Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: utricle cyst

37 Klinefelter Syndrome Presenting with Perinatal Ascites Associated with Unilateral Renal Agenesis and a Prostatic Utricle Cyst: A Case Report

Authors: Xuxin Lim, Rambha Rai, Suresh Chandran, Anette Jacobsen

Abstract:

We present a rare case of Klinefelter syndrome who presented with perinatal ascites, unilateral renal agenesis and a prostatic utricle cyst. Antenatally, amniocentesis revealed a fetal karyotype of Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY), and the 34-week ultrasound scan showed a cyst measuring 17mm x 21mm x 27mm located inferior-posterior to the bladder. There were no ascites noted then, but a small left pelvic kidney was present. We report the first case of Klinefelter syndrome associated with a prostatic utricle cyst and unilateral renal agenesis, presenting with neonatal ascites.

Keywords: congenital disorders, utricle cyst, neonatal, surgery, prostate

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36 Rathke’s Cleft Cyst Presenting as Unilateral Visual Field Defect

Authors: Ritesh Verma, Manisha Rathi, Chand Singh Dhull, Sumit Sachdeva, Jitender Phogat

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A Rathke's cleft cyst is a benign growth found on the pituitary gland in the brain, specifically a fluid-filled cyst in the posterior portion of the anterior pituitary gland. It occurs when the Rathke's pouch does not develop properly and ranges in size from 2 to 40mm in diameter. A 38-year-old male presented to the outpatient department with loss of vision in the inferior quadrant of the left eye since 15 days. Visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/9 in the left eye. Visual field analysis by HFA-24-2 revealed an inferior field defect extending to the supero-temporal quadrant in the left eye. MRI brain and orbit was advised to the patient and it revealed a well defined cystic pituitary adenoma indenting left optic nerve near optic chiasm consistent with the diagnosis of Rathke’s cleft cyst (RCC). The patient was referred to neurosurgery department for further management. Symptoms vary greatly between individuals having RCCs. RCCs can be non-functioning, functioning, or both. Besides headaches, neurocognitive deficits are almost always present but have a high rate of immediate reversal if the cyst is properly treated or drained.

Keywords: pituitary tumors, rathke’s cleft cyst, visual field defects, vision loss

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35 Isolated Hydatidosis of Spleen: A Rare Entity

Authors: Anshul Raja

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Cystic lesions of the spleen are rare and splenic hydatid cysts account for only 0.5% to 8% of all hydatidosis. Authors hereby report a case where a 50-year-old female presented to our hospital with the complains of heaviness and pain over left upper abdomen over the past 8-10 years. On radiological examination, ultrasonography revealed findings consistent with isolated splenic hydatid cyst and was later on confirmed on Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). No other organ or system involvement was seen. The patient underwent splenectomy and hydatid cyst was confirmed on histopathology. Owing to its rarity, it offers a diagnostic challenge to physicians but can reliably be diagnosed with great confidence employing various imaging modalities like CT and MRI.

Keywords: gastrointestinal radiology, abdominal imaging, hydatid cyst, medical and health sciences

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34 Rethinking the Value of Pancreatic Cyst CEA Levels from Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine-Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA): A Longitudinal Analysis

Authors: Giselle Tran, Ralitza Parina, Phuong T. Nguyen

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Background/Aims: Pancreatic cysts (PC) have recently become an increasingly common entity, often diagnosed as incidental findings on cross-sectional imaging. Clinically, management of the lesions is difficult because of uncertainties in their potential for malignant degeneration. Prior series have reported that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a biomarker collected from cyst fluid aspiration, has a high diagnostic accuracy for discriminating between mucinous and non-mucinous lesions, at the patient’s initial presentation. To the author’s best knowledge, no prior studies have reported PC CEA levels obtained from endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) over years of serial EUS surveillance imaging. Methods: We report a consecutive retrospective series of 624 patients who underwent EUS evaluation for a PC between 11/20/2009 and 11/13/2018. Of these patients, 401 patients had CEA values obtained at the point of entry. Of these, 157 patients had two or more CEA values obtained over the course of their EUS surveillance. Of the 157 patients (96 F, 61 M; mean age 68 [range, 62-76]), the mean interval of EUS follow-up was 29.7 months [3.5-128]. The mean number of EUS procedures was 3 [2-7]. To assess CEA value fluctuations, we defined an appreciable increase in CEA as "spikes" – two-times increase in CEA on a subsequent EUS-FNA of the same cyst, with the second CEA value being greater than 1000 ng/mL. Using this definition, cysts with a spike in CEA were compared to those without a spike in a bivariate analysis to determine if a CEA spike is associated with poorer outcomes and the presence of high-risk features. Results: Of the 157 patients analyzed, 29 had a spike in CEA. Of these 29 patients, 5 had a cyst with size increase >0.5cm (p=0.93); 2 had a large cyst, >3cm (p=0.77); 1 had a cyst that developed a new solid component (p=0.03); 7 had a cyst with a solid component at any time during surveillance (p=0.08); 21 had a complex cyst (p=0.34); 4 had a cyst categorized as "Statistically Higher Risk" based on molecular analysis (p=0.11); and 0 underwent surgical resection (p=0.28). Conclusion: With serial EUS imaging in the surveillance of PC, an increase in CEA level defined as a spike did not predict poorer outcomes. Most notably, a spike in CEA did not correlate with the number of patients sent to surgery or patients with an appreciable increase in cyst size. A spike in CEA did not correlate with the development of a solid nodule within the PC nor progression on molecular analysis. Future studies should focus on the selected use of CEA analysis when patients undergo EUS surveillance evaluation for PCs.

Keywords: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), fine-needle aspiration (FNA), pancreatic cyst, spike

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33 Umbilical Epidermal Inclusion Cysts, a Rare Cause of Umbilical Mass: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Christine Li, Amanda Robertson

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Epidermal inclusion cysts occur when epidermal cells are implanted in the dermis following trauma, or surgery. They are a rare cause of an umbilical mass, with very few cases previously reported following abdominal surgery. These lesions can present with a range of symptoms, including palpable mass, pain, redness, or discharge. This paper reports a case of an umbilical epidermal inclusion cyst in a 52-year-old female presenting with a six-week history of a painful, red umbilical lump on a background of two previous diagnostic laparoscopies. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans revealed non-specific soft tissue thickening in the umbilical region. This was successfully treated with complete excision of the lesion. Umbilical lumps are a common presentation but can represent a diagnostic challenge. The differential diagnosis should include an epidermal inclusion cyst, particularly in a patient who has had previous abdominal surgery, including laparoscopic surgery.

