Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: vendor lock-in

45 Vendor Selection and Supply Quotas Determination by Using Revised Weighting Method and Multi-Objective Programming Methods

Authors: Tunjo Perič, Marin Fatović

Abstract:

In this paper a new methodology for vendor selection and supply quotas determination (VSSQD) is proposed. The problem of VSSQD is solved by the model that combines revised weighting method for determining the objective function coefficients, and a multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) method based on the cooperative game theory for VSSQD. The criteria used for VSSQD are: (1) purchase costs and (2) product quality supplied by individual vendors. The proposed methodology is tested on the example of flour purchase for a bakery with two decision makers.

Keywords: cooperative game theory, multiple objective linear programming, revised weighting method, vendor selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
44 Using Blockchain Technology to Extend the Vendor Managed Inventory for Sustainability

Authors: Elham Ahmadi, Roshaali Khaturia, Pardis Sahraei, Mohammad Niyayesh, Omid Fatahi Valilai

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Nowadays, Information Technology (IT) is changing the way traditional enterprise management concepts work. One of the most dominant IT achievements is the Blockchain Technology. This technology enables the distributed collaboration of stakeholders for their interactions while fulfilling the security and consensus rules among them. This paper has focused on the application of Blockchain technology to enhance one of traditional inventory management models. The Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) has been considered one of the most efficient mechanisms for vendor inventory planning by the suppliers. While VMI has brought competitive advantages for many industries, however its centralized mechanism limits the collaboration of a pool of suppliers and vendors simultaneously. This paper has studied the recent research for VMI application in industries and also has investigated the applications of Blockchain technology for decentralized collaboration of stakeholders. Focusing on sustainability issue for total supply chain consisting suppliers and vendors, it has proposed a Blockchain based VMI conceptual model. The different capabilities of this model for enabling the collaboration of stakeholders while maintaining the competitive advantages and sustainability issues have been discussed.

Keywords: vendor managed inventory, VMI, blockchain technology, supply chain planning, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
43 Analysis of Two-Echelon Supply Chain with Perishable Items under Stochastic Demand

Authors: Saeed Poormoaied

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Perishability and developing an intelligent control policy for perishable items are the major concerns of marketing managers in a supply chain. In this study, we address a two-echelon supply chain problem for perishable items with a single vendor and a single buyer. The buyer adopts an aged-based continuous review policy which works by taking both the stock level and the aging process of items into account. The vendor works under the warehouse framework, where its lot size is determined with respect to the batch size of the buyer. The model holds for a positive and fixed lead time for the buyer, and zero lead time for the vendor. The demand follows a Poisson process and any unmet demand is lost. We provide exact analytic expressions for the operational characteristics of the system by using the renewal reward theorem. Items have a fixed lifetime after which they become unusable and are disposed of from the buyer's system. The age of items starts when they are unpacked and ready for the consumption at the buyer. When items are held by the vendor, there is no aging process which results in no perishing at the vendor's site. The model is developed under the centralized framework, which takes the expected profit of both vendor and buyer into consideration. The goal is to determine the optimal policy parameters under the service level constraint at the retailer's site. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the effect of the key input parameters on the expected profit and order quantity in the supply chain. The efficiency of the proposed age-based policy is also evaluated through a numerical study. Our results show that when the unit perishing cost is negligible, a significant cost saving is achieved.

Keywords: two-echelon supply chain, perishable items, age-based policy, renewal reward theorem

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42 Extended Intuitionistic Fuzzy VIKOR Method in Group Decision Making: The Case of Vendor Selection Decision

Authors: Nastaran Hajiheydari, Mohammad Soltani Delgosha

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Vendor (supplier) selection is a group decision-making (GDM) process, in which, based on some predetermined criteria, the experts’ preferences are provided in order to rank and choose the most desirable suppliers. In the real business environment, our attitudes or our choices would be made in an uncertain and indecisive situation could not be expressed in a crisp framework. Intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs) could handle such situations in the best way. VIKOR method was developed to solve multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems. This method, which is used to determine the compromised feasible solution with respect to the conflicting criteria, introduces a multi-criteria ranking index based on the particular measure of 'closeness' to the 'ideal solution'. Until now, there has been a little investigation of VIKOR with IFS, therefore we extended the intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) VIKOR to solve vendor selection problem under IF GDM environment. The present study intends to develop an IF VIKOR method in a GDM situation. Therefore, a model is presented to calculate the criterion weights based on entropy measure. Then, the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy weighted geometric (IFWG) operator utilized to obtain the total decision matrix. In the next stage, an approach based on the positive idle intuitionistic fuzzy number (PIIFN) and negative idle intuitionistic fuzzy number (NIIFN) was developed. Finally, the application of the proposed method to solve a vendor selection problem illustrated.

