Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1823

Search results for: vertical axis turbine

1823 Effect of Thickness and Solidity on the Performance of Straight Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Jianyang Zhu, Lin Jiang, Tixian Tian


Inspired by the increasing interesting on the wind power associated with production of clear electric power, a numerical experiment is applied to investigate the aerodynamic performance of straight type vertical axis wind turbine with different thickness and solidity, where the incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with dynamic mesh technique is solved. By analyzing the flow field, as well as energy coefficient of different thickness and solidity turbine, it is found that the thickness and solidity can significantly influence the performance of vertical axis wind turbine. For the turbine under low tip speed, the mean energy coefficient increase with the increasing of thickness and solidity, which may improve the self starting performance of the turbine. However for the turbine under high tip speed, the appropriate thickness and smaller solidity turbine possesses better performance. In addition, delay stall and no interaction of the blade and previous separated vortex are observed around appropriate thickness and solidity turbine, therefore lead better performance characteristics.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, N-S equations, dynamic mesh technique, thickness, solidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
1822 Design and Validation of a Darrieus Type Hydrokinetic Turbine for South African Irrigation Canals Experimentally and Computationally

Authors: Maritz Lourens Van Rensburg, Chantel Niebuhr


Utilizing all available renewable energy sources is an ever-growing necessity, this includes a newfound interest into hydrokinetic energy systems, which open the door to installations where conventional hydropower shows no potential. Optimization and obtaining high efficiencies are key in these installations. In this study a vertical axis Darrieus hydrokinetic turbine is designed and constructed to address certain drawbacks experience by axial flow horizontal axis turbines in an irrigation channel. Many horizontal axis turbines have been well developed and optimized to have high efficiencies but depending on the conditions experienced in an open channel, the performance of these turbines may be adversely affected. The study analyses how the designed vertical axis turbine addresses the problems experienced by a horizontal axis turbine while still achieving a satisfactory efficiency. To be able to optimize the vertical axis turbine, a computational fluid dynamics model was validated to the experimental results obtained from the power generated from a test turbine installation operating at various rotational speeds. It was found that an accurate validated model can be obtained through validation of generated power output.

Keywords: hydrokinetic, Darrieus, computational fluid dynamics, vertical axis turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1821 Numerical Study of 5kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using DOE Method

Authors: Yan-Ting Lin, Wei-Nian Su


The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the design of 5kW vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) using DOE method. The NACA0015 airfoil was implemented for the design and 3D simulation. The critical design parameters are chord length, tip speed ratio (TSR), aspect ratio (AR) and pitch angle in this investigation. The RNG k-ε turbulent model and the sliding mesh method are adopted in the CFD simulation. The results show that the model with zero pitch, 0.3 m in chord length, TSR of 3, and AR of 10 demonstrated the optimum aerodynamic power under the uniform 10m/s inlet velocity. The aerodynamic power is 3.61kW and 3.89kW under TSR of 3 and 4 respectively. The aerodynamic power decreased dramatically while TSR increased to 5.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, CFD, DOE, VAWT

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1820 Development of Low Noise Savonius Wind Turbines

Authors: Sanghyeon Kim, Cheolung Cheong


Savonius wind turbines are a drag-type of vertical-axis wind turbine that has been used most commonly as a small-scale wind generator. However, noise is a main hindrance to wide spreading of Savonius wind turbines, just like other wind turbines. Although noise levels radiating from Savonius wind turbines may be relatively low because of their small size, they induce relatively high annoyance due to their prolonged noise exposure to the near community. Therefore, aerodynamic noise of small vertical-axis wind turbines is one of most important design parameters. In this paper, aerodynamic noise characteristics of Savonius wind turbines are investigated using the hybrid CAA techniques, and their low noise designs are proposed based on understanding of noise generation mechanism. First, flow field around the turbine are analyzed by solving 3-D unsteady incompressible RANS equations. Then, noise radiation is predicted using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. Two distinct harmonic noise components, the well-know BPF components and the harmonics whose fundamental frequency is much higher than the BPF are identified. On a basis of this finding, S-shaped blades are proposed as low noise designs and it can reduce the noise levels of Savonius wind turbines by up to 2.7 dB.