Keywords: epidermal inclusion cyst, laparoscopy, umbilical mass, umbilicus

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32 Study of Potato Cyst Nematodes (Globodera Rostochiensis, Globodera pallida) in Georgia

Authors: Ekatereine Abashidze, Nino Nazarashvili, Dali Gaganidze, Oleg Gorgadze, Mariam Aznarashvili, Eter Gvritishvili

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Potato is one of the leading agricultural crops in Georgia. Georgia produces early and late potato varieties in almost all regions. Potato production is equal to 25,000 ha and its average yield is 20-25 t/ha. Among the plant pests that limit potato production and quality, the potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida (Stone) Behrens and Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenveber) Behrens) are harmful around the world. PCN is among the most difficult plant pests to control. Cysts protected by a durable wall can survive for over 30 years . Control of PCN (G. pallida and G. rostochiensis) is regulated by Council Directive 2007/33/EE C. There was no legislative regulation of these pests in Georgia before 2016. By Resolution #302 from July 1, 2016, developed within the action plan of the DCFTA (Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area) the Government of Georgia established control over potato cyst nematodes. The Agreement about the legal acts approximation to EU legislation concerns the approval of rules of PCN control and research of these pests. Taking into consideration the above mentioned, it is necessary to study PCN (G. pallida and G. rostochiensis) in the potato-growing areas of Georgia. The aim of this research is to conduct survey of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) in two geographically distinct regions of Georgia - Samtskhe - Javakheti and Svanetii and to identify the species G. Rostochiensis and G. Pallida by the morphological - morphometric and molecular methods. Soil samples were taken in each village, in a zig-zag pattern on the potato fields of the private sector, using the Metlitsky method. Samples were taken also from infested potato plant roots. To extract nematode cysts from soil samples Fanwick can be used according to standard methods by EPPO. Cysts were measured under a stereoscopic microscope (Leica M50). Identification of the nematod species was carried out according to morphological and morphometric characteristics of the cysts and larvae using appropriate protocols EPPO. For molecular identification, a multiplex PCR test was performed by the universal ITS5 and cyst nematodes’ (G. pallida, G. rostochiensis) specific primers. To identify the species of potato cyst nematodes (PCN) in two regions (Samtskhe-Javakheti and Svaneti) were taken 200 samples, among them: 80 samples in Samtskhe-Javakheti region and 120 in Svaneti region. Cysts of Globiodera spp. were revealed in 50 samples obtained from Samtskhe-Javakheti and 80 samples from Svaneti regions. Morphological, morphometric and molecular analysis of two forms of PCN found in investigated regions of Georgia shows that one form of PCN belongs to G. rostoshiensi; the second form is the different species of Globodera sp.t is the subject of future research. Despite the different geographic locations, larvae and cysts of G. rostoshiensi were found in both regions. But cysts and larvae of G. pallida were not reported. Acknowledgement: The research has been supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation of Georgia: Project # FR17_235.

Keywords: cyst nematode, globodera rostochiensis, globodera pallida, morphologic-morphometric measurement

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31 Establishment and Characterization of a Dentigerous Cyst Cell Line

Authors: Muñiz-Lino Marcos Agustín, Vazquez Borbolla Jessica, Licéaga-Escalera Carlos

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The ectomesenchymal tissues involved in tooth development and their remnants are the origin of different odontogenic lesions, including tumors and cysts of the jaws, with a wide range of clinical behaviors. Dentigerous cyst (DC) represents approximately 20% of all cases of odontogenic cysts, and it has been demonstrated that it can develop benign and malignant odontogenic tumors. DC is characterized by bone destruction of the area surrounding the crown of a tooth which has not erupted and it contain is liquid. The treatment of odontogenic tumors and cysts usually are partial or total removal of the jaw, causing important secondary co-morbidities. However, molecules implicated in DC pathogenesis as well in its development to odontogenic tumors remains unknown. A cellular model may be useful to study these molecules, but that model has not been established yet. Here, we reported the establishment of a cell culture derived from a dentigerous cyst. This cell line was named DeCy-1. In spite of its ectomesenchymal morphology, DeCy-1 cells express epithelial markers such as cytokeratins 5, 6, and 8. Furthermore, these cells express the ODAM protein, which is present in odontogenesis and in dental follicle, indicating that DeCy-1 cells derived from odontogenic epithelium. Analysis by electron microscopy of this cell line showed that it has a high vesicular activity, suggesting that DeCy-1 could secrete molecules that may be involved in DC pathogenesis. Thus, secreted proteins were analyzed by PAGE-SDS, where we observed approximately 11 bands. In addition, the capacity of these secretions to degrade proteins was analyzed by gelatin substrate zymography. A degradation band of about 62 kDa was found in these assays. Western blot assays suggested that the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) is responsible of this protease activity. Thus, our results indicate that the establishment of a cell line derived from DC is a useful in vitro model to study the biology of this odontogenic lesion and its participation in the development of odontogenic tumors.

Keywords: dentigerous cyst, MMP20, cancer, cell culture

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30 Precocious Puberty Due to an Autonomous Ovarian Cyst in a 3-Year-Old Girl: Case Report

Authors: Aleksandra Chałupnik, Zuzanna Chilimoniuk, Joanna Borowik, Aleksandra Borkowska, Anna Torres

