Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 787

Search results for: using smartphones while driving

787 Gender Differences in the Prediction of Smartphone Use While Driving: Personal and Social Factors

Authors: Erez Kita, Gil Luria

Abstract:

This study examines gender as a boundary condition for the relationship between the psychological variable of mindfulness and the social variable of income with regards to the use of smartphones by young drivers. The use of smartphones while driving increases the likelihood of a car accident, endangering young drivers and other road users. The study sample included 186 young drivers who were legally permitted to drive without supervision. The subjects were first asked to complete questionnaires on mindfulness and income. Next, their smartphone use while driving was monitored over a one-month period. This study is unique as it used an objective smartphone monitoring application (rather than self-reporting) to count the number of times the young participants actually touched their smartphones while driving. The findings show that gender moderates the effects of social and personal factors (i.e., income and mindfulness) on the use of smartphones while driving. The pattern of moderation was similar for both social and personal factors. For men, mindfulness and income are negatively associated with the use of smartphones while driving. These factors are not related to the use of smartphones by women drivers. Mindfulness and income can be used to identify male populations that are at risk of using smartphones while driving. Interventions that improve mindfulness can be used to reduce the use of smartphones by male drivers.

Keywords: mindfulness, using smartphones while driving, income, gender, young drivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
786 Smartphones: Tools for Enhancing Teaching in Nigeria’s Higher Institutions

Authors: Ma'amun Muhammed

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The ability of smartphones in enhancing communication, providing access to business and serving as a pool for information retrieval has a far reaching and potentially beneficial impacts on enhancing teaching in higher institutions in the developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria as one of the fast growing economies in Africa, whose citizens patronize smartphones can utilize this opportunity by inculcating the culture of using smartphones not only for communication, business transaction, banking etc. but also for enhancing teaching in the higher institutions. Smartphones have become part and parcel of our lives, particularly among young people. The primary objective of this paper is to ascertain the use of smartphones in enhancing teaching in Nigeria’s higher institutions, to achieve this, content analysis was used thoroughly. This paper examines the opportunities offered by smartphones to the students of higher institutions of learning, the challenges being faced by lecturers of these institutions in classrooms. Lastly, it offers solution on how some of these critical challenges will be overcame, so as to utilize the technology of these devices.

Keywords: communication, information retrieval, mobile phone, smartphones teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
785 Cognition of Driving Context for Driving Assistance

Authors: Manolo Dulva Hina, Clement Thierry, Assia Soukane, Amar Ramdane-Cherif

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In this paper, we presented our innovative way of determining the driving context for a driving assistance system. We invoke the fusion of all parameters that describe the context of the environment, the vehicle and the driver to obtain the driving context. We created a training set that stores driving situation patterns and from which the system consults to determine the driving situation. A machine-learning algorithm predicts the driving situation. The driving situation is an input to the fission process that yields the action that must be implemented when the driver needs to be informed or assisted from the given the driving situation. The action may be directed towards the driver, the vehicle or both. This is an ongoing work whose goal is to offer an alternative driving assistance system for safe driving, green driving and comfortable driving. Here, ontologies are used for knowledge representation.

Keywords: cognitive driving, intelligent transportation system, multimodal system, ontology, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
784 The Role of Smartphones on Iranian Couples' Relationship: An Analysis

Authors: Niloofar Hooman

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The present study aims at investigating the positive and negative effects of using Smartphones on couples committed relationships. Despite the fact that many couples may benefit from the positive aspects of Smartphones, it is not clear how their feeling of trust, intimacy and connection in their relationships get affected by Smartphones. This is important as it highlights the ambivalent influences of Smartphones on couple’s relationships. On the one hand, Smartphones can enhance their social and emotional interactions and on the other hand, they can cause mistrust and isolation between them. Trust, intimacy and honesty are of important factors through which a stable relationship can be constructed. Nevertheless, some characteristics of Smartphones such as being fluid and personalized can harm the relationship and consequently destroy it. Thus, it is necessary to investigate how Iranian couples in committed relationships use Smartphone to manage their relationship and how couples feel Smartphone have enhanced or detracted a sense of trust, intimacy and connection with their partner? In the first phase of the study, in-depth-interview will be conducted with 30 couples and data will be analyzed using NVIVO software. In the next phase of the study, 1500 participants aged 20 and above will be selected based on cluster sampling. Data will be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: couple, family, internet, intimacy, Smartphone, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
783 Developing a Driving Simulator with a Navigation System to Measure Driver Distraction, Workload, Driving Safety and Performance