Keywords: aerodynamic noise, Savonius wind turbine, vertical-axis wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1819 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie


In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
1818 Material Fracture Dynamic of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: Samir Lecheb, Ahmed Chellil, Hamza Mechakra, Brahim Safi, Houcine Kebir


In this paper we studied fracture and dynamic behavior of vertical axis wind turbine blade, the VAWT is a historical machine, it has many properties, structure, advantage, component to be able to produce the electricity. We modeled the blade design then imported to Abaqus software for analysis the modes shapes, frequencies, stress, strain, displacement and stress intensity factor SIF, after comparison we chose the idol material. Finally, the CTS test of glass epoxy reinforced polymer plates to obtain the material fracture toughness Kc.

Keywords: blade, crack, frequency, material, SIF

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
1817 Optimization of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: C. Andreu Sabater, D. Drago, C. Key-aberg, W. Moukrim, B. Naccache


Present study concerns the optimization of a new vertical axis wind turbine system associated to a dynamoelectric motor. The system is composed by three Savonius wind turbines, arranged in an equilateral triangle. The idea is to propose a new concept of wind turbines through a technical approach allowing find a specific power never obtained before and therefore, a significant reduction of installation costs. In this work different wind flows across the system have been simulated, as well as precise definition of parameters and relations established between them. It will allow define the optimal rotor specific power for a given volume. Calculations have been developed with classical Savonius dimensions.

Keywords: VAWT, savonius, specific power, optimization, weibull

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1816 Performance Prediction of a SANDIA 17-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Improved Double Multiple Streamtube

Authors: Abolfazl Hosseinkhani, Sepehr Sanaye


Different approaches have been used to predict the performance of the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT), such as experimental, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and analytical methods. Analytical methods, such as momentum models that use streamtubes, have low computational cost and sufficient accuracy. The double multiple streamtube (DMST) is one of the most commonly used of momentum models, which divide the rotor plane of VAWT into upwind and downwind. In fact, results from the DMST method have shown some discrepancy compared with experiment results; that is because the Darrieus turbine is a complex and aerodynamically unsteady configuration. In this study, analytical-experimental-based corrections, including dynamic stall, streamtube expansion, and finite blade length correction are used to improve the DMST method. Results indicated that using these corrections for a SANDIA 17-m VAWT will lead to improving the results of DMST.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, analytical, double multiple streamtube, streamtube expansion model, dynamic stall model, finite blade length correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1815 Vibration Signals of Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Aqoul H. H. Alanezy, Ali M. Abdelsalam, Nouby M. Ghazaly


In recent years, progress has been made in increasing the renewable energy share in the power sector particularly in the wind. The experimental study conducted in this paper aims to investigate the effects of number of blades and inflow wind speed on vibration signals of a vertical axis Savonius type wind turbine. The operation of the model of Savonius type wind turbine is conducted to compare two, three and four blades wind turbines to show vibration amplitudes related with wind speed. It is found that the increase of the number of blades leads to decrease of the vibration magnitude. Furthermore, inflow wind speed has reduced effect on the vibration level for higher number of blades.

Keywords: Savonius type wind turbine, number of blades, renewable energy, vibration signals

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
1814 Wind Turbine Powered Car Uses 3 Single Big C-Section Blades

Authors: K. Youssef, Ç. Hüseyin


The blades of a wind turbine have the most important job of any wind turbine component; they must capture the wind and convert it into usable mechanical energy. The objective of this work is to determine the mechanical power of single big C-section of vertical wind turbine for wind car in a two-dimensional model. The wind car has a vertical axis with 3 single big C-section blades mounted at an angle of 120°. Moreover, the three single big C-section blades are directly connected to wheels by using various kinds of links. Gears are used to convert the wind energy to mechanical energy to overcome the load exercised on the main shaft under low speed. This work allowed a comparison of drag characteristics and the mechanical power between the single big C-section blades with the previous work on 3 C-section and 3 double C-section blades for wind car. As a result obtained from the flow chart the torque and power curves of each case study are illustrated and compared with each other. In particular, drag force and torque acting on each types of blade was taken at an airflow speed of 4 m/s, and an angular velocity of 13.056 rad/s.

