Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4980

Search results for: volumetric efficiency

4800 Effects of Polymer Adsorption and Desorption on Polymer Flooding in Waterflooded Reservoir

Authors: Sukruthai Sapniwat, Falan Srisuriyachai


Polymer Flooding is one of the most well-known methods in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology which can be implemented after either primary or secondary recovery, resulting in favorable conditions for the displacement mechanism in order to lower the residual oil in the reservoir. Polymer substances can lower the mobility ratio of the whole process by increasing the viscosity of injected water. Therefore, polymer flooding can increase volumetric sweep efficiency, which leads to a better recovery factor. Moreover, polymer adsorption onto rock surface can help decrease reservoir permeability contrast with high heterogeneity. Due to the reduction of the absolute permeability, effective permeability to water, representing flow ability of the injected fluid, is also reduced. Once polymer is adsorbed onto rock surface, polymer molecule can be desorbed when different fluids are injected. This study is performed to evaluate the effects of the adsorption and desorption process of polymer solutions to yield benefits on the oil recovery mechanism. A reservoir model is constructed by reservoir simulation program called STAR® commercialized by the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). Various polymer concentrations, starting times of polymer flooding process and polymer injection rates were evaluated with selected values of polymer desorption degrees including 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The higher the value, the more adsorbed polymer molecules to return back to flowing fluid. According to the results, polymer desorption lowers polymer consumption, especially at low concentrations. Furthermore, starting time of polymer flooding and injection rate affect the oil production. The results show that waterflooding followed by earlier polymer flooding can increase the oil recovery factor while the higher injection rate also enhances the recovery. Polymer concentration is related to polymer consumption due to the two main benefits of polymer flooding control described above. Therefore, polymer slug size should be optimized based on polymer concentration. Polymer desorption causes polymer re-employment that is previously adsorbed onto rock surface, resulting in an increase of sweep efficiency in the further period of polymer flooding process. Even though waterflooding supports polymer injectivity, water cut at the producer can prematurely terminate the oil production. The injection rate decreases polymer adsorption due to decreased retention time of polymer flooding process.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery technology, polymer adsorption and desorption, polymer flooding, reservoir simulation

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4799 Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Application

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq


Photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system is one of the most used and important applications in the field of solar energy. However, the cost and the efficiency are still a concern, especially with continued change of solar radiation and temperature. Then, the improvement of the efficiency of the system components is a good solution to reducing the cost. The use of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms to track the output maximum power point (MPP) of the PV panel is very important to improve the efficiency of the whole system. In this paper, we will present a definition of the functioning of MPPT technique, and a detailed model of each component of PV pumping system with Matlab-Simulink, the results shows the influence of the changing of solar radiation and temperature in the output characteristics of PV panel, which influence in the efficiency of the system. Our system consists of a PV generator, a boost converter, a motor-pump set, and storage tank.

Keywords: PV panel, boost converter, MPPT, MPP, PV pumping system

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4798 Development of Value Productivity in Automotive Industry

Authors: Jiří Klečka, Dagmar Čámská


This paper is focused on the investigation of productivity (total productivity and partial productivity). The value productivity is an indicator of level and changes in technical economic efficiency of production factors. It represents an important factor in achieving corporate objectives. This text works with the contemporary concept of value productivity that means that indicators of the productivity express the effect of economic efficiency not only of inputs consumption, but also of inputs binding efficiency. This approach is based on principles of the economic profit, respectively the economic value added (EVA). The research is done on the sample of Czech enterprises operating in the automotive industry in the regions of Liberec and the Central Bohemia. The data sample covers the time period 2006-2011 which allows the comparison of development before crisis and during crisis period. It enables to discover the companies' reaction during crises and the regional comparison allows to showing if there are significant differences between regions.

Keywords: automotive industry, Czech Republic, economic efficiency, regional comparison, value productivity

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4797 Profit Efficiency and Technology Adoption of Boro Rice Production in Bangladesh