Keywords: group decision making, intuitionistic fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy entropy measure, vendor selection, VIKOR

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
41 Stochastic Optimization of a Vendor-Managed Inventory Problem in a Two-Echelon Supply Chain

Authors: Bita Payami-Shabestari, Dariush Eslami

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The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi-product economic production quantity model under vendor management inventory policy and restrictions including limited warehouse space, budget, and number of orders, average shortage time and maximum permissible shortage. Since the “costs” cannot be predicted with certainty, it is assumed that data behave under uncertain environment. The problem is first formulated into the framework of a bi-objective of multi-product economic production quantity model. Then, the problem is solved with three multi-objective decision-making (MODM) methods. Then following this, three methods had been compared on information on the optimal value of the two objective functions and the central processing unit (CPU) time with the statistical analysis method and the multi-attribute decision-making (MADM). The results are compared with statistical analysis method and the MADM. The results of the study demonstrate that augmented-constraint in terms of optimal value of the two objective functions and the CPU time perform better than global criteria, and goal programming. Sensitivity analysis is done to illustrate the effect of parameter variations on the optimal solution. The contribution of this research is the use of random costs data in developing a multi-product economic production quantity model under vendor management inventory policy with several constraints.

Keywords: economic production quantity, random cost, supply chain management, vendor-managed inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
40 Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM): A Simplified Alternative for Implementing SCRM for Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Paul W. Murray, Marco Barajas

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Recent changes in supply chains, especially globalization and collaboration, have created new risks for enterprises of all sizes. A variety of complex frameworks, often based on enterprise risk management strategies have been presented under the heading of Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM). The literature on promotes the benefits of a robust SCRM strategy; however, implementing SCRM is difficult and resource demanding for Large Enterprises (LEs), and essentially out of reach for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). This research debunks the idea that SCRM is necessary for all enterprises and instead proposes a simple and effective Vendor Selection Template (VST). Empirical testing and a survey of supply chain practitioners provide a measure of validation to the VST. The resulting VSTis a valuable contribution because is easy to use, provides practical results, and is sufficiently flexible to be universally applied to SMEs.

Keywords: multiple regression analysis, supply chain management, risk assessment, vendor selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
39 Multi Cloud Storage Systems for Resource Constrained Mobile Devices: Comparison and Analysis

Authors: Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta

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Cloud storage is a model of online data storage where data is stored in virtualized pool of servers hosted by third parties (CSPs) and located in different geographical locations. Cloud storage revolutionized the way how users access their data online anywhere, anytime and using any device as a tablet, mobile, laptop, etc. A lot of issues as vendor lock-in, frequent service outage, data loss and performance related issues exist in single cloud storage systems. So to evade these issues, the concept of multi cloud storage introduced. There are a lot of multi cloud storage systems exists in the market for mobile devices. In this article, we are providing comparison of four multi cloud storage systems for mobile devices Otixo, Unclouded, Cloud Fuze, and Clouds and evaluate their performance on the basis of CPU usage, battery consumption, time consumption and data usage parameters on three mobile phones Nexus 5, Moto G and Nexus 7 tablet and using Wi-Fi network. Finally, open research challenges and future scope are discussed.

Keywords: cloud storage, multi cloud storage, vendor lock-in, mobile devices, mobile cloud computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
38 The Optimal Order Policy for the Newsvendor Model under Worker Learning

Authors: Sunantha Teyarachakul

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We consider the worker-learning Newsvendor Model, under the case of lost-sales for unmet demand, with the research objective of proposing the cost-minimization order policy and lot size, scheduled to arrive at the beginning of the selling-period. In general, the New Vendor Model is used to find the optimal order quantity for the perishable items such as fashionable products or those with seasonal demand or short-life cycles. Technically, it is used when the product demand is stochastic and available for the single selling-season, and when there is only a one time opportunity for the vendor to purchase, with possibly of long ordering lead-times. Our work differs from the classical Newsvendor Model in that we incorporate the human factor (specifically worker learning) and its influence over the costs of processing units into the model. We describe this by using the well-known Wright’s Learning Curve. Most of the assumptions of the classical New Vendor Model are still maintained in our work, such as the constant per-unit cost of leftover and shortage, the zero initial inventory, as well as the continuous time. Our problem is challenging in the way that the best order quantity in the classical model, which is balancing the over-stocking and under-stocking costs, is no longer optimal. Specifically, when adding the cost-saving from worker learning to such expected total cost, the convexity of the cost function will likely not be maintained. This has called for a new way in determining the optimal order policy. In response to such challenges, we found a number of characteristics related to the expected cost function and its derivatives, which we then used in formulating the optimal ordering policy. Examples of such characteristics are; the optimal order quantity exists and is unique if the demand follows a Uniform Distribution; if the demand follows the Beta Distribution with some specific properties of its parameters, the second derivative of the expected cost function has at most two roots; and there exists the specific level of lot size that satisfies the first order condition. Our research results could be helpful for analysis of supply chain coordination and of the periodic review system for similar problems.

