Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4980

Search results for: volumetric efficiency

4830 A Study on the Treatment of Municipal Waste Water Using Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Bhaven N. Tandel, Athira Rajeev


Sequencing batch reactor process is a suspended growth process operating under non-steady state conditions which utilizes a fill and draw reactor with complete mixing during the batch reaction step (after filling) and where the subsequent steps of aeration and clarification occur in the same tank. All sequencing batch reactor systems have five steps in common, which are carried out in sequence as follows, (1) fill (2) react (3) settle (sedimentation/clarification) (4) draw (decant) and (5) idle. The study was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor of dimensions 44cmx30cmx70cm with a working volume of 40 L. Mechanical stirrer of 100 rpm was used to provide continuous mixing in the react period and oxygen was supplied by fish tank aerators. The duration of a complete cycle of sequencing batch reactor was 8 hours. The cycle period was divided into different phases in sequence as follows-0.25 hours fill phase, 6 hours react period, 1 hour settling phase, 0.5 hours decant period and 0.25 hours idle phase. The study consisted of two runs, run 1 and run 2. Run 1 consisted of 6 hours aerobic react period and run 2 consisted of 3 hours aerobic react period followed by 3 hours anoxic react period. The influent wastewater used for the study had COD, BOD, NH3-N and TKN concentrations of 308.03±48.94 mg/L, 100.36±22.05 mg/L, 14.12±1.18 mg/L, and 24.72±2.21 mg/L respectively. Run 1 had an average COD removal efficiency of 41.28%, BOD removal efficiency of 56.25%, NH3-N removal efficiency of 86.19% and TKN removal efficiency of 54.4%. Run 2 had an average COD removal efficiency of 63.19%, BOD removal efficiency of 73.85%, NH3-N removal efficiency of 90.74% and TKN removal efficiency of 65.25%. It was observed that run 2 gave better performance than run 1 in the removal of COD, BOD and TKN.

Keywords: municipal waste water, aerobic, anoxic, sequencing batch reactor

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4829 Efficiency of DMUs in Presence of New Inputs and Outputs in DEA

Authors: Esmat Noroozi, Elahe Sarfi, Farha Hosseinzadeh Lotfi


Examining the impacts of data modification is considered as sensitivity analysis. A lot of studies have considered the data modification of inputs and outputs in DEA. The issues which has not heretofore been considered in DEA sensitivity analysis is modification in the number of inputs and (or) outputs and determining the impacts of this modification in the status of efficiency of DMUs. This paper is going to present systems that show the impacts of adding one or multiple inputs or outputs on the status of efficiency of DMUs and furthermore a model is presented for recognizing the minimum number of inputs and (or) outputs from among specified inputs and outputs which can be added whereas an inefficient DMU will become efficient. Finally the presented systems and model have been utilized for a set of real data and the results have been reported.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency, sensitivity analysis, input, out put

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4828 Investigating Best Practice Energy Efficiency Policies and Programs, and Their Replication Potential for Residential Sector of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Habib Alshuwaikhat, Nahid Hossain