Keywords: blade, vertical wind turbine, drag characteristics, mechanical power

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
1813 Experimental and CFD of Desgined Small Wind Turbine

Authors: Tarek A. Mekail, Walid M. A. Elmagid


Many researches have concentrated on improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blade through testing and theoretical studies. A small wind turbine blade is designed, fabricated and tested. The power performance of small horizontal axis wind turbines is simulated in details using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The three-dimensional CFD models are presented using ANSYS-CFX v13 software for predicting the performance of a small horizontal axis wind turbine. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data measured from a small wind turbine model, which designed according to a vehicle-based test system. The analysis of wake effect and aerodynamic of the blade can be carried out when the rotational effect was simulated. Finally, comparison between experimental, numerical and analytical performance has been done. The comparison is fairly good.

Keywords: small wind turbine, CFD of wind turbine, CFD, performance of wind turbine, test of small wind turbine, wind turbine aerodynamic, 3D model

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
1812 Effect of Blade Layout on Unidirectional Rotation of a Vertical-Axis Rotor in Waves

Authors: Yingchen Yang


Ocean waves are a rich renewable energy source that is nearly untapped to date, even though many wave energy conversion (WEC) technologies are currently under development. The present work discusses a vertical-axis WEC rotor for power generation. The rotor was specially designed to allow easy rearrangement of the same blades to achieve different rotor configurations and result in different wave-rotor interaction behaviors. These rotor configurations were tested in a wave tank under various wave conditions. The testing results indicate that all the rotor configurations perform unidirectional rotation about the vertical axis in waves, but the response characteristics are somewhat different. The rotor's unidirectional rotation about its vertical axis is essential in wave energy harvesting since it makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency and in any wave propagation directions. Result comparison among different configurations leads to a preferred rotor design for further hydrodynamic optimization.

Keywords: unidirectional rotation, vertical axis rotor, wave energy conversion, wave-rotor interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1811 Numerical Performance Evaluation of a Savonius Wind Turbines Using Resistive Torque Modeling

Authors: Guermache Ahmed Chafik, Khelfellah Ismail, Ait-Ali Takfarines


The Savonius vertical axis wind turbine is characterized by sufficient starting torque at low wind speeds, simple design and does not require orientation to the wind direction; however, the developed power is lower than other types of wind turbines such as Darrieus. To increase these performances several studies and researches have been developed, such as optimizing blades shape, using passive controls and also minimizing power losses sources like the resisting torque due to friction. This work aims to estimate the performance of a Savonius wind turbine introducing a User Defined Function to the CFD model analyzing resisting torque. This User Defined Function is developed to simulate the action of the wind speed on the rotor; it receives the moment coefficient as an input to compute the rotational velocity that should be imposed on computational domain rotating regions. The rotational velocity depends on the aerodynamic moment applied on the turbine and the resisting torque, which is considered a linear function. Linking the implemented User Defined Function with the CFD solver allows simulating the real functioning of the Savonius turbine exposed to wind. It is noticed that the wind turbine takes a while to reach the stationary regime where the rotational velocity becomes invariable; at that moment, the tip speed ratio, the moment and power coefficients are computed. To validate this approach, the power coefficient versus tip speed ratio curve is compared with the experimental one. The obtained results are in agreement with the available experimental results.

