Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3199

Search results for: von Misses stress

3199 Healthcare Learning From Near Misses in Aviation Safety

Authors: Nick Woodier, Paul Sampson, Iain Moppett

Abstract:

Background: For years, healthcare across the world has recognised that patients are coming to harm from the very processes meant to help them. In response, healthcare tells itself that it needs to ‘be more like aviation.’ Aviation safety is highly regarded by those in healthcare and is seen as an exemplar. Specifically, healthcare is keen to learn from how aviation uses near misses to make their industry safer. Healthcare is rife with near misses; however, there has been little progress addressing them, with most research having focused on reporting. Addressing the factors that contribute to near misses will potentially help reduce the number of significant, harm patientsafety incidents. While the healthcare literature states the need to learn from aviation’s use of near misses, there is nothing that describes how best to do this. The authors, as part of a larger study of near-miss management in healthcare, sought to learn from aviation to develop principles for how healthcare can identify, report, and learn from near misses to improve patient safety. Methods: A Grounded Theory (GT) methodology, augmented by a scoping review, was used. Data collection included interviews, field notes, and the literature. The review protocol is accessible online. The GT aimed to develop theories about how aviation, amongst other safety-critical industries, manages near misses. Results: Twelve aviation interviews contributed to the GT across passenger airlines, air traffic control, and bodies involved in policy, regulation, and investigation. The scoping review identified 83 articles across a range of safety-critical industries, but only seven focused on aviation. The GT identified that aviation interprets the term ‘near miss’ in different ways, commonly using it to specifically refer to near-miss air collisions, also known as Airproxes. Other types of near misses exist, such as health and safety, but the reporting of these and the safety climate associated with them is not as mature. Safety culture in aviation was regularly discussed, with evidence that culture varies depending on which part of the industry is being considered (e.g., civil vs. business aviation). Near misses are seen as just one part of an extensive safety management system, but processes to support their reporting and their analysis are not consistent. Their value alone is also questionable, with the challenge to long-held beliefs originating from the ‘common cause hypothesis.’ Conclusions: There is learning that healthcare can take from how parts of aviation manage and learn from near misses. For example, healthcare would benefit from a formal safety management system that currently does not exist. However, it may not be as simple as ‘healthcare should learn from aviation’ due to variation in safety maturity across the industry. Healthcare needs to clarify how to incorporate near misses into learning and whether allocating resources to them is of value; it was heard that catastrophes have led to greater improvements in safety in aviation.

Keywords: aviation safety, patient safety, near miss, safety management systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
3198 Nuclear Near Misses and Their Learning for Healthcare

Authors: Nick Woodier, Iain Moppett

Abstract:

Background: It is estimated that one in ten patients admitted to hospital will suffer an adverse event in their care. While the majority of these will result in low harm, patients are being significantly harmed by the processes meant to help them. Healthcare, therefore, seeks to make improvements in patient safety by taking learning from other industries that are perceived to be more mature in their management of safety events. Of particular interest to healthcare are ‘near misses,’ those events that almost happened but for an intervention. Healthcare does not have any guidance as to how best to manage and learn from near misses to reduce the chances of harm to patients. The authors, as part of a larger study of near-miss management in healthcare, sought to learn from the UK nuclear sector to develop principles for how healthcare can identify, report, and learn from near misses to improve patient safety. The nuclear sector was chosen as an exemplar due to its status as an ultra-safe industry. Methods: A Grounded Theory (GT) methodology, augmented by a scoping review, was used. Data collection included interviews, scenario discussion, field notes, and the literature. The review protocol is accessible online. The GT aimed to develop theories about how nuclear manages near misses with a focus on defining them and clarifying how best to support reporting and analysis to extract learning. Near misses related to radiation release or exposure were focused on. Results: Eightnuclear interviews contributed to the GT across nuclear power, decommissioning, weapons, and propulsion. The scoping review identified 83 articles across a range of safety-critical industries, with only six focused on nuclear. The GT identified that nuclear has a particular focus on precursors and low-level events, with regulation supporting their management. Exploration of definitions led to the recognition of the importance of several interventions in a sequence of events, but that do not solely rely on humans as these cannot be assumed to be robust barriers. Regarding reporting and analysis, no consistent methods were identified, but for learning, the role of operating experience learning groups was identified as an exemplar. The safety culture across nuclear, however, was heard to vary, which undermined reporting of near misses and other safety events. Some parts of the industry described that their focus on near misses is new and that despite potential risks existing, progress to mitigate hazards is slow. Conclusions: Healthcare often sees ‘nuclear,’ as well as other ultra-safe industries such as ‘aviation,’ as homogenous. However, the findings here suggest significant differences in safety culture and maturity across various parts of the nuclear sector. Healthcare can take learning from some aspects of management of near misses in nuclear, such as how they are defined and how learning is shared through operating experience networks. However, healthcare also needs to recognise that variability exists across industries, and comparably, it may be more mature in some areas of safety.