Residential sector consumes more than half of the produced electricity in Saudi Arabia, and fossil fuel is the main source of energy to meet growing household electricity demand in the Kingdom. Several studies forecasted and expressed concern that unless the domestic energy demand growth is controlled, it will reduce Saudi Arabia’s crude oil export capacity within a decade and the Kingdom is likely to be incapable of exporting crude oil within next three decades. Though the Saudi government has initiated to address the domestic energy demand growth issue, the demand side energy management policies and programs are focused on industrial and commercial sectors. It is apparent that there is an urgent need to develop a comprehensive energy efficiency strategy for addressing efficient energy use in residential sector in the Kingdom. Then again as Saudi Arabia is at its primary stage in addressing energy efficiency issues in its residential sector, there is a scope for the Kingdom to learn from global energy efficiency practices and design its own energy efficiency policies and programs. However, in order to do that sustainable, it is essential to address local contexts of energy efficiency. It is also necessary to find out the policies and programs that will fit to the local contexts. Thus the objective of this study was set to identify globally best practice energy efficiency policies and programs in residential sector that have replication potential in Saudi Arabia. In this regard two sets of multi-criteria decision analysis matrices were developed to evaluate the energy efficiency policies and programs. The first matrix was used to evaluate the global energy efficiency policies and programs, and the second matrix was used to evaluate the replication potential of global best practice energy efficiency policies and programs for Saudi Arabia. Wuppertal Institute’s guidelines for energy efficiency policy evaluation were used to develop the matrices, and the different attributes of the matrices were set through available literature review. The study reveals that the best practice energy efficiency policies and programs with good replication potential for Saudi Arabia are those which have multiple components to address energy efficiency and are diversified in their characteristics. The study also indicates the more diversified components are included in a policy and program, the more replication potential it has for the Kingdom. This finding is consistent with other studies, where it is observed that in order to be successful in energy efficiency practices, it is required to introduce multiple policy components in a cluster rather than concentrate on a single policy measure. The developed multi-criteria decision analysis matrices for energy efficiency policy and program evaluation could be utilized to assess the replication potential of other globally best practice energy efficiency policies and programs for the residential sector of the Kingdom. In addition it has potential to guide Saudi policy makers to adopt and formulate its own energy efficiency policies and programs for Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, residential sector, energy efficiency, policy evaluation

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4827 Analysis and Improvement of Efficiency for Food Processing Assembly Lines

Authors: Mehmet Savsar


Several factors affect productivity of Food Processing Assembly Lines (FPAL). Engineers and line managers usually do not recognize some of these factors and underutilize their production/assembly lines. In this paper, a special food processing assembly line is studied in detail, and procedures are presented to illustrate how productivity and efficiency of such lines can be increased. The assembly line considered produces ten different types of freshly prepared salads on the same line, which is called mixed model assembly line. Problems causing delays and inefficiencies on the line are identified. Line balancing and related tools are used to increase line efficiency and minimize balance delays. The procedure and the approach utilized in this paper can be useful for the operation managers and industrial engineers dealing with similar assembly lines in food processing industry.

Keywords: assembly lines, line balancing, production efficiency, bottleneck

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4826 N-Type GaN Thinning for Enhancing Light Extraction Efficiency in GaN-Based Thin-Film Flip-Chip Ultraviolet (UV) Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

Authors: Anil Kawan, Soon Jae Yu, Jong Min Park


GaN-based 365 nm wavelength ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LED) have various applications: curing, molding, purification, deodorization, and disinfection etc. However, their usage is limited by very low output power, because of the light absorption in the GaN layers. In this study, we demonstrate a method utilizing removal of 365 nm absorption layer buffer GaN and thinning the n-type GaN so as to improve the light extraction efficiency of the GaN-based 365 nm UV LED. The UV flip chip LEDs of chip size 1.3 mm x 1.3 mm were fabricated using GaN epilayers on a sapphire substrate. Via-hole n-type contacts and highly reflective Ag metal were used for efficient light extraction. LED wafer was aligned and bonded to AlN carrier wafer. To improve the extraction efficiency of the flip chip LED, sapphire substrate and absorption layer buffer GaN were removed by using laser lift-off and dry etching, respectively. To further increase the extraction efficiency of the LED, exposed n-type GaN thickness was reduced by using inductively coupled plasma etching.

Keywords: extraction efficiency, light emitting diodes, n-GaN thinning, ultraviolet

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4825 Analysis and Design of Simultaneous Dual Band Harvesting System with Enhanced Efficiency

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry, Jean-François Bousquet


This paper presents an enhanced efficiency simultaneous dual band energy harvesting system for wireless body area network. A bulk biasing is used to enhance the efficiency of the adapted rectifier design to reduce Vth of MOSFET. The presented circuit harvests the radio frequency (RF) energy from two frequency bands: 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. It is designed with TSMC 65-nm CMOS technology and high quality factor dual matching network to boost the input voltage. Full circuit analysis and modeling is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate a harvester with an efficiency of 23% at 1 GHz and 46% at 2.4 GHz at an input power as low as -30 dBm.