Keywords: resistant torque modeling, Savonius wind turbine, user-defined function, vertical axis wind turbine performances

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1810 Numerical Investigation of the Operating Parameters of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz, Tytus Tulwin


This paper describes the geometrical model, algorithm and CFD simulation of an airflow around a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. A solver, ANSYS Fluent, was applied for the numerical simulation. Numerical simulation, unlike experiments, enables us to validate project assumptions when it is designed to avoid a costly preparation of a model or a prototype for a bench test. This research focuses on the rotor designed according to patent no PL 219985 with its blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on a regulation of blade angle α between the top and bottom parts of blades mounted on an axis. If angle α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. CFD calculations enable us to compare aerodynamic characteristics of forces acting on rotor working surfaces and specify rotor operation parameters like torque or turbine assembly power output. This paper is part of the research to improve an efficiency of a rotor assembly and it contains investigation of the impact of a blade angle of wind turbine working blades on the power output as a function of rotor torque, specific rotational speed and wind speed. The simulation was made for wind speeds ranging from 3.4 m/s to 6.2 m/s and blade angles of 30°, 60°, 90°. The simulation enables us to create a mathematical model to describe how aerodynamic forces acting each of the blade of the studied rotor are generated. Also, the simulation results are compared with the wind tunnel ones. This investigation enables us to estimate the growth in turbine power output if a blade angle changes. The regulation of blade angle α enables a smooth change in turbine rotor power, which is a kind of safety measures if the wind is strong. Decreasing blade angle α reduces the risk of damaging or destroying a turbine that is still in operation and there is no complete rotor braking as it is in other Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, mathematical model, numerical analysis, power, renewable energy, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1809 Optimization of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Based on Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Mohammed Affanuddin H. Siddique, Jayesh S. Shukla, Chetan B. Meshram


The neural networks are one of the power tools of machine learning. After the invention of perceptron in early 1980's, the neural networks and its application have grown rapidly. Neural networks are a technique originally developed for pattern investigation. The structure of a neural network consists of neurons connected through synapse. Here, we have investigated the different algorithms and cost function reduction techniques for optimization of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) rotor blades. The aerodynamic force coefficients corresponding to the airfoils are stored in a database along with the airfoil coordinates. A forward propagation neural network is created with the input as aerodynamic coefficients and output as the airfoil co-ordinates. In the proposed algorithm, the hidden layer is incorporated into cost function having linear and non-linear error terms. In this article, it is observed that the ANNs (Artificial Neural Network) can be used for the VAWT’s optimization.

Keywords: VAWT, ANN, optimization, inverse design

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1808 Enhancing Aerodynamic Performance of Savonius Vertical Axis Turbine Used with Triboelectric Generator

Authors: Bhavesh Dadhich, Fenil Bamnoliya, Akshita Swaminathan


This project aims to design a system to generate energy from flowing wind due to the motion of a vehicle on the road or from the flow of wind in compact areas to utilize the wasteful energy into a useful one. It is envisaged through a design and aerodynamic performance improvement of a Savonius vertical axis wind turbine rotor and used in an integrated system with a Triboelectric Nanogenerator (TENG) that can generate a good amount of electrical energy. Aerodynamic calculations are performed numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics software, and TENG's performance is evaluated analytically. The Turbine's coefficient of power is validated with published results for an inlet velocity of 7 m/s with a Tip Speed Ratio of 0.75 and found to reasonably agree with that of experiment results. The baseline design is modified with a new blade arc angle and rotor position angle based on the recommended parameter ranges suggested by previous researchers. Simulations have been performed for different T.S.R. values ranging from 0.25 to 1.5 with an interval of 0.25 with two applicable free stream velocities of 5 m/s and 7m/s. Finally, the newly designed VAWT CFD performance results are used as input for the analytical performance prediction of the triboelectric nanogenerator. The results show that this approach could be feasible and useful for small power source applications.