Keywords: inventory management, Newsvendor model, order policy, worker learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
37 Basics for Corruption Reduction and Fraud Prevention in Industrial/Humanitarian Organizations through Supplier Management in Supply Chain Systems

Authors: Ibrahim Burki

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Unfortunately, all organizations (Industrial and Humanitarian/ Non-governmental organizations) are prone to fraud and corruption in their supply chain management routines. The reputational and financial fallout can be disastrous. With the growing number of companies using suppliers based in the local market has certainly increased the threat of fraud as well as corruption. There are various potential threats like, poor or non-existent record keeping, purchasing of lower quality goods at higher price, excessive entertainment of staff by suppliers, deviations in communications between procurement staff and suppliers, such as calls or text messaging to mobile phones, staff demanding extended periods of notice before they allow an audit to take place, inexperienced buyers and more. But despite all the above-mentioned threats, this research paper emphasize upon the effectiveness of well-maintained vendor/s records and sorting/filtration of vendor/s to cut down the possible threats of corruption and fraud. This exercise is applied in a humanitarian organization of Pakistan but it is applicable to whole South Asia region due to the similarity of culture and contexts. In that firm, there were more than 550 (five hundred and fifty) registered vendors. As during the disasters or emergency phases requirements are met on urgent basis thus, providing golden opportunities for the fake companies or for the brother/sister companies of the already registered companies to be involved in the tendering process without declaration or even under some different (new) company’s name. Therefore, a list of required documents (along with checklist) was developed and sent to all of the vendor(s) in the current database and based upon the receipt of the requested documents vendors were sorted out. Furthermore, these vendors were divided into active (meeting the entire set criterion) and non-active groups. This initial filtration stage allowed the firm to continue its work without a complete shutdown that is only vendors falling in the active group shall be allowed to participate in the tenders by the time whole process is completed. Likewise only those companies or firms meeting the set criterion (active category) shall be allowed to get registered in the future along with a dedicated filing system (soft and hard shall be maintained), and all of the companies/firms in the active group shall be physically verified (visited) by the Committee comprising of senior members of at least Finance department, Supply Chain (other than procurement) and Security department.

Keywords: corruption reduction, fraud prevention, supplier management, industrial/humanitarian organizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
36 Applying (1, T) Ordering Policy in a Multi-Vendor-Single-Buyer Inventory System with Lost Sales and Poisson Demand

Authors: Adel Nikfarjam, Hamed Tayebi, Sadoullah Ebrahimnejad

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This paper considers a two-echelon inventory system with a number of warehouses and a single retailer. The retailer replenishes its required items from warehouses, and assembles them into a single final product. We assume that each warehouse supplies only one kind of the raw material for the retailer. The demand process of the final product is assumed to be Poissson, and unsatisfied demand of the final product will be lost. The retailer applies one-for-one-period ordering policy which is also known as (1, T) ordering policy. In this policy the retailer orders to each warehouse a fixed quantity of each item at fixed time intervals, which the fixed quantity is equal to the utilization of the item in the final product. Since, this policy eliminates all demand uncertainties at the upstream echelon, the standard lot sizing model can be applied at all warehouses. In this paper, we calculate the total cost function of the inventory system. Then, based on this function, we present a procedure to obtain the optimal time interval between two consecutive order placements from retailer to the warehouses, and the optimal order quantities of warehouses (assuming that there are positive ordering costs at warehouses). Finally, we present some numerical examples, and conduct numerical sensitivity analysis for cost parameters.

Keywords: two-echelon supply chain, multi-vendor-single-buyer inventory system, lost sales, Poisson demand, one-for-one-period policy, lot sizing model

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
35 Reinforced Concrete Foundation for Turbine Generators

Authors: Siddhartha Bhattacharya

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Steam Turbine-Generators (STG) and Combustion Turbine-Generator (CTG) are used in almost all modern petrochemical, LNG plants and power plant facilities. The reinforced concrete table top foundations are required to support these high speed rotating heavy machineries and is one of the most critical and challenging structures on any industrial project. The paper illustrates through a practical example, the step by step procedure adopted in designing a table top foundation supported on piles for a steam turbine generator with operating speed of 60 Hz. Finite element model of a table top foundation is generated in ANSYS. Piles are modeled as springs-damper elements (COMBIN14). Basic loads are adopted in analysis and design of the foundation based on the vendor requirements, industry standards, and relevant ASCE & ACI codal provisions. Static serviceability checks are performed with the help of Misalignment Tolerance Matrix (MTM) method in which the percentage of misalignment at a given bearing due to displacement at another bearing is calculated and kept within the stipulated criteria by the vendor so that the machine rotor can sustain the stresses developed due to this misalignment. Dynamic serviceability checks are performed through modal and forced vibration analysis where the foundation is checked for resonance and allowable amplitudes, as stipulated by the machine manufacturer. Reinforced concrete design of the foundation is performed by calculating the axial force, bending moment and shear at each of the critical sections. These values are calculated through area integral of the element stresses at these critical locations. Design is done as per ACI 318-05.

Keywords: steam turbine generator foundation, finite element, static analysis, dynamic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
34 Maintenance Performance Measurement Derived Optimization: A Case Study