Keywords: energy harvester, simultaneous, dual band, CMOS, differential rectifier, voltage boosting, TSMC 65nm

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4824 Evaluating the Energy Efficiency Measures for an Educational Building in a Hot-Humid Region

Authors: Rafia Akbar


This paper assesses different Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs) and their impact on energy consumption and carbon footprint of an educational building located in Islamabad. A base case was first developed in accordance with typical construction practices in Pakistan. Several EEMs were separately applied to the baseline design to quantify their impact on operational energy reduction of the building and the resultant carbon emissions. Results indicate that by applying these measures, there is a potential to reduce energy consumption up to 49% as compared to the base case. It was observed that energy efficient ceiling fans and lights, insulation of the walls and roof and an efficient air conditioning system for the building can provide significant energy savings. The results further indicate that the initial investment cost of these energy efficiency measures can be recovered within 6 to 7 years of building’s service life.

Keywords: CO2 savings, educational building, energy efficiency measures, payback period

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4823 Investigation of Magnetic Resonance Wireless Charger Efficiency for Mobile Device

Authors: SeungHee Ryu, Junil Moon


The magnetic resonance wireless power transfer system is widely researched due to its benefits such as spatial freedom. In this paper, power transmitting unit and power receiving unit of wireless battery charger for mobile devices is presented. Power transmitting unit efficiency is measured under different test conditions with power receiving units.

Keywords: magnetic resonance coupling, wireless power transfer, power transfer efficiency.

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4822 Systematic Approach for Energy-Supply-Orientated Production Planning

Authors: F. Keller, G. Reinhart


The efficient and economic allocation of resources is one main goal in the field of production planning and control. Nowadays, a new variable gains in importance throughout the planning process: Energy. Energy-efficiency has already been widely discussed in literature, but with a strong focus on reducing the overall amount of energy used in production. This paper provides a brief systematic approach, how energy-supply-orientation can be used for an energy-cost-efficient production planning and thus combining the idea of energy-efficiency and energy-flexibility.

Keywords: production planning, production control, energy-efficiency, energy-flexibility, energy-supply

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4821 Assessment of Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Soybean under Deficit Irrigation

Authors: Meysam Abedinpour


Water limitation is the main challenge for crop production in a semi-arid environment. Deficit irrigation is a strategy that allows a crop to sustain some degree of water deficit in order to reduce costs and potentially increase income. For this goal, a field experimental carried out at Asrieh fields of Gorgan city in the north of Iran, during summer season 2011. The treatments imposed were different irrigation water regimes (i.e. W1:70, W2:80, W3:90, and W4:100) percent of field capacity (FC). The results showed that there was Significant difference between the yield and (WUE) under different levels of irrigation, excepting of soil moisture content at field capacity (W4) and 90% of field capacity (W3) on yield and water use efficiency (WUE). The seasonal irrigation water applied were (i.e. 375, 338, 300, and 263 mm ha-1) under different irrigation water treatments (100, 90, 80, 80 and 70%) of FC, respectively. Grain yield productions under treatments were 4180, 3955, 3640, and 3355 (kg ha-1) respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that water use efficiency (WUE) at different treatments were 7.67, 7.79, 7.74, and 7.75 Kg mm ha-1 for (100, 90, 80, and 70) per cent of field capacity, therefore the 90 % of FC treatment (W3) is recommended for Soybean irrigation for water saving. Furthermore, the result showed that the treatment of 90 % of filed capacity (W3) seemed to be better adapted to product a high crop yield with acceptable yield coupling with water use efficiency in Golestan province.