Keywords: savonius turbine, power, overlap ratio, tip speed ratio, TENG

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1807 The Characteristics of the Operating Parameters of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for the Selected Wind Speed

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz


The paper discusses the results of the research into a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation which was performed with the open return wind tunnel, Gunt HM 170, at the laboratory of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Propulsion Aviation Systems of Lublin University of Technology. Wind tunnel experiments are a necessary step to construct any new type of wind turbine, to validate design assumptions and numerical results. This research focused on the rotor with the blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on adjusting angular aperture α of the top and bottom parts of the blades mounted on an axis. If this angle α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. The study was performed on scaled and geometrically similar models with the criteria of similarity relevant for the type of research preserved. The rotors with varied angular apertures of their blades were printed for the research with a powder 3D printer, ZPrinter® 450. This paper presents the research results for the selected flow speed of 6.5 m/s for the three angular apertures of the rotor blades, i.e. 30°, 60°, 90° at varied speeds. The test stand enables the turbine rotor to be braked to achieve the required speed and airflow speed and torque to be recorded. Accordingly, the torque and power as a function of airflow were plotted. The rotor with its adjustable blades enables turbine power to be adjusted within a wide range of wind speeds. A variable angular aperture of blade working surfaces α in a wind turbine enables us to control the speed of the turbine and consequently its output power. Reducing the angular aperture of working surfaces results in reduced speed, and if a special current generator applied, electrical output power is reduced, too. Speed adjusted by changing angle α enables the maximum load acting on rotor blades to be controlled. The solution under study is a kind of safety against a damage of a turbine due to possible high wind speed.

Keywords: drive torque, renewable energy, power, wind turbine, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1806 Power Generation from Sewage by a Micro-Hydraulic Turbine

Authors: Tomomi Uchiyama, Tomoko Okayama, Yukio Ide


This study is concerned with the development of a micro-hydraulic turbine for power generation installed in sewer pipes. The runner has a circular hollow around the central (rotating) axis so that solid materials included in water can be easily flow through the runner without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are also conducted. The hollow is very effective to make polyester fibers pass through the turbine. The guide vane is useful to heighten the turbine performance. But it is easily blocked by the fibers, making the turbine lose the function.

Keywords: micro-hydraulic turbine, power generation, sewage, sewer pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
1805 A Vertical-Axis Unidirectional Rotor with Nested Blades for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Yingchen Yang


In the present work, development of a new vertical-axis unidirectional wave rotor is reported. The wave rotor is a key component of a wave energy converter (WEC), which harvests energy from ocean waves. Differing from the huge majority of WEC designs that perform reciprocating motions (heaving up and down, swaying back and forth, etc.), our wave rotor performs unidirectional rotation about a vertical axis when directly exposed in waves. The unidirectional feature of the rotor makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency. The vertical axis arrangement of the rotor makes the rotor insensitive to the wave propagation direction. The rotor employs blades with a cross-section in an airfoil shape and a span curled into a semi-oval shape. Two sets of blades, with one nested inside the other, constitute the rotor. In waves, water particles perform an omnidirectional motion that constantly changes in both spatial and temporal domains. The blade nesting permits a compact rotor configuration that ‘sees’ a relatively uniform local flow in the spatial domain. The rotor was experimentally tested in simulated waves in a wave flume under various conditions. The testing results show a promising unidirectional rotor that is capable of extracting energy from waves at a capture width ratio of 0.08 to 0.15, depending on detailed wave conditions.

Keywords: unidirectional, vertical axis, wave energy converter, wave rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
1804 Influence of Geometrical Parameters of a Wind Turbine on the Optimal Tip-Speed Ratio

Authors: Zdzislaw Piotr Kaminski, Miroslaw Wendeker, Zbigniew Czyz


The paper describes the geometric model, calculation algorithm and results of the CFD simulation of the airflow around a rotor in the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with the ANSYS Fluent computational solver. The CFD method enables creating aerodynamic characteristics of forces acting on rotor working surfaces and determining parameters such as torque or power generated by the rotor assembly. The object of the research was a rotor whose construction is based on patent no.PL219985. The conducted tests enabled a mathematical model with a description of the generation of aerodynamic forces acting on each rotor blade. Additionally, this model was compared to the results of the wind tunnel tests. The analysis also focused on the influence of the blade angle on turbine power and the TSR. The research has shown that the turbine blade angle has a significant impact on the optimal value of the TSR.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, renewable energy, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1803 Performance Assessment of Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbine with Variable Length Blades