Authors: Fazlul Hoque, Tahmina Akter Joya, Asma Akter, Supawat Rungsuriyawiboon


Rice is the staple food in Bangladesh, and therefore, self-sufficiency in rice production remains a major concern. However, Bangladesh is experiencing insufficiency in rice production due to high production cost and low national average productivity of 2.848 ton/ha in comparison to other rice-growing countries in the world. This study aims to find out the profit efficiency and determinants of profit efficiency in Boro rice cultivation in Manikganj and Dhaka districts of Bangladesh. It also focuses on technology adoption and effect of technology adoption on profit efficiency of Boro rice cultivation in Bangladesh. The data were collected from 300 households growing Boro rice through face to face interviews by one set structured questionnaire; Frontier Version 4.1 and STATA 15 software were employed to analyze the data according to the purpose of the study. Maximum likelihood estimates of the specified profit model showed that profit efficiency of the farmer varied between 23% and 97% with a mean of 76% which implied as 24% of the profit is lost due to a combination of technical and allocative inefficiencies in Boro rice cultivation in the study area. The inefficiency model revealed that the education level of the farmer, farm size, variety of seed, and training and extension service influence the profit inefficiency significantly. The study also explained that the level of technology adoption index affects profit efficiency. The technology adoption in Boro rice cultivation is influenced by the education level of the farmer, farm size and farm capital.

Keywords: farmer, maximum likelihood estimation, profit efficiency, rice

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4796 Parametric Influence and Optimization of Wire-EDM on Oil Hardened Non-Shrinking Steel

Authors: Nixon Kuruvila, H. V. Ravindra


Wire-cut Electro Discharge Machining (WEDM) is a special form of conventional EDM process in which electrode is a continuously moving conductive wire. The present study aims at determining parametric influence and optimum process parameters of Wire-EDM using Taguchi’s Technique and Genetic algorithm. The variation of the performance parameters with machining parameters was mathematically modeled by Regression analysis method. The objective functions are Dimensional Accuracy (DA) and Material Removal Rate (MRR). Experiments were designed as per Taguchi’s L16 Orthogonal Array (OA) where in Pulse-on duration, Pulse-off duration, Current, Bed-speed and Flushing rate have been considered as the important input parameters. The matrix experiments were conducted for the material Oil Hardened Non Shrinking Steel (OHNS) having the thickness of 40 mm. The results of the study reveals that among the machining parameters it is preferable to go in for lower pulse-off duration for achieving over all good performance. Regarding MRR, OHNS is to be eroded with medium pulse-off duration and higher flush rate. Finally, the validation exercise performed with the optimum levels of the process parameters. The results confirm the efficiency of the approach employed for optimization of process parameters in this study.

Keywords: dimensional accuracy (DA), regression analysis (RA), Taguchi method (TM), volumetric material removal rate (VMRR)

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4795 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique of CdS Used in Closed Space Sublimation of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Z. Mahmood, F. U. Babar, S. Naz, H. U. Rehman


Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Ellipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here). The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper-indium–gallium-selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %. The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD), cadmium sulphide (CdS), CdTe, CSS (Closed Space Sublimation)

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4794 Improving Energy Efficiency through Industrial Symbiosis: A Conceptual Framework of Energy Management in Energy-Intensive Industries

Authors: Yuanjun Chen, Yongjiang Shi


Rising energy prices have drawn a focus to global energy issues, and the severe pollution that has resulted from energy-intensive industrial sectors has yet to be addressed. By combining Energy Efficiency with Industrial Symbiosis, the practices of efficient energy utilization and improvement can be not only enriched at the factory level but also upgraded into “within and/or between firm level”. The academic contribution of this paper provides a conceptual framework of energy management through IS. The management of waste energy within/between firms can contribute to the reduction of energy consumption and provides a solution to the environmental issues.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy management, industrial symbiosis, energy-intensive industry

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4793 The Effect of Flue Gas Condensation on the Exergy Efficiency and Economic Performance of a Waste-To-Energy Plant

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Tobias Richards


In this study, a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant under construction was modelled and simulated with the Aspen Plus software. The base case process plant was evaluated and compared when integrated with flue gas condensation (FGC) in order to find out the impact of the exergy efficiency and economic feasibility as well as the effect of overall system exergy losses and revenue generated in the investigated plant. The economic evaluations were carried out using the vendor cost data from Aspen process economic analyser. The results indicate that 4 % increase in the exergy efficiency and 29 % reduction in the exergy loss in the flue gas were obtained when the flue gas condensation was incorporated. Furthermore, with the integrated FGC, the net present values (NPV) and income generated in the base process plant were increased by 29 % and 10 % respectively after 20 years of operation.