Keywords: deficit irrigation, water use efficiency, yield, soybean

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4820 Energy Efficiency Retrofitting of Residential Buildings Case Study: Multi-Family Apartment Building in Tripoli, Lebanon

Authors: Yathreb Sabsaby


Energy efficiency retrofitting of existing buildings was long ignored by public authorities who favored energy efficiency policies in new buildings, which are easier to implement. Indeed, retrofitting is more complex and difficult to organize because of the extreme diversity in existing buildings, administrative situations and occupation. Energy efficiency retrofitting of existing buildings has now become indispensable in all economies—even emerging countries—given the constraints imposed by energy security and climate change, and because it represents considerable potential energy savings. Addressing energy efficiency in the existing building stock has been acknowledged as one of the most critical yet challenging aspects of reducing our environmental footprint on the ecosystem. Tripoli, Lebanon chosen as case study area is a typical Mediterranean metropolis in the North Lebanon, where multifamily residential buildings are all around the city. This generally implies that the density of energy demand is extremely high, even the renewable energy facilities are involved, they can just play as a minor energy provider at the current technology level in the single family house. It seems only the low energy design for buildings can be made possible, not the zero energy certainly in developing country. This study reviews the latest research and experience and provides recommendations for deep energy retrofits that aim to save more than 50% of the energy used in a typical Tripoli apartment building.

Keywords: energy-efficiency, existing building, multifamily residential building, retrofit

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4819 Characterization and Effect of Using Pumpkin Seeds Oil Methyl Ester (PSME) as Fuel in a LHR Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul, Ugur Ozturk


In order to decrease the hazardous emissions of the internal combustion engines and to improve the combustion and thermal efficiency, thermal barrier coatings are applied. In this experimental study, cylinder, piston, exhaust, and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material, and this earned the engine LHR feature. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Pumpkin seeds oil methyl ester (PSME) was produced by the transesterification method. In addition, dimethoxymethane additive materials were used to improve the properties of diesel fuel, pumpkin seeds oil methyl ester (PSME) and its mixture. Dimethoxymethane was blended with test fuels, which was used as a pilot fuel, at the volumetric ratios of 4% and 8%. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's CO, HC, and smoke density values decreased; but, NOx and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) increased.

Keywords: boriding, diesel engine, exhaust emission, thermal barrier coating

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4818 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Crossover Technologies in Industrial Applications

Authors: W. Schellong


Industry accounts for one-third of global final energy demand. Crossover technologies (e.g. motors, pumps, process heat, and air conditioning) play an important role in improving energy efficiency. These technologies are used in many applications independent of the production branch. Especially electrical power is used by drives, pumps, compressors, and lightning. The paper demonstrates the algorithm of the energy analysis by some selected case studies for typical industrial processes. The energy analysis represents an essential part of energy management systems (EMS). Generally, process control system (PCS) can support EMS. They provide information about the production process, and they organize the maintenance actions. Combining these tools into an integrated process allows the development of an energy critical equipment strategy. Thus, asset and energy management can use the same common data to improve the energy efficiency.

Keywords: crossover technologies, data management, energy analysis, energy efficiency, process control

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4817 Influence of Channel Depth on the Performance of Wavy Fin Absorber Solar Air Heater

Authors: Abhishek Priyam, Prabha Chand


Channel depth is an important design parameter to be fixed in designing a solar air heater. In this paper, a mathematical model has been developed to study the influence of channel duct on the thermal performance of solar air heaters. The channel depth has been varied from 1.5 cm to 3.5 cm for the mass flow range 0.01 to 0.11 kg/s. Based on first law of thermodynamics, the channel depth of 1.5 cm shows better thermal performance for all the mass flow range. Also, better thermohydraulic performance has been found up to 0.05 kg/s, and beyond this, thermohydraulic efficiency starts decreasing. It has been seen that, with the increase in the mass flow rate, the difference between thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency increases because of the increase in pressure drop. At lower mass flow rate, 0.01 kg/s, the thermal and thermohydraulic efficiencies for respective channel depth remain the same.