Authors: Farhana Arzu, Roslan Hashim


Renewable energy is the only alternative sources of energy to meet the current energy demand, healthy environment and future growth which is considered essential for essential sustainable development. Marine renewable energy is one of the major means to meet this demand. Turbines (both horizontal and vertical) play a vital role for extraction of tidal energy. The influence of swept area on the performance improvement of tidal turbine is a vital factor to study for the reduction of relatively high power generation cost in marine industry. This study concentrates on performance investigation of variable length blade tidal turbine concept that has already been proved as an efficient way to improve energy extraction in the wind industry. The concept of variable blade length utilizes the idea of increasing swept area through the turbine blade extension when the tidal stream velocity falls below the rated condition to maximize energy capture while blade retracts above rated condition. A three bladed horizontal axis variable length blade horizontal axis tidal turbine was modelled by modifying a standard fixed length blade turbine. Classical blade element momentum theory based numerical investigation has been carried out using QBlade software to predict performance. The results obtained from QBlade were compared with the available published results and found very good agreement. Three major performance parameters (i.e., thrust, moment, and power coefficients) and power output for different blade extensions were studied and compared with a standard fixed bladed baseline turbine at certain operational conditions. Substantial improvement in performance coefficient is observed with the increase in swept area of the turbine rotor. Power generation is found to increase in great extent when operating at below rated tidal stream velocity reducing the associated cost per unit electric power generation.

Keywords: variable length blade, performance, tidal turbine, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
1802 Mathematical Modelling of a Low Tip Speed Ratio Wind Turbine for System Design Evaluation

Authors: Amir Jalalian-Khakshour, T. N. Croft


Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) systems are becoming increasingly popular as they have a number of advantages over traditional wind turbines. The advantages are reliability, ease of transportation and manufacturing. These attributes could make these technologies useful in developing economies. The performance characteristics of a VAWT are different from a horizontal axis wind turbine, which can be attributed to the low tip speed ratio operation. To unlock the potential of these VAWT systems, the operational behaviour in a number of system topologies and environmental conditions needs to be understood. In this study, a non-linear dynamic simulation method was developed in Matlab and validated against in field data of a large scale, 8-meter rotor diameter prototype. This simulation method has been utilised to determine the performance characteristics of a number of control methods and system topologies. The motivation for this research was to develop a simulation method which accurately captures the operating behaviour and is computationally inexpensive. The model was used to evaluate the performance through parametric studies and optimisation techniques. The study gave useful insights into the applications and energy generation potential of this technology.

Keywords: power generation, renewable energy, rotordynamics, wind energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
1801 Second Order MIMO Sliding Mode Controller for Nonlinear Modeled Wind Turbine

Authors: Alireza Toloei, Ahmad R. Saffary, Reza Ghasemi


Due to the growing need for energy and limited fossil resources, the use of renewable energy, particularly wind is strongly favored. We all wind energy can’t be saved. Betz law, 59% of the total kinetic energy of the wind turbine is extracting. Therefore turbine control to achieve maximum performance and maintain stable conditions seem necessary. In this article, we plan for a horizontal axis wind turbine variable-speed variable-pitch nonlinear controller to obtain maximum output power. The model presented in this article, including a wide range of wind turbines are horizontal axis. However, the parameters used in this model is from Vestas V29 225 kW wind turbine. We designed second order sliding mode controller, which was robust in the face of changes in wind speed and it eliminated chattering by using of super twisting algorithm. Finally, using MATLAB software to simulate the results we considered the accuracy of the simulation results.

