reconstruction to determine the geological conditions of research area. The result, from geomorphology aspects, that the considered area of potential groundwater consisted of permeable surface material, permeable sub-soil, and low of water run-off flow. It is very good for groundwater recharge area. While the results of geological reconstruction after conducted of geological mapping is joints that present were initiated for the Cipandak Fault that cuts Cipandak River. That fault across until the Cibako Syncline fold through the Cibako River. This syncline is expected to place of influent groundwater aquifer. The tip of Cibako River then united with Cipandak River, where the Cipandak River extends through Cipandak Syncline fold axis in the southern regions close to its estuary. This syncline is expected to place of influent groundwater aquifer too.

Keywords: geological structure, groundwater, hydrogeology, influent aquifer, structural trap

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7229 Amphibians and Water Quality: An Assessment of Diversity and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Habitats for Amphibians in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Kalsoom Shaikh, Saima Memon, Riffat Sultana


Water pollution affects amphibians because they are intimately water dependent. The permeable skin makes amphibians very sensitive to the physico-chemical parameters of their aquatic environment. They spawn in water bodies where quality of water can affect the growth, development, and survival of their eggs which may die even before hatching into larvae or developing into adults due to water contamination. Considering the importance of amphibians in agriculture, food web, ecosystem and pharmaceutics as well as adverse impact of environmental degradation on them, present study was proposed to comprehensively determine the status of their diversity and habitats in Sindh province of Pakistan so as to execute monitoring for their conservation in future. Physico-chemical parameters including pH, EC (electric conductivity), TDS (total dissolved solids), T-Hard (total hardness), T-Alk (total alkalinity), Cl (chloride), CO₂ (carbon dioxide), SO₄ (sulphate), PO₄ (phosphate), NO₂ (nitrite) and NO₃ (nitrate) were analyzed from amphibian habitats using instruments and methodology of analytical grade. The results of present study after being compared with scientific data provided by different researchers and EPA (environmental protection agency), it was concluded that amphibian habitats consisted of high values of analyzed parameters except pH and CO₂. Entire study area required an urgent implementation of conservation actions for saving amphibians.

Keywords: amphibians, diversity, habitats, physico-chemical parameters, water quality, Pakistan, Sindh Province

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7228 Soil Mixed Constructed Permeable Reactive Barrier for Groundwater Remediation: Field Observation

Authors: Ziyda Abunada


In-situ remediation of contaminated land with deep mixing can deliver a multi-technique remedial strategy. A field trail includes permeable reactive barrier (PRB) took place at a severely contaminated site in Yorkshire to the north of the UK through the SMiRT (Soil Mix Remediation Technology) project in May 2011. SMiRT involved the execution of the largest research field trials in the UK to provide field validation. Innovative modified bentonite materials in combination with zeolite and organoclay were used to construct six different walls of a hexagonal PRB. Field monitoring, testing and site cores were collected from the PRB twice: once 2 months after the construction and again in March 2014 (almost 34 months later).This paper presents an overview of the results of the PRB materials’ relative performance with some initial 3-year time-related assessment. Results from the monitoring program and the site cores are presented. Some good correlations are seen together with some clear difference among the materials’ efficiency. These preliminary observations represent a potential for further investigations and highlighted the main lessons learned in a filed scale.

Keywords: in-situ remediation, groundwater, permeable reactive barrier, site cores

Procedia PDF Downloads 135