Authors: James M. Wakiru, Liliane Pintelon, Peter Muchiri, Stanley Mburu

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Maintenance performance measurement (MPM) represents an integrated aspect that considers both operational and maintenance related aspects while evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of maintenance to ensure assets are working as they should. Three salient issues require to be addressed for an asset-intensive organization to employ an MPM-based framework to optimize maintenance. Firstly, the organization should establish important perfomance metric(s), in this case the maintenance objective(s), which they will be focuss on. The second issue entails aligning the maintenance objective(s) with maintenance optimization. This is achieved by deriving maintenance performance indicators that subsequently form an objective function for the optimization program. Lastly, the objective function is employed in an optimization program to derive maintenance decision support. In this study, we develop a framework that initially identifies the crucial maintenance performance measures, and employs them to derive maintenance decision support. The proposed framework is demonstrated in a case study of a geothermal drilling rig, where the objective function is evaluated utilizing a simulation-based model whose parameters are derived from empirical maintenance data. Availability, reliability and maintenance inventory are depicted as essential objectives requiring further attention. A simulation model is developed mimicking a drilling rig operations and maintenance where the sub-systems are modelled undergoing imperfect maintenance, corrective (CM) and preventive (PM), with the total cost as the primary performance measurement. Moreover, three maintenance spare inventory policies are considered; classical (retaining stocks for a contractual period), vendor-managed inventory with consignment stock and periodic monitoring order-to-stock (s, S) policy. Optimization results infer that the adoption of (s, S) inventory policy, increased PM interval and reduced reliance of CM actions offers improved availability and total costs reduction.

Keywords: maintenance, vendor-managed, decision support, performance, optimization

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33 The Need to Enhance Online Consumer Protection in KSA

Authors: Abdulrahman Aloufi

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E-commerce has evolved to become a functional and mainstream tool of global trading, including in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Consequently, online consumers need protection just as much as consumers in the offline world. In 2019, the Ministry of Commerce in Saudi Arabia established a so-called ‘e-commerce law’; however, this law does not cover the court enforcement of contracts entered into by international vendors, so it is not applicable in cross-border situations. The purpose of this paper is to identify the gaps present in this new e-commerce law in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: consumer protection, e-commerce law, Saudi consumer, international vendor

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
32 Informal Economy: Case Study of Street Vendors in Bangkok

Authors: Kangrij Roeksiripat

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Street vending is one of the informal economy activities which considered significance to Thai people in the economic and the day-to-day social life. It had been believed that the street vendor is a group of the poor and uneducated people. With the increasing numbers of the street vendor occupying space on public sidewalks especially in central business districts, it becomes unclear whether street vending continues as a solution to unemployment for access labors. This research attempts to study and analyze types of street vendors in Bangkok under the informal economy framework. The debate on the heterogeneous informal economy has categorized into four schools; the dualism, the structuralism, the legalism and the voluntarism. The examination also embodies with market concept with Porter’s Five Forces of Competitive Position Model analysis and the interviews with the street vendors in three case study areas: Inner zone (Pathumwan district - the sidewalk on the opposite side of Siam Paragon mall), Middle zone (Ramkhamhaeng district - the sidewalk on the opposite side of Ramkhamhaeng University) and Outer zone (Minburi district- the sidewalk of Sriburanukit Road). The result indicates that most of street vendors in Siam square are voluntarily choose to make a living in vending on a sidewalk and tend to take it as a long-term occupation even though they can be in formal wage employment. Moreover, average income and positive attitude towards self-employed are the important factors that drive them to operate street vending businesses. Meanwhile, street vending is often a family enterprise in Ramkhamhaeng area and most vendors do not wish to transform their businesses into the formal sectors. Whereas the survey conducted in Sriburankit Road reveals that almost all of street vendors migrated from other provinces and were previously paid as the unskilled workers in formal sectors. They moved to informal trades because of the uncertainty of employment in the mainstream sectors and the inconsistent income with knowledge support of friends and relatives from the same hometown. In particular, the result reveals a common pattern that street vending is the very first occupation of some group of vendors and they will continue to engage in this activity. Thus, it is important for the government to design optimal policy which not only integrating informal workers into the formal economy but also monitoring the enforcement of regulations on the modern informal economy.

Keywords: informal economy, sidewalks, street vendors, occupation

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
31 A Review Paper for Detecting Zero-Day Vulnerabilities

Authors: Tshegofatso Rambau, Tonderai Muchenje

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Zero-day attacks (ZDA) are increasing day by day; there are many vulnerabilities in systems and software that date back decades. Companies keep discovering vulnerabilities in their systems and software and work to release patches and updates. A zero-day vulnerability is a software fault that is not widely known and is unknown to the vendor; attackers work very quickly to exploit these vulnerabilities. These are major security threats with a high success rate because businesses lack the essential safeguards to detect and prevent them. This study focuses on the factors and techniques that can help us detect zero-day attacks. There are various methods and techniques for detecting vulnerabilities. Various companies like edges can offer penetration testing and smart vulnerability management solutions. We will undertake literature studies on zero-day attacks and detection methods, as well as modeling approaches and simulations, as part of the study process.

Keywords: zero-day attacks, exploitation, vulnerabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
30 Control the Flow of Big Data

Authors: Shizra Waris, Saleem Akhtar

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Big data is a research area receiving attention from academia and IT communities. In the digital world, the amounts of data produced and stored have within a short period of time. Consequently this fast increasing rate of data has created many challenges. In this paper, we use functionalism and structuralism paradigms to analyze the genesis of big data applications and its current trends. This paper presents a complete discussion on state-of-the-art big data technologies based on group and stream data processing. Moreover, strengths and weaknesses of these technologies are analyzed. This study also covers big data analytics techniques, processing methods, some reported case studies from different vendor, several open research challenges and the chances brought about by big data. The similarities and differences of these techniques and technologies based on important limitations are also investigated. Emerging technologies are suggested as a solution for big data problems.