Keywords: non linear controller, robust, sliding mode, kinetic energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
1800 Power Performance Improvement of 500W Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Salient Design Parameters

Authors: Young-Tae Lee, Hee-Chang Lim


This paper presents the performance characteristics of Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with NACA airfoil blades. The performance of Darrieus-type VAWT can be characterized by torque and power. There are various parameters affecting the performance such as chord length, helical angle, pitch angle and rotor diameter. To estimate the optimum shape of Darrieustype wind turbine in accordance with various design parameters, we examined aerodynamic characteristics and separated flow occurring in the vicinity of blade, interaction between flow and blade, and torque and power characteristics derived from it. For flow analysis, flow variations were investigated based on the unsteady RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) equation. Sliding mesh algorithm was employed in order to consider rotational effect of blade. To obtain more realistic results we conducted experiment and numerical analysis at the same time for three-dimensional shape. In addition, several parameters (chord length, rotor diameter, pitch angle, and helical angle) were considered to find out optimum shape design and characteristics of interaction with ambient flow. Since the NACA airfoil used in this study showed significant changes in magnitude of lift and drag depending on an angle of attack, the rotor with low drag, long cord length and short diameter shows high power coefficient in low tip speed ratio (TSR) range. On the contrary, in high TSR range, drag becomes high. Hence, the short-chord and long-diameter rotor produces high power coefficient. When a pitch angle at which airfoil directs toward inside equals to -2° and helical angle equals to 0°, Darrieus-type VAWT generates maximum power.

Keywords: darrieus wind turbine, VAWT, NACA airfoil, performance

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1799 Prediction of the Mechanical Power in Wind Turbine Powered Car Using Velocity Analysis

Authors: Abdelrahman Alghazali, Youssef Kassem, Hüseyin Çamur, Ozan Erenay


Savonius is a drag type vertical axis wind turbine. Savonius wind turbines have a low cut-in speed and can operate at low wind speed. This makes it suitable for electricity or mechanical generation in low-power applications such as individual domestic installations. Therefore, the primary purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the type of Savonius rotor and the torque and mechanical power generated. And it was to illustrate how the type of rotor might play an important role in the prediction of mechanical power of wind turbine powered car. The main purpose of this paper is to predict and investigate the aerodynamic effects by means of velocity analysis on the performance of a wind turbine powered car by converting the wind energy into mechanical energy to overcome load that rotates the main shaft. The predicted results based on theoretical analysis were compared with experimental results obtained from literature. The percentage of error between the two was approximately around 20%. Prediction of the torque was done at a wind speed of 4 m/s, and an angular velocity of 130 RPM according to meteorological statistics in Northern Cyprus.

Keywords: mechanical power, torque, Savonius rotor, wind car

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1798 Sensitivity Analysis Optimization of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine from Its Aerodynamic Profiles

Authors: Kevin Molina, Daniel Ortega, Manuel Martinez, Andres Gonzalez-Estrada, William Pinto


Due to the increasing environmental impact, the wind energy is getting strong. This research studied the relationship between the power produced by a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and the aerodynamic profiles used for its construction. The analysis is studied using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD), presenting the parallel between the energy generated by a turbine designed with selected profiles and another one optimized. For the study, a selection process was carried out from profile NACA 6 digits recommended by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the construction of this type of turbines. The selection was taken into account different characteristics of the wind (speed and density) and the profiles (aerodynamic coefficients Cl and Cd to different Reynolds and incidence angles). From the selected profiles, was carried out a sensitivity analysis optimization process between its geometry and the aerodynamic forces that are induced on it. The 3D model of the turbines was realized using the Blade Element Momentum method (BEM) and both profiles. The flow fields on the turbines were simulated, obtaining the forces induced on the blade, the torques produced and an increase of 3% in power due to the optimized profiles. Therefore, the results show that the sensitivity analysis optimization process can assist to increment the wind turbine power.

Keywords: blade element momentum, blade, fluid structure interaction, horizontal axis wind turbine, profile design

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1797 Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade Made with Natural Fiber Based Composite Material