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Background: Precocious puberty is the occurrence of secondary sexual characteristics in girls before the age of 8. The diverse etiology of premature puberty is crucial to determine whether it is true precocious puberty, depending on the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, or pseudo-precocious, which is independent of the activation of this axis. Whatever the cause, premature action of the sex hormones leads to the common symptoms of various forms of puberty. These include the development of sexual characteristics, acne, acceleration of growth rate and acceleration of skeletal maturation. Due to the possible genetic basis of the disorders, an interdisciplinary search for the cause is needed. Case report: The case report concerns a patient of a pediatric gynecology clinic who, at the age of two years, developed advanced thelarhe (M3) and started recurrent vaginal bleeding. In August 2019, gonadotropin suppression initially and after LHRH stimulation and high estradiol levels were reported at the Endocrinology Department. Imaging examinations showed a cyst in the right ovary projection. The bone age was six years. The entire clinical picture indicated pseudo- (peripheral) precocious in the course of ovarian autonomic cyst. In the follow-up ultrasound performed in September, the image of the cyst was stationary and normalization of estradiol levels and clinical symptoms was noted. In December 2019, cyst regression and normal gonadotropin and estradiol concentrations were found. In June 2020, white mucus tinged with blood on the underwear, without any other disturbing symptoms, was observed for several days. Two consecutive USG examinations carried out in the same month confirmed the change in the right ovary, the diameter of which was 25 mm with a very high level of estradiol. Germinal tumor markers were normal. On the Tanner scale, the patient scored M2P1. The labia and hymen had puberty features. The correct vaginal entrance was visible. Another active vaginal bleeding occurred in the first week of July 2020. The considered laparoscopic treatment was abandoned due to the lack of oncological indications. Treatment with Tamoxifen was recommended in July 2020. In the initiating period of treatment, no maturation progression, and even reduction of symptoms, no acceleration of growth and a marked reduction in the size of the cysts were noted. There was no bleeding. After the size of the cyst and hormonal activity increased again, the treatment was changed to Anastrozole, the effect of which led to a reduction in the size of the cyst. Conclusions: The entire clinical picture indicates alleged (peripheral) puberty. Premature puberty in girls, which is manifested as enlarged mammary glands with high levels of estrogens secreted by autonomic ovarian cysts and prepubertal levels of gonadotropins, may indicate McCune-Albright syndrome. Vaginal bleeding may also occur in this syndrome. Cancellation of surgical treatment of the cyst made it impossible to perform a molecular test that would allow to confirm the diagnosis. Taking into account the fact that cysts are often one of the first symptoms of McCune-Albrigt syndrome, it is important to remember about multidisciplinary care for the patient and careful search for skin and bone changes or other hormonal disorders.

Keywords: McCune Albrigth's syndrome, ovarian cyst, pediatric gynaecology, precocious puberty

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29 Laparoscopic Management of Cysts Mimicking Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis in Children (A Case Series)

Authors: Assia Haif, Djelloul Achouri, Zineddine Soualili

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Introduction: Laparoscopic treatment of liver echinococcosis cyst has become popular. In parallel, the diagnostic approach of cystic liver lesions is based on the number of lesions and their distribution. The etiologies of cystic masses in children are different, and the role of imaging in their characterization and pre-therapeutic evaluation is essential. The main differential diagnoses of hepatic hydatid cysts can be discovered intraoperatively by minimally invasive surgery. Methods: The clinical data contained seven patients with hepatic cystic who underwent laparoscopic surgery in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, SETIF, Algeria, from 2015 to 2022. Results: Of reported seven patients, five are male, and the remaining two are female. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical signs. Biological parameters were within normal limits, Abdominal ultrasound, practiced in all cases, completed by abdominal computed tomography (CT), showed a hydatid cystic. For all patients, surgical procedures were performed under laparoscopy. Total cystectomy in four patients, fenestration or subtotal cystectomy in three patients, respectively. A histopathological feature confirmed the nature of the cysts. During the follow-up period, there was no recurrence. Conclusions: Laparoscopic liver surgery is a safe and effective approach, it is an alternative to conventional surgery and a reproducible method. Laparoscopic surgery approach should follow the same principals with those of open surgery. This surgical technique can rectify the diagnosis of hydatid cyst, the histopathological examination confirms the nature of the cystic lesion.

Keywords: children, cyst, echinococcosis, laparoscopic, liver

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28 Environmental Impact of Cysts of Some Dinoflagellates Species in the Bizerta Lagoon

Authors: M. Bellakhal, M. Bellakhal, L. Aleya

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The specific composition and abundance of dinoflagellate resistance cysts in relation to environmental factors were studied from the superficial sediment at 123 stations in the Bizerte lagoon. 48 morphotypes of dinoflagellate cysts were identified, mainly dominated by Brigantidinium simplex, Votadinum spinosum, Alexandrium pacificum, Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax, and Lingulodinum machaerophorum. The density of cysts ranged from 1276 to 20126 cysts g⁻¹ dry sediment. Significant differences in the distribution pattern of the cysts were recorded, which allowed us to distinguish two areas; thus the inner areas of the lagoon have an abundance of cysts greater than the areas with marine influence. Ballast water discharges and shellfish culture may be incriminated as potential sources of introduction of species, particularly potentially toxic ones such as A. pacificum and Polysphaeridium zoharyi, without neglecting the role of currents in cyst distribution. Cyst mapping can be used as an indicator of potential foci of future toxic species blooms in this ecosystem.

Keywords: Bizerta Lagoon, cysts, dinoflagellates, mapping

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27 Rhizosphere Microbiome Involvement in the Natural Suppression of Soybean Cyst Nematode in Disease Suppressive Soil

Authors: M. Imran Hamid, Muzammil Hussain, Yunpeng Wu, Meichun Xiang, Xingzhong Liu

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The rhizosphere microbiome elucidate multiple functioning in the soil suppressiveness against plant pathogens. Soybean rhizosphere microbial communities may involve in the natural suppression of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) populations in disease suppressive soils. To explore these ecological mechanisms of microbes, a long term monoculture suppressive soil were taken into account for further investigation to test the disease suppressive ability by using different treatments. The designed treatments are as, i) suppressive soil (S), ii) conducive soil (C), iii) conducive soil mixed with 10% (w/w) suppressive soil (CS), iv) suppressive soil treated at 80°C for 1 hr (S80), and v) suppressive soil treated with formalin (SF). By using an ultra-high-throughput sequencing approach, we identified the key bacterial and fungal taxa involved in SCN suppression. The Phylum-level investigation of bacteria revealed that Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in the rhizosphere soil of soybean seedlings were more abundant in the suppressive soil than in the conducive soil. The phylum-level analysis of fungi in rhizosphere soil indicated that relative abundance of Ascomycota was higher in suppressive soil than in the conducive soil, where Basidiomycota was more abundant. Transferring suppressive soil to conducive soil increased the population of Ascomycota in the conducive soil by lowering the populations of Basidiomycota. The genera, such as, Pochonia, Purpureocillium, Fusarium, Stachybotrys that have been well documented as bio-control agents of plant nematodes were far more in the disease suppressive soils. Our results suggested that the plants engage a subset of functional microbial groups in the rhizosphere for initial defense upon nematode attack and protect the plant roots later on by nematodes to response for suppression of SCN in disease-suppressive soils.