Keywords: culture, definitions, near miss, nuclear safety, patient safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
3197 Effects of Turbulence Penetration on Valve Leakage in Nuclear Reactor Coolant System

Authors: Gupta Rajesh, Paudel Sagar, Sharma Utkarsh, Singh Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Thermal stratification has drawn much attention because of the malfunctions at various nuclear plants in U.S.A that raised significant safety concerns. The concerns due to this phenomenon relate to thermal stresses in branch pipes connected to the reactor coolant system piping. This stress limits the lifetime of the piping system, and even leading to penetrating cracks. To assess origin of valve damage in the pipeline, it is essential to determine the effect of turbulence penetration on valve leakage; since stratified flow is generally generated by turbulent penetration or valve leakage. As a result, we concluded with the help of coupled fluent-structural analysis that the pipe with less turbulence has less chance of failure there by requiring less maintenance.

Keywords: nuclear reactor coolant system, thermal stratification, turbulent penetration, coupled fluent-structural analysis, Von-Misses stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
3196 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
3195 Cache Analysis and Software Optimizations for Faster on-Chip Network Simulations

Authors: Khyamling Parane, B. M. Prabhu Prasad, Basavaraj Talawar

Abstract:

Fast simulations are critical in reducing time to market in CMPs and SoCs. Several simulators have been used to evaluate the performance and power consumed by Network-on-Chips. Researchers and designers rely upon these simulators for design space exploration of NoC architectures. Our experiments show that simulating large NoC topologies take hours to several days for completion. To speed up the simulations, it is necessary to investigate and optimize the hotspots in simulator source code. Among several simulators available, we choose Booksim2.0, as it is being extensively used in the NoC community. In this paper, we analyze the cache and memory system behaviour of Booksim2.0 to accurately monitor input dependent performance bottlenecks. Our measurements show that cache and memory usage patterns vary widely based on the input parameters given to Booksim2.0. Based on these measurements, the cache configuration having least misses has been identified. To further reduce the cache misses, we use software optimization techniques such as removal of unused functions, loop interchanging and replacing post-increment operator with pre-increment operator for non-primitive data types. The cache misses were reduced by 18.52%, 5.34% and 3.91% by employing above technology respectively. We also employ thread parallelization and vectorization to improve the overall performance of Booksim2.0. The OpenMP programming model and SIMD are used for parallelizing and vectorizing the more time-consuming portions of Booksim2.0. Speedups of 2.93x and 3.97x were observed for the Mesh topology with 30 × 30 network size by employing thread parallelization and vectorization respectively.

Keywords: cache behaviour, network-on-chip, performance profiling, vectorization

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
3194 Mindful Habits to Remain Unruffled by Stress in the Workplace

Authors: Sandeep Nath

Abstract:

There are good stresses and bad stresses. To tell the difference, recognize early signs of stress, and label stress conditions correctly, we need to understand stress triggers and the mechanism of stress as it arises. By understanding this through mindfulness of body, mind, and spirit, we can be prepared to prevent harmful stress from escalating and ruining health; physical, mental, and emotional. We can also prepare others/peers to be stress-free. The understanding of this is available in a form closest to our natural being, in ancient oriental wisdom, and is brought together as actionable habits in the movement called RENEWALism. The constructs of RENEWALism Habits are detailed in this paper, and case studies presented of how mindfulness has equipped individuals with both capability and capacity to handle their situations and environments despite the odds.