Authors: Tamer E. Yared

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The use of driving simulators has made laboratory testing easier. It has been proven to be valid for testing driving ability by many researchers. One benefit of using driving simulators is keeping the human subjects away from traffic hazards, which drivers usually face in a real driving environment while performing a driving experiment. In this study, a driving simulator was developed with a navigation system using a game development software (Unity 3D) and C-sharp codes to measure and evaluate driving performance, safety, and workload for different driving tasks. The driving simulator hardware included a gaming steering wheel and pedals as well as a monitor to view the driving tasks. Moreover, driver distraction was evaluated by utilizing an eye-tracking system working in conjunction with the driving simulator. Twenty subjects were recruited to evaluate driver distraction, workload, driving safety, and performance, as well as provide their feedback about the driving simulator. The subjects’ feedback was obtained by filling a survey after conducting several driving tasks. The main question of that survey was asking the subjects to compare driving on the driving simulator with real driving. Furthermore, other aspects of the driving simulator were evaluated by the subjects in the survey. The survey revealed that the recruited subjects gave an average score of 7.5 out of 10 to the driving simulator when compared to real driving, where the scores ranged between 6 and 8.5. This study is a preliminary effort that opens the door for more improvements to the driving simulator in terms of hardware and software development, which will contribute significantly to driving ability testing.

Keywords: driver distraction, driving performance, driving safety, driving simulator, driving workload, navigation system

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782 Motorist Driving Strategy-Related Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Abdurrahman Tanira

Abstract:

With the onset of climate change and limited fuel resources, improving fuel efficiency has become an important part of the motor industry. To maximize fuel efficiency, development of technologies must come hand-in-hand with awareness of efficient driving strategies. This study aims to explore the various driving habits that can impact fuel efficiency by reviewing available literature. Such habits include sudden and unnecessary acceleration or deceleration, improper hardware maintenance, driving above or below optimum speed and idling. By studying such habits and ultimately applying it to driving techniques, in combination with improved mechanics of the car, will optimize the use of fuel.

Keywords: fuel efficiency, driving techniques, optimum speed, optimizing fuel consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
781 Expert-Driving-Criteria Based on Fuzzy Logic Approach for Intelligent Driving Diagnosis

Authors: Andrés C. Cuervo Pinilla, Christian G. Quintero M., Chinthaka Premachandra

Abstract:

This paper considers people’s driving skills diagnosis under real driving conditions. In that sense, this research presents an approach that uses GPS signals which have a direct correlation with driving maneuvers. Besides, it is presented a novel expert-driving-criteria approximation using fuzzy logic which seeks to analyze GPS signals in order to issue an intelligent driving diagnosis. Based on above, this works presents in the first section the intelligent driving diagnosis system approach in terms of its own characteristics properties, explaining in detail significant considerations about how an expert-driving-criteria approximation must be developed. In the next section, the implementation of our developed system based on the proposed fuzzy logic approach is explained. Here, a proposed set of rules which corresponds to a quantitative abstraction of some traffics laws and driving secure techniques seeking to approach an expert-driving- criteria approximation is presented. Experimental testing has been performed in real driving conditions. The testing results show that the intelligent driving diagnosis system qualifies driver’s performance quantitatively with a high degree of reliability.

Keywords: driver support systems, intelligent transportation systems, fuzzy logic, real time data processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
780 The Use of Smartphones as a News Resource by Female University Students in the UAE

Authors: Mahinaz Saad

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Little empirical data exists regarding smartphone usage for news consumption in the UAE, and no previous research explored undergraduate female university students’ usage of smartphones. This represents a gap in the professional literature and makes it an important area to examine. Uses and Gratifications theory is used to study the motivations of consumers for adopting a particular type of communication tool. This theory is an audience-centred approach to understanding mass communication that assumes audiences are active consumers of media and explains why and how people seek out specific media to satisfy needs. This theory is particularly relevant given the rapid development of new communication technologies. Situated within this theoretical framework, this study utilised a quantitative research design to explore respondents’ (N=488) how and why respondents use their smartphones. Further, this study explored the relationship between mobile news use and the use of other mediums for news access and how different gratifications predict mobile hard news use and mobile soft news use. Results revealed that smartphones often replace traditional media as a news source and have become students’ primary source of news. Results also revealed that different gratifications can be used as a predictor of mobile hard news and soft news and that most students use their smartphones to access soft news. These results are fundamental in allowing us to predict possible future trends relating to news consumption in the UAE and the myriad ways in which the media landscape is changing.

Keywords: uses and gratifications, smartphones, university students, news consumption

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779 The Effect of Smartphones on Human Health Relative to User’s Addiction: A Study on a Wide Range of Audiences in Jordan

Authors: T. Qasim, M. Obeidat, S. Al-Sharairi

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The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the excessive use of smartphones. Smartphones have enormous effects on the human body in that some musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and health problems might evolve. These days, there is a wide use of the smartphones among all age groups of society, thus, the focus on smartphone effects on human behavior and health, especially on the young and elderly people, becomes a crucial issue. This study was conducted in Jordan on smartphone users for different genders and ages, by conducting a survey to collect data related to the symptoms and MSDs that are resulted from the excessive use of smartphones. A total of 357 responses were used in the analysis. The main related symptoms were numbness, fingers pain, and pain in arm, all linked to age and gender for comparative reasons. A statistical analysis was performed to find the effects of extensive usage of a smartphone for long periods of time on the human body. Results show that the significant variables were the vision problems and the time spent when using the smartphone that cause vision problems. Other variables including age of user and ear problems due to the use of the headsets were found to be a border line significant.