Keywords: economic feasibility, exergy efficiency, exergy losses, flue gas condensation, waste-to-energy

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4792 The Optimum Aeration Time of Wastewater Treatment by Surface Aerators in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Anat Thanpinta


This research aimed to study on the efficiency of wastewater treatment by comparing the different aeration times of surface aerators in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. In doing so, the operation of surface aerators was divided into 2 groups which included the groups of 8 hours (8-0/opened-closed) and 4 hours (2-2/opened-closed) of aeration time per day. As a result of the study, it was found that the efficiency of wastewater treatment in the forms of DO, BOD, turbidity and NO2- by 8 hours (8-0/opened-closed) and 4 hours (2-2/opened-closed) of aeration time per day of surface aerators was not statistically different [Sig. = .644, .488, .716 and .054 > α (.05)] while the efficiency in the forms of NO3- and P was significantly different at the statistical level of .01 [Sig. = .001 and .000 < α (.01)].

Keywords: aeration time, surface aerator, wastewater treatment, efficiency

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4791 A Comparative Study of Photo and Electro-Fenton Reactions Efficiency in Degradation of Cationic Dyes Mixture

Authors: S. Bouafia Chergui, Nihal Oturan, Hussein Khalaf, Mehmet A. Oturan


The aim of this work was to compare the degradation of a mixture of three cationic dyes by advanced oxidation processes (electro-Fenton, photo-Fenton) in aqueous solution. These processes are based on the in situ production of hydroxyl radical, a highly strong oxidant, which allows the degradation of organic pollutants until their mineralization into CO2 and H2O. Under optimal operating conditions, the evolution of total organic carbon (TOC) and electrical energy efficiency have been investigated for the two processes.

Keywords: photo-fenton, electro-fenton, energy efficiency, water treatment

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4790 Numerical Analysis of Fluid Mixing in Three Split and Recombine Micromixers at Different Inlets Volume Ratio

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, M. Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte


Numerical simulation were carried out to study the mixing of miscible liquid at different inlets volume ratio (1 to 3) within two existing mixers namely Chain, Tear-drop and one new “C-H” mixer. The new passive C-H micromixer is developed based on split and recombine principles, combining the operation concepts of known Chain mixer and H mixer. The mixing performances of the three micromixers were predicted by a preliminary numerical analysis of the flow patterns inside the channel in terms of the segregation or distribution of path lines. Afterward, the efficiency and the pressure drop were investigated numerically, taking into account species transport. All numerical calculations were computed at a wide range of Reynolds number from 1 to 100. Among the presented three micromixers, tear-drop provides fairly good efficiency except in the middle range of Re numbers but has high-pressure drop. In addition, inlets flow ratio has a significant influence on efficiency, especially at the Re number range of 10 to 50, Moreover maximum increase of efficiency is almost 10% when inlets flow ratio is increased by 1. Chain mixer presents relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle range of Re numbers (5≤Re≤50) but has reasonable pressure drop. Furthermore, Chain mixer shows almost no dependence on inlets flow ratio. Whereas, C-H mixer poses excellent mixing efficiency (more than 93%) for all range of Re numbers and causes the lowest pressure drop, On top of that efficiency has slight dependency on inlets flow ratio. In addition, C-H mixer shows respectively about three and two times lower pressure drop than Tear-drop and Chain mixers.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

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4789 Investigation and Perfection of Centrifugal Compressor Stages by CFD Methods

Authors: Y. Galerkin, L. Marenina


Stator elements «Vane diffuser + crossover + return channel» of stages with different specific speed were investigated by CFD calculations. The regime parameter was introduced to present efficiency and loss coefficient performance of all elements together. Flow structure demonstrated advantages and disadvantages of design. Flow separation in crossovers was eliminated by its shape modification. Efficiency increased visibly. Calculated CFD performances are in acceptable correlation with predicted ones by engineering design method. The information obtained is useful for design method better calibration.

Keywords: vane diffuser, return channel, crossover, efficiency, loss coefficient, inlet flow angle

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4788 Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Pakakrong Thondeeying, Jipisute Chunthorng-Orn, Bhanuz Dechayont, Arunporn Itharat

Authors: Ekrem Erdem, Can Tansel Tugcu


Improved resource efficiency of production is a key requirement for sustainable growth, worldwide. In this regards, by considering the energy and tourism as the extra inputs to the classical Coub-Douglas production function, this study aims at investigating the efficiency changes in the North African countries. To this end, the study uses panel data for the period 1995-2010 and adopts the Malmquist index based on the data envelopment analysis. Results show that tourism increases technical and scale efficiencies, while it decreases technological and total factor productivity changes. On the other hand, when the production function is augmented by the energy input, technical efficiency change decreases, while the technological change, scale efficiency change and total factor productivity change increase. Thus, in order to satisfy the needs for sustainable growth, North African governments should take some measures for increasing the contribution that the tourism makes to economic growth and some others for efficient use of resources in the energy sector.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, economic efficiency, North African countries, sustainable growth