Keywords: channel depth, thermal efficiency, wavy fin, thermohydraulic efficiency

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4816 Treatment of Isopropyl Alcohol in Aqueous Solutions by VUV-Based AOPs within a Laminar-Falling-Film-Slurry Type Photoreactor

Authors: Y. S. Shen, B. H. Liao


This study aimed to develop the design equation of a laminar-falling-film-slurry (LFFS) type photoreactor for the treatment of organic wastewaters containing isopropyl alcohol (IPA) by VUV-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The photoreactor design equations were established by combining with the chemical kinetics of the photocatalytic system, light absorption model within the photoreactor, and was used to predict the decomposition of IPA in aqueous solutions in the photoreactors of different geometries at various operating conditions (volumetric flow rate, oxidants, catalysts, solution pH values, UV light intensities, and initial concentration of pollutants) to verify its rationality and feasibility. By the treatment of the LFFS-VUV only process, it was found that the decomposition rates of IPA in aqueous solutions increased with the increase of volumetric flow rate, VUV light intensity, dosages of TiO2 and H2O2. The removal efficiencies of IPA by photooxidation processes were in the order: VUV/H2O2>VUV/TiO2/H2O2>VUV/TiO2>VUV only. In VUV, VUV/H2O2, VUV/TiO2/H2O2 processes, integrating with the reaction kinetic equations of IPA, the mass conservation equation and the linear light source model, the photoreactor design equation can reasonably to predict reaction behaviors of IPA at various operating conditions and to describe the concentration distribution profiles of IPA within photoreactors.The results of this research can be useful basis for the future application of the homogeneous and heterogeneous VUV-based advanced oxidation processes.

Keywords: isopropyl alcohol, photoreactor design, VUV, AOPs

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4815 Rotational Energy Recovery System

Authors: Vijayendra Anil Menon, Ashwath Narayan Murali


The present day vehicles do not reuse the energy expelled in running the vehicle. The energy used to run the vehicle is expelled immediately.This has remained a constant for many decades. With all the vehicles running on non-renewable resources like fossil fuels, there is an urgent need to improve efficiency of the vehicles until a reliable replacement for fossil fuels is found.Our design is based on the concept of Kinetic energy recovery systems. Though our design lies in principle with the KERS, our design can be used in day-to-day driving. With our design, efficiency of vehicles increases and fuel conservation is possible thereby reducing the carbon footprint.

Keywords: KERS, Battery, Wheels, Efficiency.

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4814 On the Efficiency of the Algerian FRR Sovereign Fund

Authors: Abdelkader Guendouz, Fatima Zohra Adel


Since about two decades, the Algerian government created a new instrument in the field of its fiscal policy, which is the FRR (Fonds de Régulation des Recettes). The FRR is a sovereign fund, which the initial role was saving the surplus generated by the fixation of a referential oil price to establish the state budget in the aim equilibrium between budgetary incomes and public expenditures. After a while, the government turns to use this instrument in boosting the public investment more than keeping for funding a deficit budget in periods of crisis. This lead to ask some justified questions about the efficiency of this sovereign fund and its real role.

Keywords: FRR sovereign fund, public expenditures, public investment, efficiency

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4813 Encapsulation of Volatile Citronella Essential oil by Coacervation: Efficiency and Release Kinetic Study

Authors: Rafeqah Raslan, Mastura AbdManaf, Junaidah Jai, Istikamah Subuki, Ana Najwa Mustapa


The volatile citronella essential oil was encapsulated by simple coacervation and complex coacervation using gum Arabic and gelatin as wall material. Glutaraldehyde was used in the methodology as crosslinking agent. The citronella standard calibration graph was developed with R2 equal to 0.9523 for the accurate determination of encapsulation efficiency and release study. The release kinetic was analyzed based on Fick’s law of diffusion for polymeric system and linear graph of log fraction release over log time was constructed to determine the release rate constant, k and diffusion coefficient, n. Both coacervation methods in the present study produce encapsulation efficiency around 94%. The capsules morphology analysis supported the release kinetic mechanisms of produced capsules for both coacervation process.