Keywords: disease suppressive soil, high-throughput sequencing, rhizosphere microbiome, soybean cyst nematode

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26 Bionaut™: A Minimally Invasive Microsurgical Platform to Treat Non-Communicating Hydrocephalus in Dandy-Walker Malformation

Authors: Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington, Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Alex Kiselyov, Michael Shpigelmacher

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The Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) represents a clinical syndrome manifesting as a combination of posterior fossa cyst, hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Anatomic hallmarks include hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, enlargement of the posterior fossa, and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Current treatments of DWM, including shunting of the cerebral spinal fluid ventricular system and endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), are frequently clinically insufficient, require additional surgical interventions, and carry risks of infections and neurological deficits. Bionaut Labs develops an alternative way to treat Dandy-Walker Malformation (DWM) associated with non-communicating hydrocephalus. We utilize our discreet microsurgical Bionaut™ particles that are controlled externally and remotely to perform safe, accurate, effective fenestration of the Dandy-Walker cyst, specifically in the posterior fossa of the brain, to directly normalize intracranial pressure. Bionaut™ allows for complex non-linear trajectories not feasible by any conventional surgical techniques. The microsurgical particle safely reaches targets in the lower occipital section of the brain. Bionaut™ offers a minimally invasive surgical alternative to highly involved posterior craniotomy or shunts via direct fenestration of the fourth ventricular cyst at the locus defined by the individual anatomy. Our approach offers significant advantages over the current standards of care in patients exhibiting anatomical challenge(s) as a manifestation of DWM, and therefore, is intended to replace conventional therapeutic strategies. Current progress, including platform optimization, Bionaut™ control, and real-time imaging and in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut™, cerebral spinal fluid, CSF, cyst, Dandy-Walker, fenestration, hydrocephalus, micro-robot

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25 Automatic Differentiation of Ultrasonic Images of Cystic and Solid Breast Lesions

Authors: Dmitry V. Pasynkov, Ivan A. Egoshin, Alexey A. Kolchev, Ivan V. Kliouchkin

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In most cases, typical cysts are easily recognized at ultrasonography. The specificity of this method for typical cysts reaches 98%, and it is usually considered as gold standard for typical cyst diagnosis. However, it is necessary to have all the following features to conclude the typical cyst: clear margin, the absence of internal echoes and dorsal acoustic enhancement. At the same time, not every breast cyst is typical. It is especially characteristic for protein-contained cysts that may have significant internal echoes. On the other hand, some solid lesions (predominantly malignant) may have cystic appearance and may be falsely accepted as cysts. Therefore we tried to develop the automatic method of cystic and solid breast lesions differentiation. Materials and methods. The input data were the ultrasonography digital images with the 256-gradations of gray color (Medison SA8000SE, Siemens X150, Esaote MyLab C). Identification of the lesion on these images was performed in two steps. On the first one, the region of interest (or contour of lesion) was searched and selected. Selection of such region is carried out using the sigmoid filter where the threshold is calculated according to the empirical distribution function of the image brightness and, if necessary, it was corrected according to the average brightness of the image points which have the highest gradient of brightness. At the second step, the identification of the selected region to one of lesion groups by its statistical characteristics of brightness distribution was made. The following characteristics were used: entropy, coefficients of the linear and polynomial regression, quantiles of different orders, an average gradient of brightness, etc. For determination of decisive criterion of belonging to one of lesion groups (cystic or solid) the training set of these characteristics of brightness distribution separately for benign and malignant lesions were received. To test our approach we used a set of 217 ultrasonic images of 107 cystic (including 53 atypical, difficult for bare eye differentiation) and 110 solid lesions. All lesions were cytologically and/or histologically confirmed. Visual identification was performed by trained specialist in breast ultrasonography. Results. Our system correctly distinguished all (107, 100%) typical cysts, 107 of 110 (97.3%) solid lesions and 50 of 53 (94.3%) atypical cysts. On the contrary, with the bare eye it was possible to identify correctly all (107, 100%) typical cysts, 96 of 110 (87.3%) solid lesions and 32 of 53 (60.4%) atypical cysts. Conclusion. Automatic approach significantly surpasses the visual assessment performed by trained specialist. The difference is especially large for atypical cysts and hypoechoic solid lesions with the clear margin. This data may have a clinical significance.

Keywords: breast cyst, breast solid lesion, differentiation, ultrasonography

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24 Spinal Hydatidosis: Therapeutic Management of 5 Cases

Authors: Ghoul Rachid Brahim, Trad Khodja Rafik

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Vertebral localization of the hydatid cyst is a severe form of bone hydatidosis, is a parasitic infection caused by the larval forms of the tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus, The disease is slowly remaining silent (a long incubation period) which may explain why this pathology is often discovered at the stage of neurological complications. The objective of this study is to recall the clinical and radiological aspects of this condition and the importance of early diagnosis and appropriate management. We report a study of 5 patients with vertebral hydatidosis, four men and one woman, four (04) patients operated in the emergency setting for spinal cord compression (decompression by wide laminectomy with evacuation of intra and extra canal vesicles).Albendazole-based medical treatment is instituted in all patients. Results: The evolution was favorable for three patients, the other two patients reoperated for a local recurrence. Conclusion: Vertebral hydatidosis is a rare condition with a poor prognosis due to the risk of neurological damage, the infiltrating nature of bone lesions, the frequency of relapses and therapeutic difficulties. The only curative method remains surgery, which must aim for complete and large excision of the lesions as if it were a “malignant tumour”.