Keywords: computer, it community, industry, big data

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29 A 'Systematic Literature Review' of Specific Types of Inventory Faced by the Management of Firms

Authors: Rui Brito

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This contribution regards a literature review of inventory management that is a relevant topic for the firms, due to its important use of capital with implications in firm’s profitability within the complexity of a more competitive and globalized world. Firms look for small inventories in order to reduce holding costs, namely opportunity cost, warehousing and handling costs, deterioration and being out of style, but larger inventories are required by some reasons, such as customer service, ordering cost, transportation cost, supplier’s payment to reduce unit costs or to take advantage of price increase in the near future, and equipment setup cost. Thus, management shall address a trade-off between small inventories and larger inventories. This literature review concerns three types of inventory (spare parts, safety stock, and vendor) whose management usually is beyond the scope of logistics. The applied methodology consisted of an online search of databases regarding scientific documents in English, namely Elsevier, Springer, Emerald, Wiley, and Taylor & Francis, but excluding books except if edited, using search engines, such as Google Scholar and B-on. The search was based on three keywords/strings (themes) which had to be included just as in the article title, suggesting themes were very relevant to the researchers. The whole search period was between 2009 and 2018 with the aim of collecting between twenty and forty studies considered relevant within each of the key words/strings specified. Documents were sorted by relevance and to prevent the exclusion of the more recent articles, based on lower quantity of citations partially due to less time to be cited in new research articles, the search period was divided into two sub-periods (2009-2015 and 2016-2018). The number of surveyed articles by theme showed a variation from 40 to 200 and the number of citations of those articles showed a wider variation from 3 to 216. Selected articles from the three themes were analyzed and the first seven of the first sub-period and the first three of the second sub-period with more citations were read in full to make a synopsis of each article. Overall, the findings show that the majority of article types were models, namely mathematical, although with different sub-types for each theme. Almost all articles suggest further studies, with some mentioning it for their own author(s), which widen the diversity of the previous research. Identified research gaps concern the use of surveys to know which are the models more used by firms, the reasons for not using the models with more performance and accuracy, and which are the satisfaction levels with the outcomes of the inventories management and its effect on the improvement of the firm’s overall performance. The review ends with the limitations and contributions of the study.

Keywords: inventory management, safety stock, spare parts inventory, vendor managed inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
28 Progress Towards Optimizing and Standardizing Fiducial Placement Geometry in Prostate, Renal, and Pancreatic Cancer

Authors: Shiva Naidoo, Kristena Yossef, Grimm Jimm, Mirza Wasique, Eric Kemmerer, Joshua Obuch, Anand Mahadevan

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Background: Fiducial markers effectively enhance tumor target visibility prior to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy or Proton therapy. To streamline clinical practice, fiducial placement guidelines from a robotic radiosurgery vendor were examined with the goals of optimizing and standardizing feasible geometries for each treatment indication. Clinical examples of prostate, renal, and pancreatic cases are presented. Methods: Vendor guidelines (Accuray, Sunnyvale, Ca) suggest implantation of 4–6 fiducials at least 20 mm apart, with at least a 15-degree angular difference between fiducials, within 50 mm or less from the target centroid, to ensure that any potential fiducial motion (e.g., from respiration or abdominal/pelvic pressures) will mimic target motion. Also recommended is that all fiducials can be seen in 45-degree oblique views with no overlap to coincide with the robotic radiosurgery imaging planes. For the prostate, a standardized geometry that meets all these objectives is a 2 cm-by-2 cm square in the coronal plane. The transperineal implant of two pairs of preloaded tandem fiducials makes the 2 cm-by-2 cm square geometry clinically feasible. This technique may be applied for renal cancer, except repositioned in a sagittal plane, with the retroperitoneal placement of the fiducials into the tumor. Pancreatic fiducial placement via endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is technically more challenging, as fiducial placement is operator-dependent, and lesion access may be limited by adjacent vasculature, tumor location, or restricted mobility of the EUS probe in the duodenum. Fluoroscopically assisted fiducial placement during EUS can help ensure fiducial markers are deployed with optimal geometry and visualization. Results: Among the first 22 fiducial cases on a newly installed robotic radiosurgery system, live x-ray images for all nine prostatic cases had excellent fiducial visualization at the treatment console. Renal and pancreatic fiducials were not as clearly visible due to difficult target access and smaller caliber insertion needle/fiducial usage. The geometry of the first prostate case was used to ensure accurate geometric marker placement for the remaining 8 cases. Initially, some of the renal and pancreatic fiducials were closer than the 20 mm recommendation, and interactive feedback with the proceduralists led to subsequent fiducials being too far to the edge of the tumor. Further feedback and discussion of all cases are being used to help guide standardized geometries and achieve ideal fiducial placement. Conclusion: The ideal tradeoffs of fiducial visibility versus the thinnest possible gauge needle to avoid complications needs to be systematically optimized among all patients, particularly in regards to body habitus. Multidisciplinary collaboration among proceduralists and radiation oncologists can lead to improved outcomes.