Keywords: simple coacervation, complex coacervation, encapsulation efficiency, release kinetic study

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4812 Increasing the Efficiency of the Biomass Gasification Technology with Using the Organic Rankin Cycle

Authors: Jaroslav Frantík, Jan Najser


This article deals with increasing the energy efficiency of a plant in terms of optimizing the process. The European Union is striving to achieve the climate-energy package in the area increasing of energy efficiency. The goal of energy efficiency is to reduce primary energy consumption by 20% within the EU until 2020. The objective of saving energy consumption in the Czech Republic was set at 47.84 PJ (13.29 TWh). For reducing electricity consumption, it is possible to choose: a) mandatory increasing of energy efficiency, b) alternative scheme, c) combination of both actions. The Czech Republic has chosen for reducing electricity consumption using-alternative scheme. The presentation is focused on the proposal of a technological unit dealing with the gasification process of processing of biomass with an increase of power in the output. The synthesis gas after gasification of biomass is used as fuel in a cogeneration process of reciprocating internal combustion engine with the classic production of heat and electricity. Subsequently, there is an explanation of the ORC system dealing with the conversion of waste heat to electricity with the using closed cycle of the steam process with organic medium. The arising electricity is distributed to the power grid as a further energy source, or it is used for needs of the partial coverage of the technological unit. Furthermore, there is a presented schematic description of the technology with the identification of energy flows starting from the biomass treatment by drying, through its conversion to gaseous fuel, producing of electricity and utilize of thermal energy with minimizing losses. It has been found that using of ORC system increased the efficiency of the produced electricity by 7.5%.

Keywords: biomass, efficiency, gasification, ORC system

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4811 Green Building Practices: Harmonizing Non-Governmental Organizations Roles and Energy Efficiency

Authors: Abimbola A. Adebayo, Kikelomo I. Adebayo


Green buildings provide serious challenges for governments all over the world with regard to achieving energy efficiency in buildings. Energy efficient buildings are needed to keep up with minimal impacts on the environment throughout their cycle and to enhance sustainable development. The lack of awareness and benefits of energy efficient buildings have given rise to NGO’s playing important role in filling data gaps, publicizing information, and undertaking awareness raising and policy engagement activities. However, these roles are countered by concerns about subsidies for evaluations, incentives to facilitate data-sharing, and incentives to finance independent research. On the basis of literature review on experiences with NGO’s involvement in energy efficient buildings, this article identifies governance strategies that stimulate the harmonization of NGO’s roles in green buildings with the objective to increase energy efficiency in buildings.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green buildings, NGOs, sustainable development

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4810 The Effect of Computerized Systems of Office Automation on Employees' Productivity Efficiency

Authors: Mohammad Hemmati, Mohammad Taban, Ali Yasini


One of the factors that can play an important role in increasing productivity is the optimal use of information technology, which in this area today has a significant role to play in computer systems of office automation in organizations and companies. Therefore, this research has been conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of the relationship between computerized systems of office automation and the productivity of employees in the municipality of Ilam city. The statistical population of this study was 110 people. Using Cochran formula, the minimum sample size is 78 people. The present research is a descriptive-looking research in terms of the type of objective view. A questionnaire was used to collect data. To assess the reliability of variables, Cornbrash’s alpha coefficient was used, which was equal to 0.85; SPSS19 and Pearson test were used to analyze the data and test the hypothesis of the research. In this research, three hypotheses of the relationship between office automation with efficiency, performance, and effectiveness were investigated. The results showed a direct and positive relationship between the office automation system and the increase in the efficiency, effectiveness, and efficiency of employees, and there was no reason to reject these hypotheses.

Keywords: efficiency, performance, effectiveness, automation

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4809 Thermohydraulic Performance of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha


This paper deals with the analytical investigation of thermal and thermohydraulic performance of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater has been presented, and a computer program in C++ language is developed to estimate the outlet temperature of air for the evaluation of thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency by solving the governing equations numerically using relevant correlations for heat transfer coefficients. The results obtained from the mathematical model is compared with the available experimental results and it is found to be reasonably good. The results show that the double flow solar air heaters have higher efficiency than conventional solar air heater, although the double flow corrugated absorber is superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. It is also observed that the thermal efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate; however, thermohydraulic efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate up to a certain limit, attains the maximum value, then thereafter decreases sharply.