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4787 Knowledge Management Efficiency of Personnel in Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya Songkhla, Thailand

Authors: Nongyao Intasaso, Atchara Rattanama, Navarat Pewnual


This research is survey research purposed to study the factor affected to knowledge management efficiency of personnel in Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, and study the problem of knowledge management affected to knowledge development of personnel in the university. The tool used in this study is structures questioner standardize rating scale in 5 levels. The sample selected by purposive sampling and there are 137 participation calculated in 25% of population. The result found that factor affected to knowledge management efficiency in the university included (1) result from the organization factor found that the university provided project or activity that according to strategy and mission of knowledge management affected to knowledge management efficiency in highest level (x̅ = 4.30) (2) result from personnel factor found that the personnel are eager for knowledge and active to learning to develop themselves and work (Personal Mastery) affected to knowledge management efficiency in high level (x̅ = 3.75) (3) result from technological factor found that the organization brought multimedia learning aid to facilitate learning process affected to knowledge management efficiency in high level (x̅ = 3.70) and (4) the result from learning factor found that the personnel communicated and sharing knowledge and opinion based on acceptance to each other affected to knowledge management efficiency in high level (x̅ = 3.78). The problem of knowledge management in the university included the personnel do not change their work behavior, insufficient of collaboration, lack of acceptance in knowledge and experience to each other, and limited budget. The solutions to solve these problems are the university should be support sufficient budget, the university should follow up and evaluate organization development based on knowledge using, the university should provide the activity emphasize to personnel development and assign the committee to process and report knowledge management procedure.

Keywords: knowledge management, efficiency, personnel, learning process

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4786 Design Parameters Optimization of a Gas Turbine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation: An Energy and Exergy Approach

Authors: Joe Hachem, Marianne Cuif-Sjostrand, Thierry Schuhler, Dominique Orhon, Assaad Zoughaib


The exhaust gas recirculation, EGR, implementation on gas turbines is increasingly gaining the attention of many researchers. This emerging technology presents many advantages, such as lowering the NOx emissions and facilitating post-combustion carbon capture as the carbon dioxide concentration in the cycle increases. As interesting as this technology may seem, the gas turbine, or its thermodynamic equivalent, the Brayton cycle, shows an intrinsic efficiency decrease with increasing EGR rate. In this paper, a thermodynamic model is presented to show the cycle efficiency decrease with EGR, alternative values of design parameters of both the pressure ratio (PR) and the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) are then proposed to optimize the cycle efficiency with different EGR rates. Results show that depending on the given EGR rate, both the design PR & TIT should be increased to compensate for the deficit in efficiency.

Keywords: gas turbines, exhaust gas recirculation, design parameters optimization, thermodynamic approach

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4785 Summary of Technical Approaches to Improve Energy Efficiency in Electric Motor Drive Systems

Authors: Manuel Valencia Alejaandro Paz, Luz Nidia Quintero Jairo Palacios


In present paper a set of technical approaches to improve the energy efficiency in processes controlled by electric motor drive systems EMDS are listed and analyzed. Energy saving becomes fundamental to improve the sustainability and competitiveness of organizations all around the world; increasing costs of electricity had impulse the use of different strategies to reduce the electric power condition. A summary of these techniques is presented and evaluated in the potential for energy saving policies.

Keywords: energy saving, EMDS, induction motor, energy efficiency, sustainability

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4784 Development of Restricted Formula SAE Intake Manifold Using 1D and Flow Simulations Based on Track Analysis

Authors: Sahil Kapahi


A Formula SAE competition is characterized by typical track layouts having slaloms, tight corners and short straights, which favor a particular range of engine speed for a given set of gear ratios. Therefore, it is imperative that the power-train is optimized for the corresponding engine rpm band. This paper describes the process of designing, simulating and validating an air intake manifold for an inline four cylinder four-stroke internal combustion gasoline engine based on analysis of required vehicle performance. The requirements for the design of subject intake were set considering the rules of FSAE competitions and analysis of engine performance patterns for typical competition scenarios, carried out using OPTIMUMLAP software. Manifold geometry was optimized using results of air flow simulations performed on ANSYS CFX, and subsequent effect of this geometry on the engine was modeled using 1D simulation on Ricardo WAVE. A design was developed to meet the targeted performance standards in terms of engine torque output and volumetric efficiency. Finally, the intake manifold was manufactured and assembled onto the vehicle, and the engine output of the vehicle with the designed intake was studied using a dynamometer. The results of the dynamometer testing were then validated against predicted values derived from the Ricardo WAVE modeling and benefits to performance of the vehicle were established.