Keywords: fiducial, prostate cancer, renal cancer, pancreatic cancer, radiotherapy

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27 The Effect of Flue Gas Condensation on the Exergy Efficiency and Economic Performance of a Waste-To-Energy Plant

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Tobias Richards

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In this study, a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant under construction was modelled and simulated with the Aspen Plus software. The base case process plant was evaluated and compared when integrated with flue gas condensation (FGC) in order to find out the impact of the exergy efficiency and economic feasibility as well as the effect of overall system exergy losses and revenue generated in the investigated plant. The economic evaluations were carried out using the vendor cost data from Aspen process economic analyser. The results indicate that 4 % increase in the exergy efficiency and 29 % reduction in the exergy loss in the flue gas were obtained when the flue gas condensation was incorporated. Furthermore, with the integrated FGC, the net present values (NPV) and income generated in the base process plant were increased by 29 % and 10 % respectively after 20 years of operation.

Keywords: economic feasibility, exergy efficiency, exergy losses, flue gas condensation, waste-to-energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
26 The Carbon Emission Seesaw Effect

Authors: Adel Elomri

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The notion of carbon footprinting is ever more widespread as companies are becoming increasingly aware that tackling carbon emissions and being seen to do so is a key issue to face governments, customers and other stakeholders’ pressures towards delivering environmentally friendly services and activities. In this contest, many firms are taking self-initiatives to reduce their own carbon emissions while some other are constrained to obey to different regulations/policies (e.g. carbon tax or carbon Cap) designed by higher authorities targeting a low-carbon environment. Using buyer-vendor framework, this paper provides some insights on how effective are these self-initiatives and regulatory policies when only concerning firms at the individual level and not the whole supply chain they are part of. We show that when firms individually engage in reducing their direct carbon emissions either under self-initiatives or regulatory policy, an opposite expected outcome resulting in a higher global supply chain emission can occur. This effect is referred to as the carbon seesaw effect. Moreover, we show that coordinating or centralizing the supply chain -contrary to what one may think at first- is not often the appropriate solution to get rid of this effect.

Keywords: carbon emissions, supply chain coordination, EOQ, sustainable operations

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
25 O.MG- It’s a Cyber-Enabled Fraud

Authors: Damola O. Lawal, David W. Gresty, Diane E. Gan, Louise Hewitt

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This paper investigates the feasibility of using a programmable USB such as the O.MG Cable to perform a file tampering attack. Here, the O.MG Cable, an apparently harmless mobile device charger, is used in an unauthorized way to alter the content of a file (accounts record-January_Contributions.xlsx). The aim is to determine if a forensics analyst can reliably determine who has altered the target file; the O.MG Cable or the user of the machine. This work highlights some of the traces of the O.MG Cable left behind on the target computer itself, such as the Product ID (PID) and Vendor ID (ID). Also discussed is the O.MG Cable’s behavior during the experiments. We determine if a forensics analyst could identify if any evidence has been left behind by the programmable device on the target file once it has been removed from the computer to establish if the analyst would be able to link the traces left by the O.MG Cable to the file tampering. It was discovered that the forensic analyst might mistake the actions of the O.MG Cable for the computer users. Experiments carried out in this work could further the discussion as to whether an innocent user could be punished for the unauthorized changes made by a programmable device.

Keywords: O.MG cable, programmable USB, file tampering attack, digital evidence credibility, miscarriage of justice, cyber fraud

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
24 Product Line Design with Customization in the Presence of Demand Uncertainty

Authors: Parisa Bagheri Tookanlou

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In this paper, we analyze a product line design problem faced by a manufacturing firm where the product line consists of a customized product in addition to a standard product and is offered in a market in which customers are heterogeneous on aesthetic attributes of the product. The customization level of a product is defined by the fraction of aesthetic attributes of the product that the manufacturer chooses to customize. In contrast to the existing literature on product line design that predominantly assumes deterministic demand, we consider the presence of demand uncertainty and frame the product line design problem in a single period (news vendor) setting. We examine the effect of demand uncertainty on product line decisions. Furthermore, we also examine how product line decisions are influenced by channel structure. While we use the centralized channel as a benchmark, we consider the decentralized dual channel where the customized product is sold through an online channel owned by the manufacturer and the standard product is sold through a retailer. We introduce a supply contract between the manufacturer and the retailer for improving channel efficiency and coordinate the distribution channel.

Keywords: product line design, demand uncertainty, customization level, distribution channel

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23 Information Technology (IT) Outsourcing and the Challenges of Implementation in Financial Industries: A Case Study of Guarantee Trust Assurance PLC

Authors: Salim Ahmad, Ahamed Sani Kazaure, Haruna Musa

Abstract:

Outsourcing had been the contractual relationship in which the responsibility for a function or task is handed over to an outside firm for a fixed period of time which is not the same as contracting where a specific one-off task is allocated to an external business; therefore in information technology a specialist area such as maintenance of web servers is controlled by an outside firm or if the department is not a critical factor the whole IT section may be outsourced. Organisation contracts is frequently a major area in successful outsourcing relationship, whereby the contracts specify the right, liability and expectation of the vendor and contracts are mostly of high value and last for very long. Therefore, in this research one particular project that is been outsourced for the financial industry (Guarantee Trust Assurance PlC) is been discussed along with the approach used and the various problems encountered, though Outsourcing is not necessarily a perfect and easy way out for business. It is extremely critical for a company to look at all the aspect of outsourcing before deciding to use it as an instrument for development. Moreover, critical analysis of the management issues encountered while implementing the outsourcing project have been fully discussed in the paper.