Authors: Ivan D. Ortega, Juan D. Castro, Alberto Pertuz, Manuel Martinez


One of the problems considered when scientists talk about climate change is the necessity of utilizing renewable sources of energy, on this category there are many approaches to the problem, one of them is wind energy and wind turbines whose designs have frequently changed along many years trying to achieve a better overall performance on different conditions. From that situation, we get the two main types known today: Vertical and Horizontal axis wind turbines, which have acronyms VAWT and HAWT, respectively. This research aims to understand how well suited a composite material, which is still in development, made with natural origin fibers is for its implementation on vertical axis wind turbines blades under certain wind loads. The study consisted on acquiring the mechanical properties of the materials to be used which where bactris guineenis, also known as pama de lata in Colombia, and adhesive that acts as the matrix which had not been previously studied to the point required for this project. Then, a simplified 3D model of the airfoil was developed and tested under some preliminary loads using finite element analysis (FEA), these loads were acquired in the Colombian Chicamocha Canyon. Afterwards, a more realistic pressure profile was obtained using computational fluid dynamics which took into account the 3D shape of the complete blade and its rotation. Finally, the blade model was subjected to the wind loads using what is known as one way fluidstructure interaction (FSI) and its behavior analyzed to draw conclusions. The observed overall results were positive since the material behaved fairly as expected. Data suggests the material would be really useful in this kind of applications in small to medium size turbines if it is given more attention and time to develop.

Keywords: CFD, FEA, FSI, natural fiber, VAWT

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1796 Adaptive Nonlinear Control of a Variable Speed Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine: Controller for Optimal Power Capture

Authors: Rana M. Mostafa, Nouby M. Ghazaly, Ahmed S. Ali


This article introduces a solution for increasing the wind energy extracted from turbines to overcome the more electric power required. This objective provides a new science discipline; wind turbine control. This field depends on the development in power electronics to provide new control strategies for turbines. Those strategies should deal with all turbine operating modes. Here there are two control strategies developed for variable speed horizontal axis wind turbine for rated and over rated wind speed regions. These strategies will support wind energy validation, decrease manufacturing overhead cost. Here nonlinear adaptive method was used to design speed controllers to a scheme for ‘Aeolos50 kw’ wind turbine connected to permanent magnet generator via a gear box which was built on MATLAB/Simulink. These controllers apply maximum power point tracking concept to guarantee goal achievement. Procedures were carried to test both controllers efficiency. The results had been shown that the developed controllers are acceptable and this can be easily declared from simulation results.

Keywords: adaptive method, pitch controller, wind energy, nonlinear control

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1795 Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Saim Iftikhar Awan, Farhan Ali


Wind power has now become one of the most important resources of renewable energy. The machine which extracts kinetic energy from wind is wind turbine. This work is all about the electrical power analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine to check the efficiency of different configurations of wind turbines to get maximum output and comparison of experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results. Different experiments have been performed to obtain that configuration with the help of which we can get the maximum electrical power output by changing the different parameters like the number of blades, blade shape, wind speed, etc. in first step experimentation is done, and then the similar configuration is designed in 3D CAD software. After a series of experiments, it has been found that the turbine with four blades at an angle of 75° gives maximum power output and increase in wind speed increases the power output. The models designed on CAD software are imported on ANSYS-FLUENT to predict mechanical power. This mechanical power is then converted into electrical power, and the results were approximately the same in both cases. In the end, a comparison has been done to compare the results of experiments and ANSYS-FLUENT.

Keywords: computational analysis, power efficiency, wind energy, wind turbine

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1794 Investigations of Flow Field with Different Turbulence Models on NREL Phase VI Blade

Authors: T. Y. Liu, C. H. Lin, Y. M. Ferng


Wind energy is one of the clean renewable energy. However, the low frequency (20-200HZ) noise generated from the wind turbine blades, which bothers the residents, becomes the major problem to be developed. It is useful for predicting the aerodynamic noise by flow field and pressure distribution analysis on the wind turbine blades. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to use different turbulence models to analyse the flow field and pressure distributions of the wing blades. Three-dimensional Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field was used to calculate the flow phenomena for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI horizontal axis wind turbine rotor. Two different flow cases with different wind speeds were investigated: 7m/s with 72rpm and 15m/s with 72rpm. Four kinds of RANS-based turbulence models, Standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, SST k-ω, and v2f, were used to predict and analyse the results in the present work. The results show that the predictions on pressure distributions with SST k-ω and v2f turbulence models have good agreements with experimental data.

Keywords: horizontal axis wind turbine, turbulence model, noise, fluid dynamics

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