Keywords: 1 D Simulation, air flow simulation, ANSYS CFX, four-stroke engine, OPTIMUM LAP, Ricardo WAVE

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4783 Comparative Study of Mechanical and Physiological Gait Efficiency Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Authors: Radwa E. Sweif, Amira A. A. Abdallah


Background: Evaluation of gait efficiency is used to examine energy consumption especially in patients with movement disorders. Hypothesis/Purpose: This study compared the physiological and mechanical measures of gait efficiency between patients with ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and healthy controls and correlated among these measures. Methods: Seventeen patients with ACLR and sixteen healthy controls with mean ± SD age 23.06±4.76 vs 24.85±6.47 years, height 173.93±6.54 vs 175.64±7.37cm, and weight 74.25±12.1 vs 76.52±10.14 kg, respectively, participated in the study. The patients were operated on six months prior to testing. They should have completed their accelerated rehabilitation program during this period. A 3D motion analysis system was used for collecting the mechanical measures (Biomechanical Efficiency Quotient (BEQ), the maximum degree of knee internal rotation during stance phase and speed of walking). The physiological measures (Physiological Cost Index (PCI) and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)) were collected after performing the 6- minute walking test. Results: MANOVA showed that the maximum degree of knee internal rotation, PCI, and RPE increased and the speed decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the patients compared with the controls with no significant difference for the BEQ. Finally, there were significant (p<0.05) positive correlations between each of the PCI & RPE and each of the BEQ, speed of walking and the maximum degree of knee internal rotation in each group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there are alterations in both mechanical and physiological measures of gait efficiency in patients with ACLR after being rehabilitated, clarifying the need for performing additional endurance as well as knee stability training programs. Moreover, the positive correlations indicate that using either of the mechanical or physiological measures for evaluating gait efficiency is acceptable.

Keywords: ACL reconstruction, mechanical, physiological, gait efficiency

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4782 High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated under Ambient Conditions with Mesoporous TiO2/In2O3 Scaffold

Authors: A. Apostolopoulou, D. Sygkridou, A. N. Kalarakis, E. Stathatos


Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (mp-PSCs) with mesoporous bilayer were fabricated under ambient conditions. The bilayer was formed by capping the mesoporous TiO2 layer with a layer of In2O3. CH3NH3I3-xClx mixed halide perovskite was prepared through the one-step method and was used as the light absorber. The mp-PSCs with the composite TiO2/In2O3 mesoporous layer exhibited optimized electrical parameters, compared with the PSCs that employed only a TiO2 mesoporous layer, with a current density of 23.86 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage of 0.863 V, fill factor of 0.6 and a power conversion efficiency of 11.2%. These results indicate that the formation of a proper semiconductor capping layer over the basic TiO2 mesoporous layer can facilitate the electron transfer, suppress the recombination and subsequently lead to higher charge collection efficiency.

Keywords: ambient conditions, high efficiency solar cells, mesoscopic perovskite solar cells, TiO₂ / In₂O₃ bilayer

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4781 Methodology for the Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Pneumatics Systems

Authors: Mario Lupaca, Karol Munoz, Victor De Negri


The present article presents a methodology for the improvement of the energy efficiency in pneumatic systems through the restoring of air. In this way, three techniques of expansion of a cylinder are identified: Expansion using the air of the compressor (conventional), restoring the air (efficient), and combining the air of the compressor and the restored air (hybrid). The methodology starts with the development of the GRAFCET of the system so that it can be decided whether to expand the cylinder in a conventional, efficient, or hybrid way. The methodology can be applied to any case. Finally, graphs of comparison between the three methods of expansion with certain cylinder strokes and workloads are presented, to facilitate the subsequent selection of one system or another.

Keywords: energetic, efficiency, GRAFCET, methodology, pneumatic

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4780 The Effects of Plantation Size and Internal Transport on Energy Efficiency of Biofuel Production

Authors: Olga Orynycz, Andrzej Wasiak


Mathematical model describing energetic efficiency (defined as a ratio of energy obtained in the form of biofuel to the sum of energy inputs necessary to facilitate production) of agricultural subsystem as a function of technological parameters was developed. Production technology is characterized by parameters of machinery, topological characteristics of the plantation as well as transportation routes inside and outside of plantation. The relationship between the energetic efficiency of agricultural and industrial subsystems is also derived. Due to the assumed large area of the individual field, the operations last for several days increasing inter-fields routes because of several returns. The total distance driven outside of the fields is, however, small as compared to the distance driven inside of the fields. This results in small energy consumption during inter-fields transport that, however, causes a substantial decrease of the energetic effectiveness of the whole system.