Keywords: hydatidosis, Echinococcosis granulosus, hydatid cyst, spinal cord compression, laminectomy

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23 Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst in a 13-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Bayan Hafiz, Ashwaq Al-Qarni, Abdulelah AlMalki, Esraa Kaheel

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Hydatid disease is caused by genus Echinococcus, it is transmitted to human through sheep and cattle. People who lived in an endemic area should be suspected to have the disease. Pulmonary hydatid disease can be presented by respiratory manifestations as in our case. We report a case of child, 13 years old, who was presented by shortness of breath and non-productive cough 2 months ago. The patient had an attack of hemoptysis 3 months ago but there is no history of fever, other constitutional symptoms or any medical illness. The patient has had a close contact with a horse. On examination, the patient was oriented and vitally stable. Both side of chest were moving equally with decrease air entry on the left side of the chest. Cervical lymph node enlargement was also detected. The case was provisionally diagnosed as tuberculosis. The x-ray was normal, while CT scan showed two cysts in the left side. The patient was treated surgically with resection of both cysts without lobectomy. Broncho-alveolar lavage was done and together with plural effusion and both cysts were sent for histopathology. The patient received the following medication: albendazole 200MG/BID/Orally for 30 days and Cefuroxime 250MG/Q12H/Orally for 10 days.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, hydatid disease, pediatrics, pulmonary hydatid cyst

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22 Phylogenetic Analysis of Georgian Populations of Potato Cyst Nematodes Globodera Rostochiensis

Authors: Dali Gaganidze, Ekaterine Abashidze

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Potato is one of the main agricultural crops in Georgia. Georgia produces early and late potato varieties in almost all regions. In traditional potato growing regions (Svaneti, Samckhet javaheti and Tsalka), the yield is higher than 30-35 t/ha. Among the plant pests that limit potato production and quality, the potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are harmful around the world. Yield losses caused by PCN are estimated up to 30%. Rout surveys conducted in two geographically distinct regions of Georgia producing potatoes - Samtskhe - Javakheti and Svaneti revealed potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensi. The aim of the study was the Phylogenetic analyses of Globodera rostochiensi revealed in Georgia by the amplification and sequencing of 28S gen in the D3 region and intergenic ITS1-15.8S-ITS2 region. Identification of all the samples from the two Globodera populations (Samtskhe - Javakheti and Svaneti), i.e., G. rostochiensis (20 isolates) were confirmed by conventional multiplex PCR with ITS 5 universal and PITSp4, PITSr3 specific primers of the cyst nematodes’ (G. pallida, G. rostochiensis). The size of PCR fragment 434 bp confirms that PCN samples from two populations, Samtskhe- Javakheti and Svaneti, belong to G. rostochiensi . The ITS1–5.8S-ITS2 regions were amplified using prime pairs: rDNA1 ( 5’ -TTGATTACGTCCCTGCCCTTT-3’ and rDNA2( 5’ TTTCACTCGCCGTTACTAAGG-3’), D3 expansion regions were amplified using primer pairs: D3A (5’ GACCCCTCTTGAAACACGGA-3’) and D3B (5’-TCGGAAGGAACCAGCTACTA-3’. PCR products of each region were cleaned up and sequenced using an ABI 3500xL Genetic Analyzer. Obtained sequencing results were analyzed by computer program BLASTN (https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cg). Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between the isolates were conducted in MEGA7 using both distance- and character-based methods. Based on analysis of G.rostochiensis isolate`s D3 expansion regions are grouped in three major clades (A, B and C) on the phylogenetic tree. Clade A is divided into three subclades; clade C is divided into two subclades. Isolates from the Samtckhet-javakheti population are in subclade 1 of clade A and isolates in subclade 1 of clade C. Isolates) from Svaneti populations are in subclade 2 of clade A and in clad B. In Clade C, subclade two is presented by three isolates from Svaneti and by one isolate (GL17) from Samckhet-Javakheti. . Based on analysis of G.rostochiensis isolate`s ITS1–5.8S-ITS2 regions are grouped in two main clades, the first contained 20 Georgian isolates of Globodera rostochiensis from Svaneti . The second clade contained 15 isolates of Globodera rostochiensis from Samckhet javakheti. Our investigation showed of high genetic variation of D3 and ITS1–5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA of the isolates of G. rostochiensis from different geographic origins (Svameti, Samckhet-Javakheti) of Georgia. Acknowledgement: The research has been supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation of Georgia : Project # FR17_235

Keywords: globodera rostochiensi, PCR, phylogenetic tree, sequencing

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21 Morphological and Molecular Studies (ITS1) of Hydatid Cysts in Slaughtered Sheep in Mashhad Area

Authors: G. R. Hashemi Tabar, G. R. Razmi, F. Mirshekar

Abstract:

Echinococcus granulosus have ten strains from G1 to G9. Each strain is related to special intermediated host. The morphology, epidemiology, treatment and control in these strains are different. There are many morphological and molecular methods to differentiate of Echinococcus strains. However, using both methods were provided better information about identification of each strain. The aim of study was to identify Echinococcus granulosus strain of hydrated cysts in slaughtered sheep using morphological and molecular methods in Mashhad area. In the present study, the infected liver and lung with hydatid cysts were collected and transferred to laboratory. The hydatid cyst liquid was extracted and morphological characters of rostellar hook protosclocies were measured using micrometer ocular. The total length of large blade length of large hooks, total length of small and blade length of small hooks, and number of hooks per protoscolex were 23± 0.3μm, 11.7±0.5 μm, 19.3±1.1 μm,8±1.1 and 33.7±0.7 μm, respectively. In molecular section of the study, DNA each samples was extracted with MBST Kit and development of PCR using special primers (EgF, EgR) which amplify fragment of ITS1 gen. The PCR product was digested with Bsh1236I enzyme. Based on pattern of PCR-RLFP results (four band forming), G1, G2 and G3 strain of Echinococcus granulosus were obtained. Differentiation of three strains was done using sequencing analysis and G1 strain was diagnosed. The agreement between the molecular results with morphometric characters of rosetellar hook was confirmed the presence of G1 strain of Echinococcus in the slaughtered sheep of Mashhad area.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Hydatid cyst, PCR, sheep

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20 Evaluation of the Safety Status of Beef Meat During Processing at Slaughterhouse in Bouira, Algeria

Authors: A. Ameur Ameur, H. Boukherrouba

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In red meat slaughterhouses a significant number of organs and carcasses were seized because of the presence of lesions of various origins. The objective of this study is to characterize and evaluate the frequency of these lesions in the slaughterhouse of the Wilaya of BOUIRA. On cattle slaughtered in 2646 and inspected 72% of these carcasses have been no seizures against 28% who have undergone at least one entry. 325 lung (44%), 164 livers (22%), 149 hearts (21%) are the main saisis.38 kidneys members (5%), 33 breasts (4%) and 16 whole carcasses (2%) are less seizures parties. The main reasons are the input hydatid cyst for most seized organs such as the lungs (64.5%), livers (51.8%), hearts (23.2%), hydronephrosis for the kidneys (39.4%), and chronic mastitis (54%) for the breasts. Then we recorded second-degree pneumonia (16%) to the lungs, chronic fascioliasis (25%) for livers. A significant difference was observed (p < 0.0001) by sex, race, origin and age of all cattle having been saisie.une a specific input patterns and So pathology was recorded based on race. The local breed presented (75.2%) of hydatid cyst, (95%) and chronic fascioliasis (60%) pyelonephritis, for against the improved breed presented the entire respiratory lesions include pneumonia (64%) the chronic tuberculosis (64%) and mastitis (76%). These results are an important step in the implementation of the concept of risk assessment as the scientific basis of food legislation, by the identification and characterization of macroscopic damage leading withdrawals in meat and to establish the level of inclusion of these injuries within the recommended risk assessment systems (HACCP).