Keywords: habits, mindfulness, renewalism, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
3193 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim

Abstract:

The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
3192 Plastic Strain Accumulation Due to Asymmetric Cyclic Loading of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C

Authors: R. S. Rajpurohit, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh

Abstract:

Asymmetric stress cycling leads to accumulation of plastic strain which is called as ratcheting strain. The problem is generally associated with nuclear fuel cladding materials used in nuclear power plants and pressurized pipelines. In the present investigation, asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with three different parameters namely, mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate (keeping two parameters constant and varying third parameter) to see the plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C. The tests were conducted with variable mean stress (45-70 MPa), stress amplitude (95-120 MPa) and stress rate (30-750 MPa/s) and tested specimens were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that with the increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain accumulation increases with reduction in fatigue life. However, increase in stress rate leads to improvement in fatigue life of the material due to small ratcheting strain accumulation. Fractographs showed a decrease in area fraction of fatigue failed region.

Keywords: asymmetric cyclic loading, ratcheting fatigue, mean stress, stress amplitude, stress rate, plastic strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
3191 Relationship between Stress and Personality in Young Adults

Authors: Sneha Sadana

Abstract:

Human beings are unique and so are their reactions towards varied stimuli. This study focuses on the impact personality has on how one deals with stressful situations. It can be intriguing to know how big of an impact our personality has on the way we react and how it is wired in us to respond to things in a particular manner all because of our personality and the traits which make us who we are. The study was done on 150 college going students, 75 males and 75 females mainly from Ahmedabad, India pursuing a variety of different streams and subjects. The questionnaire consists of two standardized questionnaires which measure stress and personality. The Student Stress Scale by Manju Agarwal evaluates stress of subjects and the big five personality locator by Norman.
The findings showed that there exists a positive relationship between stress and neuroticism and an inverse relationship between stress and sociability, stress and openness, stress and agreeableness and stress and conscientiousness.
And on doing a further comparative analysis on personality types of the same sample it was found out that females were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, sociability, openness, and neuroticism. In males, however, it was observed that males were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, neuroticism, sociability, and openness

Keywords: college students, personality, stress, theories of personality

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
3190 The Influence of Residual Stress on Hardness and Microstructure in Railway Rails

Authors: Muhammet Emre Turan, Sait Özçelik, Yavuz Sun

Abstract:

In railway rails, residual stress was measured and the values of residual stress were associated with hardness and micro structure in this study. At first, three rails as one meter long were taken and residual stresses were measured by cutting method according to the EN 13674-1 standardization. In this study, strain gauge that is an electrical apparatus was used. During the cutting, change in resistance in rail gave us residual stress value via computer program. After residual stress measurement, Brinell hardness distribution were performed for head parts of rails. Thus, the relationship between residual stress and hardness were established. In addition to that, micro structure analysis was carried out by optical microscope. The results show that, the micro structure and hardness value was changed with residual stress.

Keywords: residual stress, hardness, micro structure, rail, strain gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
3189 Simulation of Stress in Graphite Anode of Lithium-Ion Battery: Intra and Inter-Particle

Authors: Wenxin Mei, Jinhua Sun, Qingsong Wang

Abstract:

The volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries is mainly induced by intercalation induced stress within the negative electrode, resulting in capacity degradation and even battery failure. Stress generation due to lithium intercalation into graphite particles is investigated based on an electrochemical-mechanical model in this work. The two-dimensional model presented is fully coupled, inclusive of the impacts of intercalation-induced stress, stress-induced intercalation, to evaluate the lithium concentration, stress generation, and displacement intra and inter-particle. The results show that the distribution of lithium concentration and stress exhibits an analogous pattern, which reflects the relation between lithium diffusion and stress. The results of inter-particle stress indicate that larger Von-Mises stress is displayed where the two particles are in contact with each other, and deformation at the edge of particles is also observed, predicting fracture. Additionally, the maximum inter-particle stress at the end of lithium intercalation is nearly ten times the intraparticle stress. And the maximum inter-particle displacement is increased by 24% compared to the single-particle. Finally, the effect of graphite particle arrangement on inter-particle stress is studied. It is found that inter-particle stress with tighter arrangement exhibits lower stress. This work can provide guidance for predicting the intra and inter-particle stress to take measures to avoid cracking of electrode material.

Keywords: electrochemical-mechanical model, graphite particle, lithium concentration, lithium ion battery, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
3188 Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition

Authors: Muhammad Haroon, LI Xiangju

Abstract:

C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.