Keywords: biofuel, energetic efficiency, EROEI, mathematical modelling, production system

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4779 Effect of Credit Use on Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adewale Oladapo, Carolyn A. Afolami


Agricultural production should be the major financial contributor to the Nigerian economy; however, the petroleum sector had taken the importance attached to this sector. The situation tends to be more worsening unless necessary attention is given to adequate credit supply among food crop farmers. This research analyses the effect of credit use on the technical efficiency of cassava farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from two hundred randomly selected cassava farmers through a multistage sampling procedure in the study area. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Findings revealed that 95.0% of the farmers were male while 56.0% had no formal education and were married. The SFA showed that cassava farmer’s efficiency increased with farm size, herbicide and planting material at 5%,10% and 1% respectively but decreased with fertilizer application at 1% level while farmers’ age, education, household size, experience and access to credit increased technical inefficiency at 10%. The study concluded that cassava farmers are technically inefficient in the use of farm resources and recommended that adequate and workable agricultural policy measures that will ensure availability and efficient fertilizer distribution should be put in place to increase efficiency. Furthermore, the government should encourage youth participation in cassava production and ensure improvement in farmer’s access to credit to increase farmer’s technical efficiency.

Keywords: agriculture, access to credit, cassava farmers, technical efficiency

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4778 Assessment of Energy Use and Energy Efficiency in Two Portuguese Slaughterhouses

Authors: M. Feliciano, F. Rodrigues, A. Gonçalves, J. M. R. C. A. Santos, V. Leite


With the objective of characterizing the profile and performance of energy use by slaughterhouses, surveys and audits were performed in two different facilities located in the northeastern region of Portugal. Energy consumption from multiple energy sources was assessed monthly, along with production and costs, for the same reference year. Gathered data was analyzed to identify and quantify the main consuming processes and to estimate energy efficiency indicators for benchmarking purposes. Main results show differences between the two slaughterhouses concerning energy sources, consumption by source and sector, and global energy efficiency. Electricity is the most used source in both slaughterhouses with a contribution of around 50%, being essentially used for meat processing and refrigeration. Natural gas, in slaughterhouse A, and pellets, in slaughterhouse B, used for heating water take the second place, with a mean contribution of about 45%. On average, a 62 kgoe/t specific energy consumption (SEC) was found, although with differences between slaughterhouses. A prominent negative correlation between SEC and carcass production was found specially in slaughterhouse A. Estimated Specific Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gases Intensity (GHGI) show mean values of about 50 €/t and 1.8 tCO2e/toe, respectively. Main results show that there is a significant margin for improving energy efficiency and therefore lowering costs in this type of non-energy intensive industries.

Keywords: meat industry, energy intensity, energy efficiency, GHG emissions

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4777 The Relationship between Competency-Based Learning and Learning Efficiency of Media Communication Students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Somtop Keawchuer


This research aims to study (1) the relationship between competency-based learning and learning efficiency of new media communication students at Suan Sunandha University (2) the demographic factor effect on learning efficiency of students at Suan Sunandha University. This research method will use quantitative research; data was collected by questionnaires distributed to students from new media communication in management science faculty of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University for 1340 sample by purposive sampling method. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic including T-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation for hypothesis testing. The results showed that the competency-based learning in term of ability to communicate, ability to think and solve the problem, life skills and ability to use technology has a significant relationship with learning efficiency in term of the cognitive domain, psychomotor domain and affective domain at the 0.05 level and which is in harmony with the research hypotheses.

Keywords: competency-based learning, learning efficiency, new media communication students, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

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4776 Optimization of Assembly and Welding of Complex 3D Structures on the Base of Modeling with Use of Finite Elements Method