Keywords: outsourcing, techniques used in outsourcing, challenges of outsourcing implementation, management issues during implementation of outsourcing project

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
22 Analysis of Economic Order Quantity, Safety Stock, Maximum Inventory Control, Lot Size and Reorder Point for Engro Polymers and Chemicals

Authors: Ali Akber Jaffri, Asad Naseem, Javeria Khan, Zubair Hamza, Ishtiaq

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine safety stock, maximum inventory level, reordering point, and reordering quantity by rearranging lot sizes for supplier and customer in MRO (maintenance repair operations) warehouse of Engro Polymers & Chemicals. To achieve the aim, physical analysis method and excel commands were carried out to elicit the customer and supplier data provided by the company. Initially, we rearranged the current lot sizes and MOUs (measure of units) in SAP software. Due to change in lot sizes, we have to determine the new quantities for safety stock, maximum inventory, reordering point and reordering quantity as per company's demand. By proposed system, we saved extra cost in terms of reducing time of receiving from vendor and in issuance to customer, ease of material handling in MRO warehouse and also reduce human efforts.

Keywords: maintenance repair operation, maximum inventory, reorder quantity, safety stock

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
21 i2kit: A Tool for Immutable Infrastructure Deployments

Authors: Pablo Chico De Guzman, Cesar Sanchez

Abstract:

Microservice architectures are increasingly in distributed cloud applications due to the advantages on the software composition, development speed, release cycle frequency and the business logic time to market. On the other hand, these architectures also introduce some challenges on the testing and release phases of applications. Container technology solves some of these issues by providing reproducible environments, easy of software distribution and isolation of processes. However, there are other issues that remain unsolved in current container technology when dealing with multiple machines, such as networking for multi-host communication, service discovery, load balancing or data persistency (even though some of these challenges are already solved by traditional cloud vendors in a very mature and widespread manner). Container cluster management tools, such as Kubernetes, Mesos or Docker Swarm, attempt to solve these problems by introducing a new control layer where the unit of deployment is the container (or the pod — a set of strongly related containers that must be deployed on the same machine). These tools are complex to configure and manage and they do not follow a pure immutable infrastructure approach since servers are reused between deployments. Indeed, these tools introduce dependencies at execution time for solving networking or service discovery problems. If an error on the control layer occurs, which would affect running applications, specific expertise is required to perform ad-hoc troubleshooting. As a consequence, it is not surprising that container cluster support is becoming a source of revenue for consulting services. This paper presents i2kit, a deployment tool based on the immutable infrastructure pattern, where the virtual machine is the unit of deployment. The input for i2kit is a declarative definition of a set of microservices, where each microservice is defined as a pod of containers. Microservices are built into machine images using linuxkit —- a tool for creating minimal linux distributions specialized in running containers. These machine images are then deployed to one or more virtual machines, which are exposed through a cloud vendor load balancer. Finally, the load balancer endpoint is set into other microservices using an environment variable, providing service discovery. The toolkit i2kit reuses the best ideas from container technology to solve problems like reproducible environments, process isolation, and software distribution, and at the same time relies on mature, proven cloud vendor technology for networking, load balancing and persistency. The result is a more robust system with no learning curve for troubleshooting running applications. We have implemented an open source prototype that transforms i2kit definitions into AWS cloud formation templates, where each microservice AMI (Amazon Machine Image) is created on the fly using linuxkit. Even though container cluster management tools have more flexibility for resource allocation optimization, we defend that adding a new control layer implies more important disadvantages. Resource allocation is greatly improved by using linuxkit, which introduces a very small footprint (around 35MB). Also, the system is more secure since linuxkit installs the minimum set of dependencies to run containers. The toolkit i2kit is currently under development at the IMDEA Software Institute.

Keywords: container, deployment, immutable infrastructure, microservice

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
20 Analysis of Inventory Control, Lot Size and Reorder Point for Engro Polymers and Chemicals

Authors: Ali Akber Jaffri, Asad Naseem, Javeria Khan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine safety stock, maximum inventory level, reordering point, and reordering quantity by rearranging lot sizes for supplier and customer in MRO (maintenance repair operations) warehouse of Engro Polymers & Chemicals. To achieve the aim, physical analysis method and excel commands were carried out to elicit the customer and supplier data provided by the company. Initially, we rearranged the current lot sizes and MOUs (measure of units) in SAP software. Due to change in lot sizes we have to determine the new quantities for safety stock, maximum inventory, reordering point and reordering quantity as per company's demand. By proposed system, we saved extra cost in terms of reducing the time of receiving from vendor and in issuance to customer, ease of material handling in MRO warehouse and also reduce human efforts. The information requirements identified in this study can be utilized in calculating Economic Order Quantity.