Keywords: C. communis, biotypes, drought stress, gene expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
3187 Effectiveness of Raga Desi Todi on Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among Adults

Authors: Sushila Pareek, Divya Shekhawat

Abstract:

Music has been shown as a therapeutic agent in depression, anxiety, and stress. A pilot study was carried out to see the therapeutic effects of Indian classical instrumental Raga Todi on depression, anxiety, and stress. 50 individuals diagnosed with depression, anxiety, and stress with DSM-V were taken for the study. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group received the instrumental raga Todi whereas the other control group didn't receive any intervention. DASS-21 was used on the baseline and after the intervention to measure depression, anxiety, and stress. The result indicates that anxiety, stress, and depression level was reduced after listening to the raga desi Todi. It was concluded that raga desi Todi is an effective intervention for reducing depression, anxiety, and stress.

Keywords: raga, anxiety, stress, depression, DASS-21, mental health

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
3186 The Comparison of of Stress Level between Students with Parents and Those without Parents

Authors: Hendeh Majdi, Zahra Arzjani

Abstract:

This research aimed at the comparison of level of stress between students had parents and those without parents by descriptive-analytical study. To do research number of 128 questionnaires (64 students with parents and 64 students without parents) were distributed among high school in Ray city, Tehran province through classified sampling. The results showed that level of stress in stud tent without parents has been effective and the most important proposal is that necessity study should be considered in decreasing level of stress in students without parent.

Keywords: stress, students with parents, without parents, Ray city

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
3185 Strategies to Improve Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea and Dissecting the Cross Talk Mechanism

Authors: Renu Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

In northern India, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) come across with terminal high-temperature stress during reproductive stage which leads to reduced yield. Hence, stable production of chickpea will depend on the development of new methods like ‘priming’ which allow improved adaptation to the drought and heat stress. In the present experiment, 11-day chickpea seedling was primed with mild drought stress and put on recovery stage by irrigating and finally 30-day seedlings were exposed to heat stress 38°C (4 hours), 35°C (8 hours) and 32°C (12 hours). To study the effect of combinatorial stress, heat and drought stress was applied simultaneously. Analyses of various physiological parameters like membrane damage assay, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative enzyme, total sugars were estimated at all stages. To study the effect of heat stress on the metabolites of the plants, GC-MS and HPLC were performed, while at transcriptional level Real-Time PCR of predicted heat stress-related genes was done. It was concluded that the heat stress significantly affected the chickpea plant at physiological and molecular level in all the five varieties. Results also show less damaging effect in primed plants by increasing the activity of antioxidative enzymes and increased expression of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors.

Keywords: chickpea, combinatorial stress, heat stress, oxidative stress, priming, RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
3184 Simplified Linearized Layering Method for Stress Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna, Bradley Storm

Abstract:

This paper looks to reduce the complexity of determining stress intensity factors while maintaining high levels of accuracy by the use of a linearized layering approach. Many techniques for stress intensity factor determination exist, but they can be limited by conservative results, requiring too many user parameters, or by being too computationally intensive. Multiple notch geometries with various crack lengths were investigated in this study to better understand the effectiveness of the proposed method. By linearizing the average stresses in radial layers around the crack tip, stress intensity factors were found to have error ranging from -10.03% to 8.94% when compared to analytically exact solutions. This approach proved to be a robust and efficient method of accurately determining stress intensity factors.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, finite element method, stress intensity factor, stress linearization

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3183 Estimation of Stress Intensity Factors from near Crack Tip Field

Authors: Zhuang He, Andrei Kotousov

Abstract:

All current experimental methods for determination of stress intensity factors are based on the assumption that the state of stress near the crack tip is plane stress. Therefore, these methods rely on strain and displacement measurements made outside the near crack tip region affected by the three-dimensional effects or by process zone. In this paper, we develop and validate an experimental procedure for the evaluation of stress intensity factors from the measurements of the out-of-plane displacements in the surface area controlled by 3D effects. The evaluation of stress intensity factors is possible when the process zone is sufficiently small, and the displacement field generated by the 3D effects is fully encapsulated by K-dominance region.