Authors: M. N. Zelenin, V. S. Mikhailov, R. P. Zhivotovsky


It is known that residual welding deformations give negative effect to processability and operational quality of welded structures, complicating their assembly and reducing strength. Therefore, selection of optimal technology, ensuring minimum welding deformations, is one of the main goals in developing a technology for manufacturing of welded structures. Through years, JSC SSTC has been developing a theory for estimation of welding deformations and practical activities for reducing and compensating such deformations during welding process. During long time a methodology was used, based on analytic dependence. This methodology allowed defining volumetric changes of metal due to welding heating and subsequent cooling. However, dependences for definition of structures deformations, arising as a result of volumetric changes of metal in the weld area, allowed performing calculations only for simple structures, such as units, flat sections and sections with small curvature. In case of complex 3D structures, estimations on the base of analytic dependences gave significant errors. To eliminate this shortage, it was suggested to use finite elements method for resolving of deformation problem. Here, one shall first calculate volumes of longitudinal and transversal shortenings of welding joints using method of analytic dependences and further, with obtained shortenings, calculate forces, which action is equivalent to the action of active welding stresses. Further, a finite-elements model of the structure is developed and equivalent forces are added to this model. Having results of calculations, an optimal sequence of assembly and welding is selected and special measures to reduce and compensate welding deformations are developed and taken.

Keywords: residual welding deformations, longitudinal and transverse shortenings of welding joints, method of analytic dependences, finite elements method

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4775 Miniaturizing the Volumetric Titration of Free Nitric Acid in U(vi) Solutions: On the Lookout for a More Sustainable Process Radioanalytical Chemistry through Titration-On-A-Chip

Authors: Jose Neri, Fabrice Canto, Alastair Magnaldo, Laurent Guillerme, Vincent Dugas


A miniaturized and automated approach for the volumetric titration of free nitric acid in U(VI) solutions is presented. Free acidity measurement refers to the acidity quantification in solutions containing hydrolysable heavy metal ions such as U(VI), U(IV) or Pu(IV) without taking into account the acidity contribution from the hydrolysis of such metal ions. It is, in fact, an operation having an essential role for the control of the nuclear fuel recycling process. The main objective behind the technical optimization of the actual ‘beaker’ method was to reduce the amount of radioactive substance to be handled by the laboratory personnel, to ease the instrumentation adjustability within a glove-box environment and to allow a high-throughput analysis for conducting more cost-effective operations. The measurement technique is based on the concept of the Taylor-Aris dispersion in order to create inside of a 200 μm x 5cm circular cylindrical micro-channel a linear concentration gradient in less than a second. The proposed analytical methodology relies on the actinide complexation using pH 5.6 sodium oxalate solution and subsequent alkalimetric titration of nitric acid with sodium hydroxide. The titration process is followed with a CCD camera for fluorescence detection; the neutralization boundary can be visualized in a detection range of 500nm- 600nm thanks to the addition of a pH sensitive fluorophore. The operating principle of the developed device allows the active generation of linear concentration gradients using a single cylindrical micro channel. This feature simplifies the fabrication and ease of use of the micro device, as it does not need a complex micro channel network or passive mixers to generate the chemical gradient. Moreover, since the linear gradient is determined by the liquid reagents input pressure, its generation can be fully achieved in faster intervals than one second, being a more timely-efficient gradient generation process compared to other source-sink passive diffusion devices. The resulting linear gradient generator device was therefore adapted to perform for the first time, a volumetric titration on a chip where the amount of reagents used is fixed to the total volume of the micro channel, avoiding an important waste generation like in other flow-based titration techniques. The associated analytical method is automated and its linearity has been proven for the free acidity determination of U(VI) samples containing up to 0.5M of actinide ion and nitric acid in a concentration range of 0.5M to 3M. In addition to automation, the developed analytical methodology and technique greatly improves the standard off-line oxalate complexation and alkalimetric titration method by reducing a thousand fold the required sample volume, forty times the nuclear waste per analysis as well as the analysis time by eight-fold. The developed device represents, therefore, a great step towards an easy-to-handle nuclear-related application, which in the short term could be used to improve laboratory safety as much as to reduce the environmental impact of the radioanalytical chain.

Keywords: free acidity, lab-on-a-chip, linear concentration gradient, Taylor-Aris dispersion, volumetric titration

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4774 Analysis of Spatiotemporal Efficiency and Fairness of Railway Passenger Transport Network Based on Space Syntax: Taking Yangtze River Delta as an Example