Keywords: carrying cost, economic order quantity, fast moving, lead time, lot size, MRO, maximum inventory, ordering cost, physical inspection, reorder point

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
19 Ranking of Inventory Policies Using Distance Based Approach Method

Authors: Gupta Amit, Kumar Ramesh, P. C. Tewari

Abstract:

Globalization is putting enormous pressure on the business organizations specially manufacturing one to rethink the supply chain in innovative manners. Inventory consumes major portion of total sale revenue. Effective and efficient inventory management plays a vital role for the successful functioning of any organization. Selection of inventory policy is one of the important purchasing activities. This paper focuses on selection and ranking of alternative inventory policies. A deterministic quantitative model-based on Distance Based Approach (DBA) method has been developed for evaluation and ranking of inventory policies. We have employed this concept first time for this type of the selection problem. Four inventory policies Economic Order Quantity (EOQ), Just in Time (JIT), Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) and monthly policy are considered. Improper selection could affect a company’s competitiveness in terms of the productivity of its facilities and quality of its products. The ranking of inventory policies is a multi-criteria problem. There is a need to first identify the selection criteria and then processes the information with reference to relative importance of attributes for comparison. Criteria values for each inventory policy can be obtained either analytically or by using a simulation technique or they are linguistic subjective judgments defined by fuzzy sets, like, for example, the values of criteria. A methodology is developed and applied to rank the inventory policies.

Keywords: inventory policy, ranking, DBA, selection criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
18 Time Temperature Indicator for Monitoring Freshness of Packed Pasteurized Milk

Authors: Rajeshwar S. Matche, Subhash V. Pawde, Suraj P, Sachin R. Chaudhari

Abstract:

Time Temperature Indicator’s (TTI) are trending approach in a food packaging that will be insightful to have safe and hygienic food products. Currently, available TTI in the market are mostly a product specific and sometime even difficult to handle especially in supply chain as these are pre-activated and require specific storage conditions. In the present study, research focus is on the development of a cost-effective lactic acid based TTI that can work over a wide range of temperature and can be activated at time of packaging or on demand. The correlation between activation energies of colour change of the developed indicator and packed pasteurized milk spoilage with respect to time and temperature was established. Developed lactic acid based TTI strips have range of activation energy from 10.13 to 24.20 KJ/mol. We found that the developed TTI strip’s with activation energy 12.42, and 14.41KJ/mol can be correlated with spoilage activation energy of packed pasteurized milk which was 25.71 KJ/mol with factor of 2 at storage temperature 4°C. The implementation of these TTI on packed pasteurized milk allow us see visual colour change during the storage and can be fruitful to monitoring quality of the milk and understand its freshness especially in a cold supply chain, viz distributor and road vendor etc.

Keywords: pasteurised packed milk, time temperature indicator, spoilage, freshness

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17 A Study on Social and Economic Conditions of Street Vendors Using Field Survey Data

Authors: Ruchika Yadav

Abstract:

Street vendors are the integral component of urban economies of the world. They are the distributors of affordable goods and services and provide convenient and accessible retail options to the customers and form a vital part of the social and economic life of a city. A street vendor as an occupation existed for hundreds of years and considered to be as a cornerstone of many cities. In this paper, our objective is to analyze the socio-economic profile of street vendors, identification of their problems and to suggest remedial measures for the betterment based on the observation and suggestions of the street vendors. To conduct this study, primary data has been collected with the help of field survey and direct questionnaire to the respondents in Aligarh City which contains all the information relevant to social and economic conditions. The overall analysis of this study reveals street vendors are the backward sections of the society possess medium to the low-level standard of living due to illiteracy; their working environment and social security issues are not addressed properly. They are unaware of many of the governmental schemes launched for poverty alleviation and their poor accessibility in basic amenities leads to the backward socio-economic status in the society. The results found in this study can be very useful and helping tool for the policymakers to know the socio-economic conditions of the street vendors in detail.

Keywords: abject poverty, socio-economic conditions, street vendors, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
16 Urbanization and House Water Supply in Nigeria

Authors: Oluronke Odunjo

Abstract:

The world is becoming increasingly urbanized and Nigeria is not left out. One of the indicators of human developments is housing and as such, water is needed by households for survival. This Paper assesses sources of water being used by residents in the newly urbanized areas of Ogbomoso, Southwest, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used and Oke-Adunin Community was purposively selected for the study as it has large concentration of staff and students of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology. The area was captured with Google earth and two hundred and twenty two inhabited houses were found. Questionnaire was the instrument for data collection which was administered using total enumeration technique. Data obtained however, were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Findings revealed that most of the respondents were male, while 36.03% house owners were between the ages of 46 and 55 years. Sources of water used by residents include well (56.94%), water vendors (17.77%), rain (15.29%) and borehole (3.72%). Distance travelled by house owners to sources of water was as high as 5.06 metres, resulting into stress (30.00 %), depression (25.00%) and aggressiveness (18.75%). Result of correlation analysis between the sources of water of respondents and disease prevalence showed that both rain water and water vendor had very strong positive correlation with typhoid, diarrhea and dysentery, while well water only had positive correlation with dysentery. Recommendations were therefore, proffered towards solving the problems associated with water in the area.

Keywords: newly urbanized area, Ogbomoso, sources of water, residents

Procedia PDF Downloads 139