Keywords: slaughterhouses, meat safety, seizure patterns, HACCP

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19 Surgical Treatment Tumors and Cysts of the Pancreas in Children

Authors: Trunov V.O., Ryabov A. B., Poddubny I.V

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Introduction: cystic and solid pancreatic tumors have a relevant and disruptive position in many positions. The results of the treatment of children with tumors and pancreatic cysts aged 3 to 17 years for the period from 2008 to 2019 on the basis of the Morozov State Children's Clinical Hospital in Moscow were analyzed. The total number of children with solid tumors was 17, and 31 with cysts. In all children, the diagnosis was made on the basis of ultrasound, followed by CT and MRI. In most patients with solid tumors, they were located in the area of the pancreas tail - 58%, in the body area - 14%, in the area of the pancreatic head - 28%. In patients with pancreatic cysts, the distribution of patients by topography was as follows: head of the pancreas - 10%, body of the pancreas - 16%, tail of the pancreas - 68%, total cystic transformation of the Wirsung duct - 6%. In pancreatic cysts, the method of surgical treatment was based on the results of MRCP, the level of amylase in the contents of the cyst, and the localization of the cyst. Thus, pathogenetically substantiated treatment included: excision of cysts, internal drainage on an isolated loop according to Ru, the formation of pancreatojejunoanastomosis in a child with the total cystic transformation of the Wirsung duct. In patients with solid pancreatic lesions, pancretoduodenalresection, central resection of the pancreas, and distal resection from laparotomy and laparoscopic access were performed. In the postoperative period, in order to prevent pancreatitis, all children underwent antisecretory therapy, parenteral nutrition, and drainage of the omental bursa. Results: hospital stay ranged from 7 to 12 days. The duration of postoperative fermentemia in patients with solid formations lasted from 3 to 6 days. In all cases, according to the histological examination, a pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas was revealed. In the group of children with pancreatic cysts, fermentemia was observed from 2 to 4 days, recurrence of cysts in the long term was detected in 3 children (10%). Conclusions: the treatment of cystic and solid pancreatic neoplasms is a difficult task in connection with the anatomical and functional features of the organ.

Keywords: pancreas, tumors, cysts, resection, laparoscopy, children

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18 35 MHz Coherent Plane Wave Compounding High Frequency Ultrasound Imaging

Authors: Chih-Chung Huang, Po-Hsun Peng

Abstract:

Ultrasound transient elastography has become a valuable tool for many clinical diagnoses, such as liver diseases and breast cancer. The pathological tissue can be distinguished by elastography due to its stiffness is different from surrounding normal tissues. An ultrafast frame rate of ultrasound imaging is needed for transient elastography modality. The elastography obtained in the ultrafast system suffers from a low quality for resolution, and affects the robustness of the transient elastography. In order to overcome these problems, a coherent plane wave compounding technique has been proposed for conventional ultrasound system which the operating frequency is around 3-15 MHz. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel beamforming technique for high frequency ultrasound coherent plane-wave compounding imaging and the simulated results will provide the standards for hardware developments. Plane-wave compounding imaging produces a series of low-resolution images, which fires whole elements of an array transducer in one shot with different inclination angles and receives the echoes by conventional beamforming, and compounds them coherently. Simulations of plane-wave compounding image and focused transmit image were performed using Field II. All images were produced by point spread functions (PSFs) and cyst phantoms with a 64-element linear array working at 35MHz center frequency, 55% bandwidth, and pitch of 0.05 mm. The F number is 1.55 in all the simulations. The simulated results of PSFs and cyst phantom which were obtained using single, 17, 43 angles plane wave transmission (angle of each plane wave is separated by 0.75 degree), and focused transmission. The resolution and contrast of image were improved with the number of angles of firing plane wave. The lateral resolutions for different methods were measured by -10 dB lateral beam width. Comparison of the plane-wave compounding image and focused transmit image, both images exhibited the same lateral resolution of 70 um as 37 angles were performed. The lateral resolution can reach 55 um as the plane-wave was compounded 47 angles. All the results show the potential of using high-frequency plane-wave compound imaging for realizing the elastic properties of the microstructure tissue, such as eye, skin and vessel walls in the future.

Keywords: plane wave imaging, high frequency ultrasound, elastography, beamforming

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17 A Comparative Study in Acute Pancreatitis to Find out the Effectiveness of Early Addition of Ulinastatin to Current Standard Care in Indian Subjects

Authors: Dr. Jenit Gandhi, Dr. Manojith SS, Dr. Nakul GV, Dr. Sharath Honnani, Dr. Shaurav Ghosh, Dr. Neel Shetty, Dr. Nagabhushan JS, Dr. Manish Joshi

Abstract:

Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas which begins in pancreatic acinar cells and triggers local inflammation that may progress to systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and causing distant organ involvement and its function and ending up with multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS). Aim: A comparative study in acute pancreatitis to find out the effectiveness of early addition of Ulinastatin to current standard care in Indian subjects . Methodology: A current prospective observational study is done during study period of 1year (Dec 2018 –Dec 2019) duration to evaluate the effect of early addition of Ulinastatin to the current standard treatment and its efficacy to reduce the early complication, analgesic requirement and duration of hospital stay in patients with Acute Pancreatitis. Results: In the control group 25 were males and 05 were females. In the test group 18 were males and 12 females. Majority was in the age group between 30 - 70 yrs of age with >50% in the 30-50yrs age group in both test and control groups. The VAS was median grade 3 in control group as compared to median grade 2 in test group , the pain was more in the initial 2 days in test group compared to 4 days in test group , the analgesic requirement was used for more in control group (median 6) to test group( median 3 days ). On follow up after 5 days for a period of 2 weeks none of the patients in the test group developed any complication. Where as in the control group 8 patients developed pleural effusion, 04-Pseudopancreatic cyst, 02 – patient developed portal vein and splenic vein thrombosis, 02 patients – ventilator with ARDS which were treated symptomatically whereas in test group 02 patient developed pleural effusions and 01 pseudo pancreatic cyst with splenic artery aneurysm, 01 – patient with AKI and MODS symptomatically treated. The duration of hospital stay for a median period of 4 days (2 – 7 days) in test group and 7 days (4 -10 days) in control group. All patients were able to return to normal work on an average of 5days compared 8days in control group, the difference was significant. Conclusion:The study concluded that early addition of Ulinastatin to current standard treatment of acute Pancreatitis is effective in reducing pain, early complication and duration of hospital stay in Indian subject

Keywords: Ulinastatin, VAS – visual analogue score , AKI – acute kidney injury , ARDS – acute respiratory distress syndrome

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16 Clinical and Radiological Features of Radicular Cysts: Case Series

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Elif Bilgir, Derya Yildirim, Ozlem Gormez

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Radicular cysts develop in the root apex of tooth that is devitalized. Cysts are pathologic lesions with an epithelial lining encapsulated by connective tissue. Radicular cysts originate from epithelial remnants of the periodontal ligament in the root apex as a result of inflammation. They are most commonly observed in the maxillary anterior region, among men and in the third decade of life. Radiographically, they are seen as ovoid radiolucent lesions surrounded by a thin radioopaque margin. In this case, series was carried out in 15 radicular cysts of the jaws diagnosed in individuals. The cysts were evaluated age, sex, and localization. 12 of the cysts were localized in the maxillae, 3 of them were localised in the mandible. The female/male ratio of the lesions was 1/2. In conclusion, we evaluated age, localization and sex distribution of radicular cysts in this study. The knowledge of the features of the jaw cysts is a basic aspect to achieve diagnosis, complications and proper treatment.

Keywords: radicular cyst, jaws, CBCT, treatment

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15 Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus through Amplification of 12S rRNA Gene and Cox1 Gene Fragments from Cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: M. Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, M. Fazal Karim, Md. Masuduzzaman, S. Chowdhury, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M. Alamgir Hossain

Abstract:

The dog tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus develop hydatid cysts in various organs in human and domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cattle using 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) genes. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 390 examined cattle samples derived from slaughterhouses. Among them, three cysts were fertile. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscoleces followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene fragments. The sequence data revealed existence of G1 (64.28%) and possible G3 (21.43%) genotypes for the first time in Bangladesh. The study indicates that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh. This will increase our understanding of the epidemiology of hydatidosis in the southern part of the country and will be useful to plan suitable control measures in the long run.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Cox1, 12S rRNA, molecular characterization, Bangladesh

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14 Macroscopic Study of Reproductive Pathologies in Cows at the Souk-Ahras Communal Slaughterhouse

Authors: Besma Abdeltif, Chebabhi Imen

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Introduction: it is important to define the genital pathologies encountered in Algeria in postpartum dairy cows. The objective was to identify the different pathologies of reproduction in cows found at the communal abattoir of Souk Ahras. Materials and Methods: Our study was carried at the communal slaughterhouse of Souk-Ahras on 63 genital tracts were examined macroscopically after slaughter. Results: The results obtained reveal a high frequency of pregnant females (14.28%), most of the gestations were at their beginning. Uterine anomalies ranked first in the genital lesions of the cow (20.37%). The frequencies of these abnormalities are in ascending order: aplasia of the horns = 1.85%, traumatic cervical = 1.85%, cervical tumors = 1.85%, chronic endometritis = 3.70% and Acute endometritis = 11.11%. The ovarian cyst is the most common lesion, with a frequency of 3.70%, followed by smooth ovaries (1.85%). These are single, thin-walled cysts more present on the right ovary than the left ovary. Salpingitis is the only tubal lesion found on 5.55% of the non-pregnant genital tract. Neoformation is the only vaginal lesion identified in this work (1.85%). Conclusion: Our result, in general, conforms to the data of the literature.

Keywords: genital tract, cow, slaughterhouse, pathology

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13 An Abbattoir-Based Study on Relative Prevalence of Histopathologic Patterns of Hepatic Lesions in One-Humped Camels (Camelus deromedarius), Semnan, Iran

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi

Abstract:

An abattoir based study was carried out during spring 2011 to investigate pathological conditions of the liver in camels (Camelus deromedarius) slaughtered in the Semnan slaughter house, Northern East of Iran. In this study, 40 carcasses out of 150 randomly selected carcasses inspected at postmortem, found with liver lesions. Proper tissue samples obtained from the livers with macroscopic lesions, fixed in 10% neutral buffer formaldehyde, processed for routine histopathological techniques, and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by H&E staining techniques. In histopathological examination of hepatic tissues, following changes were observed: Hydatid cysts; 65%, Cirrhosis; 10%, Hepatic lipidosis (Mild to Severe fatty changes); 12.5%, Glycogen deposition; 2.5%, Cholangitis; 2.8%, Cholangiohepatitis; 5%, Calcified hydatid cyst; 2.5%, Hepatic abscess; 2.5%, lipofuscin pigments; 17.5%. It is concluded that the highest and lowest prevalent patterns of hepatic lesions were hydatid cysts and Hepatic abscess respectively.

Keywords: camel, liver, lesion, pathology, slaughterhouse

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12 A Case of Apocrine Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma in a Tabby Cat

Authors: Funda Terzi, Elif Dogan, Ayse B. Kapcak

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In this report, clinical, radiological, macroscopic, and histopathological findings of apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma are presented in a 13-year-old male tabby cat. In clinical examination, soft tissue masses were detected in the caudal abdomen and left tuber coxae. On radiological examination, subcutaneous masses with soft tissue contrast appearance were detected, and the masses were surgically removed under general anesthesia. The sizes of the masses were approximately 2x2x3 cm in the caudal abdomen and approximately 1x1x2 cm in the tuber coxae region. The cross-section of the mass was whitish-yellow in color. After the masses were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, a routine histopathology procedure was applied. In histopathological examination, apocrine sweat glands in a cystic structure and extensions from the center of the cyst to the lumen were determined, and anisonucleosis, anisocytosis, and anaplastic cells with giant nuclei were observed in the epithelial cells of the gland facing the lumen. A diagnosis of papillary-cystic type apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma was made with these findings.