Keywords: digital image correlation, stress intensity factors, three-dimensional effects, transverse displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
3182 The Level of Stress and Coping Stress Strategies of Young People with Profound Hearing Impairment

Authors: Anna Czyż

Abstract:

This article is focused on the issues of stress and coping with the stress of young people with profound hearing loss. Perceptional disorders, especially visual or hearing defects, are the reason of homeostasis dysfunction. Biopsychological development can become poor. A substitute reality is formed as a result of compensatory activities of other senses. The hearing disorder itself is a stress-inducing factor, affecting the quality of human functioning. In addition, the limitations of perceptual capabilities in the context of the functioning environment can contribute to increasing the amount of stressors, as well as the specific sensitivity to the stressors, and the use of specific strategies to overcome the difficulties. The appropriate study was conducted on a sample of 92 students, aged 16 -19 years old, 43 females, 49 males. For diagnostic purposes, the standardized psychological' research tools were used. The level of the stress and the strategies of coping with the stress were evaluated. The results of the research indicate that level of the stress is indifferent. The most frequently chosen strategies for coping with the stress in the sample are concentrated on 1) acceptation, 2) 'doing something different', 3) searching of emotional supporting, 4) searching of instrumental supporting, and the factors (grouped items) of coping with the stress are concentrated on 1) searching of support, 2) acceptance. The relationships in both male and female research groups were specified. Also the relationships between the highlighted variables were determined.

Keywords: cooping stress, deaf, hearing impairment, quality of life, stress, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
3181 Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Ali. Marjani, M. Farsi, M. Rahimizadeh

Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important grain legume crops in the world. However, drought stress is a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of 8 chickpea genotypes (MCC* 696, 537, 80, 283, 392, 361, 252, 397) and drought stress (S1: non-stress, S2: stress at vegetative growth stage, S3: stress at early bloom, S4: stress at early pod visible) at different growth stages. Experiment was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Difference among the drought stress time was found to be significant for investigated traits except biological yield. Differences were observed for genotypes in flowering time, pod information time, physiological maturation time and yield. Plant height reduced due to drought stress in vegetative growth stage. Stem dry weight reduced due to drought stress in pod visibly. Flowering time, maturation time, pod number, number of seed per plant and yield cause of drought stress in flowering was also reduced. The correlation between yield and number of seed per plant and biological yield was positive. The MCC283 and MCC696 were the high-tolerance genotypes. These results demonstrated that drought stress delayed phonological growth in chickpea and that flowering stage is sensitive.

Keywords: chickpea, drought stress, growth stage, tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
3180 Computational Study on Traumatic Brain Injury Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based 3D Viscoelastic Model

Authors: Tanu Khanuja, Harikrishnan N. Unni

Abstract:

Head is the most vulnerable part of human body and may cause severe life threatening injuries. As the in vivo brain response cannot be recorded during injury, computational investigation of the head model could be really helpful to understand the injury mechanism. Majority of the physical damage to living tissues are caused by relative motion within the tissue due to tensile and shearing structural failures. The present Finite Element study focuses on investigating intracranial pressure and stress/strain distributions resulting from impact loads on various sites of human head. This is performed by the development of the 3D model of a human head with major segments like cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), and skull from patient specific MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). The semi-automatic segmentation of head is performed using AMIRA software to extract finer grooves of the brain. To maintain the accuracy high number of mesh elements are required followed by high computational time. Therefore, the mesh optimization has also been performed using tetrahedral elements. In addition, model validation with experimental literature is performed as well. Hard tissues like skull is modeled as elastic whereas soft tissues like brain is modeled with viscoelastic prony series material model. This paper intends to obtain insights into the severity of brain injury by analyzing impacts on frontal, top, back, and temporal sites of the head. Yield stress (based on von Mises stress criterion for tissues) and intracranial pressure distribution due to impact on different sites (frontal, parietal, etc.) are compared and the extent of damage to cerebral tissues is discussed in detail. This paper finds that how the back impact is more injurious to overall head than the other. The present work would be helpful to understand the injury mechanism of traumatic brain injury more effectively.