Authors: Lin Dong, Fei Shi


Based on the railway network and the principles of space syntax, the study attempts to reconstruct the spatial relationship of the passenger network connections from space and time perspective. According to the travel time data of main stations in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration obtained by the Internet, the topological drawing of railway network under different time sections is constructed. With the comprehensive index composed of connection and integration, the accessibility and network operation efficiency of the railway network in different time periods is calculated, while the fairness of the network is analyzed by the fairness indicators constructed with the integration and location entropy from the perspective of horizontal and vertical fairness respectively. From the analysis of the efficiency and fairness of the railway passenger transport network, the study finds: (1) There is a strong regularity in regional system accessibility change; (2) The problems of efficiency and fairness are different in different time periods; (3) The improvement of efficiency will lead to the decline of horizontal fairness to a certain extent, while from the perspective of vertical fairness, the supply-demand situation has changed smoothly with time; (4) The network connection efficiency of Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang regions is higher than that of the western regions such as Anqing and Chizhou; (5) The marginalization of Nantong, Yancheng, Yangzhou, Taizhou is obvious. The study explores the application of spatial syntactic theory in regional traffic analysis, in order to provide a reference for the development of urban agglomeration transportation network.

Keywords: spatial syntax, the Yangtze River Delta, railway passenger time, efficiency and fairness

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4773 Off-Farm Work and Cost Efficiency in Staple Food Production among Small-Scale Farmers in North Central Nigeria

Authors: C. E. Ogbanje, S. A. N. D. Chidebelu, N. J. Nweze


The study evaluated off-farm work and cost efficiency in staple food production among small-scale farmers in North Central Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 360 respondents (participants and non-participants in off-farm work). Primary data obtained were analysed using stochastic cost frontier and test of means’ difference. Capital input was lower for participants (N2,596.58) than non-participants (N11,099.14). Gamma (γ) was statistically significant. Farm size significantly (p<0.01) increased cost outlay for participants and non-participants. Average input prices of enterprises one and two significantly (p<0.01) increased cost. Sex, household size, credit obtained, formal education, farming experience, and farm income significantly (p<0.05) reduced cost inefficiency for non-participants. Average cost efficiency was 11%. Farm capital was wasted. Participants’ substitution of capital for labour did not put them at a disadvantage. Extension agents should encourage farmers to obtain financial relief from off-farm work but not to the extent of endangering farm cost efficiency.

Keywords: cost efficiency, mean difference, North Central Nigeria, off-farm work, participants and non-participants, small-scale farmers

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4772 Gasification of Groundnut Shell in an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Authors: Dharminer Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, gasification of groundnut shell was carried out in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Atmospheric air used as gasification agent in the gasifier. The groundnut shell used for gasification was in powder form and the locally available river sand was used as bed material. Conventional charcoal was used for heating sand bed. Two cyclones were used for proper segregation of char particles and for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed on different equivalence ratio (ER) 0.3 - 0.33 by varying feeding rate 36 - 32.8 kg/h of biomass and by keeping the air flow rate constant at bed temperature between 700 °C – 800 °C. Performance of gasifier was evaluated on the basis of different parameters such as cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), Tar and Suspended particles matter (SPM) generation, gas yield, and Higher heating value (HHV) of gas. The optimal ER value for gasification of groundnut shell (GNS) powder in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was found to be 0.31. Cold gas efficiency and CCE value at optimal ER was found to be 63.7 %, and 91 %, respectively. Concentration of Tar and SPM, HHV of gas, and gas yield at optimal ER was found to be 11.88 g/Nm3, 2.38 MJ/Nm3, and 2.01m3/kg, respectively. In the product gas, concentrations of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 were found to be 12.94%, 13.5%, 5.74% and 13.77%, respectively. At ER 0.31, it was observed that bed temperature of gasifier was in steady state for long time at 714 °C with 5 – 10 °C fluctuation.

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, groundnut shell powder, equivalence ratio (ER), cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), high heating value (HHV)

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4771 High Efficiency Achievement by a New Heterojunction N-Zno:Al/P-Si Solar Cell

Authors: A. Bouloufa, F. Khaled, K. Djessas


This paper presents a new structure of solar cell based on p-type microcrystalline silicon as an absorber and n-type aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) transparent conductive oxide as an optical window. The ZnO:Al layer deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering at room temperature yields a low resistivity about 7,64.10-2Ω.cm and more than 85% mean optical transmittance in the VIS–NIR range, with an optical band gap of 3.3 eV. These excellent optical properties of this layer in combination with an optimal contact at the front surface result in a superior light trapping yielding to efficiencies about 20%. In order to improve efficiency, we have used a p+-µc-Si thin layer highly doped as a back surface field which minimizes significantly the impact of rear surface recombination velocity on voltage and current leading to a high efficiency of 24%. Optoelectronic parameters were determined using the current density-voltage (J-V) curve by means of a numerical simulation with Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS-1D) device simulator.

Keywords: optical window, thin film, solar cell, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 195