Keywords: apocrine sweat gland, carcinoma, cat, histopathology

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11 Alexandrium pacificum Cysts Distribution in One North African Lagoon Ecosystem

Authors: M. Fertouna Bellakhal, M. Bellakhal, A. Dhib, A. Fathalli, S. Turki, L. Aleya

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Study of dinoflagellate cysts is a precious tool to get information about environment and water quality in many aquatic ecosystems. The distribution of Alexandrium pacificum cysts, in Bizerta lagoon located in North of Tunisia, was made based on sediment samples analysis from 123 equidistant stations delimiting 125 km² surfaces. Sediment characteristics such as percentage of water, organic matter, and particle size were analyzed to determine the factors that influence the distribution of this dinoflagellate. In addition, morphological examination and ribotyping of vegetative forms from microalgal cultures made from cyst germination confirmed the identity of the species attributed to A. pacificum. A correlation between the abundance of A. pacificum cysts and the percentage of water and sediment organic matter was recorded. In addition, the sedimentary fraction < 63μm was found to be potentially favorable for the installation and initiation of the Alexandrium pacificum efflorescence at the Bizerte lagoon. The mapping of cysts in this aquatic ecosystem has also allowed us to define distinct areas with specific abundance with closed relationship with shellfish aquaculture stations located within the lagoon.

Keywords: Alexandrium pacificum, cysts, Dinoflagellate, microalgal culture

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10 Reproductive Health of Women After Taking Chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Authors: Ezeh Chukwunonso Peter Excel, Akruti Vg

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Aim/Background: To show that even after undergoing 1-5 courses of chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) reproductive health of women is intact and they conceive successfully after it. Method: Retrospective cohort analysis using data from the Lugansk regional maternity hospital database of years 1993-2013, which shows n=18 females had GTD and underwent 1-5 courses of chemotherapy. Results and Discussion: Frequency of GTD was rare. All 18 patients (pts) belong to age group of 17-39 years, covering wide range of reproductive age. Out of 18 pts, 15 had hydatidiform mole (HM) while other 3 had choriocarcinoma (CC). In anamnesis, among CC pts, 1 had early pre-eclampsia at 24 weeks and 1 had 4th week of late postpartum (PP) bleeding, while all HM pts had genital inflammatory diseases, 1 pt of HM during follow-up had High hCG and 3 times curettage in 5 months. 18 women became pregnant for 25 times after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was given under indication of either high level of HCG, luteal cyst >6cm or path-morphological results of curettage. CC 3 pts had (2 spontaneous abortions (SA), 2 term cesarean section (CS), 1 preterm CS). HM 15 pts had (3 artificial abortion, 2 SA, 7CS (5 term and 2 preterm), 8 vaginal deliveries (7 term and 1 preterm)). Conclusion: During our research we got 22.2% preterm deliveries and 55.6% CS which is higher than the normal cases, but still all the 18 women were able to have kids successfully after chemotherapy. So we can conclude that chemotherapy for GTD was successful in keeping the reproductive health of women intact.

Keywords: reproductive health, chemotherapy, gestational trophoblastic disease, women

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9 Biometry and Pathology of Internal Genital Organs of Female Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Umair Riaz, Mudassar Iqbal, Umer Farooq, Farah Ali, Musadiq Idris

Abstract:

The present work was designed to establish biometrical norms for ovaries, oviducts and crevices of one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) and the diseases associated thereof in various age groups viz. calves (< 2 years, n=15), heifers (2-4 years, n=34) and adults (> 4 years, n=81). The genitalia were attained from Lahore Abbatoir, Punjab, Pakistan. Ovaries, oviducts and cervices of experimental genitalia were assessed for their length, width, thickness and weight. Statistically, there was no difference in the length and width of both left and right ovaries which however, increased with the advancement of age of camel. Similar results were noticed regarding the width of oviducts. The mean length of cervices of female camels correlated well with the number of cervical annular rings amongst the age groups. Regarding the abnormalities of ovaries and cervices in the 3 age groups, camel calves did not have any of the abnormalities. However, ovarian hypoplasia in heifers (2.94%) and follicular cyst in adult female camels (1.23%) were revealed in the present study. Mucocervix in heifers (2.96%) and cervicitis 1.23% in adult camels was also noticed. The present work presents a preliminary data on biometrical analysis for one humped camels and envisages a broader study with increased population and sample size.

Keywords: camelus dromedarius, pathology, biometry, female genital tract

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8 Computer Countenanced Diagnosis of Skin Nodule Detection and Histogram Augmentation: Extracting System for Skin Cancer

Authors: S. Zith Dey Babu, S. Kour, S. Verma, C. Verma, V. Pathania, A. Agrawal, V. Chaudhary, A. Manoj Puthur, R. Goyal, A. Pal, T. Danti Dey, A. Kumar, K. Wadhwa, O. Ved

Abstract:

Background: Skin cancer is now is the buzzing button in the field of medical science. The cyst's pandemic is drastically calibrating the body and well-being of the global village. Methods: The extracted image of the skin tumor cannot be used in one way for diagnosis. The stored image contains anarchies like the center. This approach will locate the forepart of an extracted appearance of skin. Partitioning image models has been presented to sort out the disturbance in the picture. Results: After completing partitioning, feature extraction has been formed by using genetic algorithm and finally, classification can be performed between the trained and test data to evaluate a large scale of an image that helps the doctors for the right prediction. To bring the improvisation of the existing system, we have set our objectives with an analysis. The efficiency of the natural selection process and the enriching histogram is essential in that respect. To reduce the false-positive rate or output, GA is performed with its accuracy. Conclusions: The objective of this task is to bring improvisation of effectiveness. GA is accomplishing its task with perfection to bring down the invalid-positive rate or outcome. The paper's mergeable portion conflicts with the composition of deep learning and medical image processing, which provides superior accuracy. Proportional types of handling create the reusability without any errors.

Keywords: computer-aided system, detection, image segmentation, morphology

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