Keywords: dynamic impact analysis, finite element analysis, intracranial pressure, MRI, traumatic brain injury, von Misses stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
3179 Hot Spot Stress Analysis and Parametric Study on Rib-To-Deck Welded Connections in Orthotropic Steel Bridge Decks

Authors: Dibu Dave Mbako, Bin Cheng

Abstract:

This paper study the stress variation of the welded joints in the rib-to-deck connection structure, the influence stress of the deck plate and u-rib thickness at different positions. A Finite-element model of orthotropic steel deck structure using solid element and shell element was established in ABAQUS. Under a single wheel load, the static response was analyzed to understand the structural behaviors and examine stress distribution. A parametric study showed that the geometric parameters have a significant effect on the hot spot stress at the weld toe, but has little impact on the stress concentration factor. The increase of the thickness of the deck plate will lead to the decrease of the hot spot stress at the weld toe and the maximum deflection of the deck plate. The surface stresses of the deck plate are significantly larger than those of the rib near the joint in the 80% weld penetration into the u-rib.

Keywords: orthotropic steel bridge deck, rib-to-deck connection, hot spot stress, finite element method, stress distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
3178 Research Related to the Academic Learning Stress, Reflected into PubMed Website Publications

Authors: Ramona-Niculina Jurcau, Ioana-Marieta Jurcau, Dong Hun Kwak, Nicolae-Alexandru Colceriu

Abstract:

Background: Academic environment led, in time, to the birth of some research subjects concluded with many publications. One of these issues is related to the learning stress. Thus far, the PubMed website displays an impressive number of papers related to the academic stress. Aims: Through this study, we aimed to evaluate the research concerning academic learning stress (ALS), by a retrospective analysis of PubMed publications. Methods: We evaluated the ALS, considering: a) different keywords as - ‘academic stress’ (AS), ‘academic stressors’ (ASs), ‘academic learning stress’ (ALS), ‘academic student stress’ (ASS), ‘academic stress college’ (ASC), ‘medical academic stress’ (MAS), ‘non-medical academic stress’ (NMAS), ‘student stress’ (SS), ‘nursing student stress’ (NS), ‘college student stress’ (CSS), ‘university student stress’ (USS), ‘medical student stress’ (MSS), ‘dental student stress’ (DSS), ‘non-medical student stress’ (NMSS), ‘learning students stress’ (LSS), ‘medical learning student stress’ (MLSS), ‘non-medical learning student stress’ (NMLSS); b) the year average for decades; c) some selection filters provided by PubMed website: Article types - Journal Article (JA), Clinical Trial (CT), Review (R); Species - Humans (H); Sex - Male (M) and Female (F); Ages - 13-18, 19-24, 19-44. Statistical evaluation was made on the basis of the Student test. Results: There were differences between keywords, referring to all filters. Nevertheless, for all keywords were noted the following: the majority of studies have indicated that subjects were humans; there were no important differences between the number of subjects M and F; the age of participants was mentioned only in some studies, predominating those with teenagers and subjects between 19-24 years. Conclusions: 1) PubMed publications document that concern for the research field of academic stress, lasts for 56 years and was materialized in more than 5.010 papers. 2) Number of publications in the field of academic stress varies depending on the selected keywords: those with a general framing (AS, ASs, ALS, ASS, SS, USS, LSS) are more numerous than those with a specific framing (ASC, MAS, NMAS, NS, CSS, MSS, DSS, NMSS, MLSS, NMLSS); those concerning the academic medical environment (MAS, NS, MSS, DSS, MLSS) prevailed compared to the non-medical environment (NMAS, NMSS, NMLSS). 3) Most of the publications are included at JA, of which a small percentage are CT and R. 4) Most of the academic stress studies were conducted with subjects both M and F, most aged under 19 years and between 19-24 years.

Keywords: academic stress, student stress, academic learning stress, medical student stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
3177 Correlation of Stress and Blood Glucose Level in Working Women from Tribal Region of Navapur, Dist-Nandurbar

Authors: Surekha B. Bansode, Shakeela K. Shareef

Abstract:

Working women have to face complex issues of family life and professional life. Stress is the condition that results from person’s response to physical, emotional or environmental factors. The stress response can cause problems when it overreacts or fails to turn off and reset itself properly. In the present investigation correlation between stress and blood glucose level in working women group and non working women group was studied. Working women when compared with non working women, experienced more physical and psychological stress. An additional increase in fasting blood glucose levels could be attributed to stress and anxiety they undergo at the workplace. This may lead to increase their susceptibility to develop type II Diabetes Mellitus in coming future.