Keywords: corrugated absorber, double flow, solar air heater, thermos-hydraulic efficiency

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4808 Classifying and Predicting Efficiencies Using Interval DEA Grid Setting

Authors: Yiannis G. Smirlis


The classification and the prediction of efficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is an important issue, especially in large scale problems or when new units frequently enter the under-assessment set. In this paper, we contribute to the subject by proposing a grid structure based on interval segmentations of the range of values for the inputs and outputs. Such intervals combined, define hyper-rectangles that partition the space of the problem. This structure, exploited by Interval DEA models and a dominance relation, acts as a DEA pre-processor, enabling the classification and prediction of efficiency scores, without applying any DEA models.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, interval DEA, efficiency classification, efficiency prediction

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4807 Evaluation of Water Efficiency in Farming: Empirical Evidence from a Semi-Arid Region

Authors: Laura Piedra-Munoz, Angeles Godoy-Duran, Emilio Galdeano-Gomez, Juan C. Perez-Mesa


Spain is very sensitive to water management issues due to its climatic characteristics and the deficit of this resource in many areas of its territory. This study examines the characteristics of the family farms that are more efficient in the use of water, focusing on a semi-arid area located in Almeria, southeast of Spain. In the case of irrigated agriculture, water usage efficiency usually indicates water productivity in terms of yield (kg/m³), or in economic terms (euros/m³). These two water usage indicators were considered to analyse water usage efficiency according to other studies on water efficiency in the horticultural area under analysis. This work also takes into account other water usage characteristics such as water supplied, innovative irrigation practices, water-efficient technology, and water-saving practices. The results show that the most water efficient farms have technical advisors and use irrigation on demand, that measures the water needs of the crops and are considered the most technological irrigation system. These farms are more technological and less labor intensive. They are also aware of water scarcity and the need to conserve the environment. This approach allow managers to identify the principal factors and best practices related to water efficiency in order to promote and implement them in inefficient farms and promote sustainability.

Keywords: cluster analysis, family farms, Spain, sustainability, water-use efficiency

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4806 Measurement of Asphalt Pavement Temperature to Find out the Proper Asphalt Binder Performance Grade to the Asphalt Mixtures in Southern Desert of Libya

Authors: Khlifa El Atrash, Gabriel Assaf


Most developing countries use volumetric analysis in designing asphalt mixtures, which can also be upgraded in hot arid weather. However, in order to be effective, it should include many important aspects which are materials, environment, and method of construction. The overall intent of the work reported in this study is to test different asphalt mixtures while taking into consideration the environment, type and source of material, tools, equipment, and the construction method. In this study, several tests were conducted on many samples that were carefully prepared under the expected traffic loads and temperatures in a dry hot climate. Several asphalt concrete mixtures were designed using two different binders. These mixtures were analyzed under two types of tests - Complex Modulus and Rutting test - to evaluate the hot mix asphalt properties under the represented temperatures and traffic load in Libya. These factors play an important role to improve the pavement performances in a hot climate weather based on the properties of the asphalt mixture, climate, and traffic load. This research summarized some recommendations for making asphalt mixtures used in hot dry areas. Such asphalt mixtures should use asphalt binder which is less affected by pavement temperature change and traffic load. The properties of the mixture, such as durability, deformation, air voids and performance, largely depend on the type of materials, environment, and mixing method. These properties, in turn, affect the pavement performance. Therefore, this study is aimed to develop a method for designing an asphalt mixture that takes into account field loading, various stresses, and temperature spectrums.