Keywords: blood sugar, nutrition, stress, working women

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
3176 Free Vibration and Buckling of Rectangular Plates under Nonuniform In-Plane Edge Shear Loads

Authors: T. H. Young, Y. J. Tsai

Abstract:

A method for determining the stress distribution of a rectangular plate subjected to two pairs of arbitrarily distributed in-plane edge shear loads is proposed, and the free vibration and buckling of such a rectangular plate are investigated in this work.  The method utilizes two stress functions to synthesize the stress-resultant field of the plate with each of the stress functions satisfying the biharmonic compatibility equation. The sum of stress-resultant fields due to these two stress functions satisfies the boundary conditions at the edges of the plate, from which these two stress functions are determined. Then, the free vibration and buckling of the rectangular plate are investigated by the Galerkin method. Numerical results obtained by this work are compared with those appeared in the literature, and good agreements are observed.

Keywords: stress analysis, free vibration, plate buckling, nonuniform in-plane edge shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
3175 Directional Dependence of the Stress-Strain Behavior of Reinforced Sand

Authors: Alaa H. J. Al-Rkaby, A. Chegenizadeh, H. R. Nikraz

Abstract:

The technique of reinforcing soil is an efficient, reliable and cost-effective alternative way for improving the performance of soil in civil engineering applications. Despite the anisotropic states of stresses induced within soil elements by many geotechnical structures such as footings, highways and offshore, most of the previous studies have been carried out under isotropic conditions. The anisotropic stress state in term of the inclined principal stress and the inequality of the intermediate and minor principal stresses cannot be investigated using conventional devices. Therefore, the advanced hollow cylinder apparatus, used in this work, provides a great opportunity to simulate such anisotropic stress states. To date, very little consideration has been given to how the direction of principal stress α and intermediate principal stress ratio b can affect the performance of the reinforced sand. This study presented that the anisotropic conditions of α and b resulted in significant variations in the deviator stress and volumetric strain of sand reinforced with geosynthetics. Anisotropic effect has been decreased by adding clay content.

Keywords: anisotropy, reinforced sand, direction of principal stress, intermediate principal stress ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
3174 Growth Analysis in Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress and Variety in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Sokoto, I. U. Abubakar

Abstract:

The study was carried out on effect of water stress and variety on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), during 2009/10 and 2010/11 dry seasons. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stage which was imposed by withholding water at (Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress) and two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kauze/Weaver) laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Water stress was assigned to the main-plot while variety was assigned to the sub-plots. Result revealed significant (P<0.05) effect of water stress, water stress at tillering significantly (P<0.05) reduced plant height, LAI, CGR, and NAR. Variety had a significant effect on plant height, LAI, CGR and NAR. In conclusion water stress at tillering was observed to be most critical growth stage in wheat, and water stress at this period should be avoided because it results to decrease in growth components in wheat. Wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December in this area and other area with similar climate. Star II TR 77173/LM is recommended variety for the area.

Keywords: wheat, growth, water stress, variety, Sudan savannah

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
3173 Evaluation of Rheological Properties, Anisotropic Shrinkage, and Heterogeneous Densification of Ceramic Materials during Liquid Phase Sintering by Numerical-Experimental Procedure

Authors: Hamed Yaghoubi, Esmaeil Salahi, Fateme Taati

Abstract:

The effective shear and bulk viscosity, as well as dynamic viscosity, describe the rheological properties of the ceramic body during the liquid phase sintering process. The rheological parameters depend on the physical and thermomechanical characteristics of the material such as relative density, temperature, grain size, and diffusion coefficient and activation energy. The main goal of this research is to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the response of an incompressible viscose ceramic material during liquid phase sintering process such as stress-strain relations, sintering and hydrostatic stress, the prediction of anisotropic shrinkage and heterogeneous densification as a function of sintering time by including the simultaneous influence of gravity field, and frictional force. After raw materials analysis, the standard hard porcelain mixture as a ceramic body was designed and prepared. Three different experimental configurations were designed including midpoint deflection, sinter bending, and free sintering samples. The numerical method for the ceramic specimens during the liquid phase sintering process are implemented in the CREEP user subroutine code in ABAQUS. The numerical-experimental procedure shows the anisotropic behavior, the complete difference in spatial displacement through three directions, the incompressibility for ceramic samples during the sintering process. The anisotropic shrinkage factor has been proposed to investigate the shrinkage anisotropy. It has been shown that the shrinkage along the normal axis of casting sample is about 1.5 times larger than that of casting direction, the gravitational force in pyroplastic deformation intensifies the shrinkage anisotropy more than the free sintering sample. The lowest and greatest equivalent creep strain occurs at the intermediate zone and around the central line of the midpoint distorted sample, respectively. In the sinter bending test sample, the equivalent creep strain approaches to the maximum near the contact area with refractory support. The inhomogeneity in Von-Misses, pressure, and principal stress intensifies the relative density non-uniformity in all samples, except in free sintering one. The symmetrical distribution of stress around the center of free sintering sample, cause to hinder the pyroplastic deformations. Densification results confirmed that the effective bulk viscosity was well-defined with relative density values. The stress analysis confirmed that the sintering stress is more than the hydrostatic stress from start to end of sintering time so, from both theoretically and experimentally point of view, the sintering process occurs completely.

Keywords: anisotropic shrinkage, ceramic material, liquid phase sintering process, rheological properties, numerical-experimental procedure

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
3172 Limiting Fracture Stress of Composite Ceramics with Symmetric Triangle Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Jinfeng Yu, Xinhua Ni

Abstract:

The limiting fracture stress predicting model of composite ceramics with symmetric triangle eutectic was established based on its special microscopic structure. The symmetric triangle eutectic is consisted of matrix, the strong constraint inter-phase and reinforced fiber inclusions which are 120 degrees uniform symmetrical distribution. Considering the conditions of the rupture of the cohesive bond between matrix and fibers in eutectic and the stress concentration effect at the fiber end, the intrinsic fracture stress of eutectic was obtained. Based on the biggest micro-damage strain in eutectic, defining the load function, the macro-damage fracture stress of symmetric triangle eutectic was determined by boundary conditions. Introducing the conception of critical zone, the theoretical limiting fracture stress forecasting model of composite ceramics was got, and the stress was related to the fiber size and fiber volume fraction in eutectic. The calculated results agreed with the experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: symmetric triangle eutectic, composite ceramics, limiting stress, intrinsic fracture stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
3171 Bi-Axial Stress Effects on Barkhausen-Noise

Authors: G. Balogh, I. A. Szabó, P.Z. Kovács

Abstract:

Mechanical stress has a strong effect on the magnitude of the Barkhausen-noise in structural steels. Because the measurements are performed at the surface of the material, for a sample sheet, the full effect can be described by a biaxial stress field. The measured Barkhausen-noise is dependent on the orientation of the exciting magnetic field relative to the axis of the stress tensor. The sample inhomogenities including the residual stress also modifies the angular dependence of the measured Barkhausen-noise. We have developed a laboratory device with a cross like specimen for bi-axial bending. The measuring head allowed performing excitations in two orthogonal directions. We could excite the two directions independently or simultaneously with different amplitudes. The simultaneous excitation of the two coils could be performed in phase or with a 90 degree phase shift. In principle this allows to measure the Barkhausen-noise at an arbitrary direction without moving the head, or to measure the Barkhausen-noise induced by a rotating magnetic field if a linear superposition of the two fields can be assumed.

Keywords: Barkhausen-noise, bi-axial stress, stress measuring, stress dependency

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
3170 Relationship of Workplace Stress and Mental Wellbeing among Health Professionals

Authors: Rabia Mushtaq, Uroosa Javaid

Abstract:

It has been observed that health professionals are at higher danger of stress in light of the fact that being a specialist is physically and emotionally demanding. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between workplace stress and mental wellbeing among health professionals. Sample of 120 male and female health professionals belonging to two age groups, i.e., early adulthood and middle adulthood, was employed through purposive sampling technique. Job stress scale, mindful attention awareness scale, and Warwick Edinburgh mental wellbeing scales were used for the measurement of study variables. Results of the study indicated that job stress has a significant negative relationship with mental wellbeing among health professionals. The current study opened the door for more exploratory work on mindfulness among health professionals. Yielding outcomes helped in consolidating adapting procedures among workers to improve their mental wellbeing and lessen the job stress.

Keywords: health professionals, job stress, mental wellbeing, mindfulness

Procedia PDF Downloads 91