Keywords: volumetric analysis, pavement performances, hot climate, asphalt mixture, traffic load

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4805 A Feasibility Study on Producing Bio-Coal from Orange Peel Residue by Using Torrefaction

Authors: Huashan Tai, Chien-Hui Lung


Nowadays people use massive fossil fuels which not only cause environmental impacts and global climate change, but also cause the depletion of non-renewable energy such as coal and oil. Bioenergy is currently the most widely used renewable energy, and agricultural waste is one of the main raw materials for bioenergy. In this study, we use orange peel residue, which is easier to collect from agricultural waste to produce bio-coal by torrefaction. The orange peel residue (with 25 to 30% moisture) was treated by torrefaction, and the experiments were conducted with initial temperature at room temperature (approximately at 25° C), with heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C / min, with terminal temperatures at 150, 200, 250, 300, 350℃, and with residence time of 10, 20, and 30 minutes. The results revealed that the heating value, ash content and energy densification ratio of the solid products after torrefaction are in direct proportion to terminal temperatures and residence time, and are inversely proportional to heating rates. The moisture content, solid mass yield, energy yield, and volumetric energy density of the solid products after torrefaction are inversely proportional to terminal temperatures and residence time, and are in direct proportion to heating rates. In conclusion, we found that the heating values of the solid products were 1.3 times higher than those of the raw orange peels before torrefaction, and the volumetric energy densities were increased by 1.45 times under operating parameters with terminal temperature at 250°C, residence time of 10 minutes, and heating rate of 10°C / min of torrefaction. The results indicated that the residue of orange peel treated by torrefaction improved its energy density and fuel properties, and became more suitable for bio-fuel applications.

Keywords: biomass energy, orange, torrefaction

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4804 Increase of Energy Efficiency by Means of Application of Active Bearings

Authors: Alexander Babin, Leonid Savin


In the present paper, increasing of energy efficiency of a thrust hybrid bearing with a central feeding chamber is considered. The mathematical model was developed to determine the pressure distribution and the reaction forces, based on the Reynolds equation and static characteristics’ equations. The boundary problem of pressure distribution calculation was solved using the method of finite differences. For various types of lubricants, geometry and operational characteristics, axial gaps can be determined, where the minimal friction coefficient is provided. The next part of the study considers the application of servovalves in order to maintain the desired position of the rotor. The report features the calculation results and the analysis of the influence of the operational and geometric parameters on the energy efficiency of mechatronic fluid-film bearings.

Keywords: active bearings, energy efficiency, mathematical model, mechatronics, thrust multipad bearing

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4803 Analysis of Awareness and Climate Change Impact in Energy Efficiency of Household Appliances

Authors: Meltem Ucal


It is obvious that with limited resources and increasing of energy consumption from day to day, increase in amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will increase risk of climate change. The objective of “Raising Awareness in Energy Efficiency of Household Appliances and Climate Change” paper is to make the connection between climate change and energy saving to be understood. First of all, research and evaluation aiming improvement of women’s behaviors of purchasing and using household appliances and also educate next generations who will be faced risks of climate change, with their mothers will be done.

Keywords: energy efficiency, climate change, wareness, household appliences, econometrics model, logit model

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4802 Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) as an Index Measurement for Power Transmission Grid Performance

Authors: Ahmad Abubakar Sadiq, Nwohu Ndubuka Mark, Jacob Tsado, Ahmad Adam Asharaf, Agbachi E. Okenna, Enesi E. Yahaya, Ambafi James Garba


Transmission system performance analysis is vital to proper planning and operations of power systems in the presence of deregulation. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are often used as measure of degree of performance. This paper gives a novel method to determine the transmission efficiency by evaluating the ratio of real power losses incurred from a specified transfer direction. Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) expresses the percentage of real power received resulting from inter-area available power transfer. The Tie line (Rated system path) performance is seen to differ from system wide (Network response) performance and ATTE values obtained are transfer direction specific. The required sending end quantities with specified receiving end ATC and the receiving end power circle diagram are obtained for the tie line analysis. The amount of real power loss load relative to the available transfer capability gives a measure of the transmission grid efficiency.

Keywords: performance, transmission system, real power efficiency, available transfer capability

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
4801 Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne


The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.

Keywords: audio amplifier, multi-level switching amplifier, power efficiency, pulse width modulation, PWM, self-oscillating amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 215