Keywords: smart phone, age group, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), health problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
778 Head-Mounted Displays for HCI Validations While Driving

Authors: D. Reich, R. Stark

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To provide reliable and valid findings when evaluating innovative in-car devices in the automotive context highly realistic driving environments are recommended. Nowadays, in-car devices are mostly evaluated due to driving simulator studies followed by real car driving experiments. Driving simulators are characterized by high internal validity, but weak regarding ecological validity. Real car driving experiments are ecologically valid, but difficult to standardize, more time-robbing and costly. One economizing suggestion is to implement more immersive driving environments when applying driving simulator studies. This paper presents research comparing non-immersive standard PC conditions with mobile and highly immersive Oculus Rift conditions while performing the Lane Change Task (LCT). Subjective data with twenty participants show advantages regarding presence and immersion experience when performing the LCT with the Oculus Rift, but affect adversely cognitive workload and simulator sickness, compared to non-immersive PC condition.

Keywords: immersion, oculus rift, presence, situation awareness

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
777 Smartphone Addiction and Reaction Time in Geriatric Population

Authors: Anjali N. Shete, G. D. Mahajan, Nanda Somwanshi

Abstract:

Context: Smartphones are the new generation of mobile phones; they have emerged over the last few years. Technology has developed so much that it has become part of our life and mobile phones are one of them. These smartphones are equipped with the capabilities to display photos, play games, watch videos and navigation, etc. The advances have a huge impact on many walks of life. The adoption of new technology has been challenging for the elderly. But, the elder population is also moving towards digitally connected lives. As age advances, there is a decline in the motor and cognitive functions of the brain, and hence the reaction time is affected. The study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of smartphones in improving cognitive functions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe the effects of smartphone addiction on reaction time in elderly population Material and Methods: This is an experimental study. 100 elderly subjects were enrolled in this study randomly from urban areas. They all were using smartphones for several hours a day. They were divided into two groups according to the scores of the mobile phone addiction scale (MPAS). Simple reaction time was estimated by the Ruler drop method. The reaction time was then calculated for each subject in both groups. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation test. Results: The mean reaction time in Group A is 0.27+ 0.040 and in Group B is 0.20 + 0.032. The values show a statistically significant change in reaction time. Conclusion: Group A with a high MPAS score has a low reaction time compared to Group B with a low MPAS score. Hence, it can be concluded that the use of smartphones in the elderly is useful, delaying the neurological decline, and smarten the brain.

Keywords: smartphones, MPAS, reaction time, elderly population

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776 Distracted Driving among Young Drivers in Qatar

Authors: Khaled Shaaban

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Distracted driving, which includes anything that distracts a driver from the main task of driving, is one of the main causes of traffic accidents in modern societies. The objective of this research was to understand the type of activities that young drivers perform while driving in Qatar and to identify which activities cause the most distraction to the driver based on their experience. The data was collected through administered questionnaires in the city of Doha, Qatar. According to the participants, the majority reported that they use their cell phone all the time or occasionally while driving. Other significantly cited activities while driving included listening to music or radio, talking with passengers, and eating, drinking or smoking. When asked about the activities that distract the driver, using cell phone was listed as the most distracting activity followed by mental activities and adjusting GPS and audio device vehicle.

Keywords: driver distraction, young drivers, cell phone use, Qatar

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
775 Use of Smartphones in 6th and 7th Grade (Elementary Schools) in Istria: Pilot Study

Authors: Maja Ruzic-Baf, Vedrana Keteles, Andrea Debeljuh

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Younger and younger children are now using a smartphone, a device which has become ‘a must have’ and the life of children would be almost ‘unthinkable’ without one. Devices are becoming lighter and lighter but offering an array of options and applications as well as the unavoidable access to the Internet, without which it would be almost unusable. Numerous features such as taking of photographs, listening to music, information search on the Internet, access to social networks, usage of some of the chatting and messaging services, are only some of the numerous features offered by ‘smart’ devices. They have replaced the alarm clock, home phone, camera, tablet and other devices. Their use and possession have become a part of the everyday image of young people. Apart from the positive aspects, the use of smartphones has also some downsides. For instance, free time was usually spent in nature, playing, doing sports or other activities enabling children an adequate psychophysiological growth and development. The greater usage of smartphones during classes to check statuses on social networks, message your friends, play online games, are just some of the possible negative aspects of their application. Considering that the age of the population using smartphones is decreasing and that smartphones are no longer ‘foreign’ to children of pre-school age (smartphones are used at home or in coffee shops or shopping centers while waiting for their parents, playing video games often inappropriate to their age), particular attention must be paid to a very sensitive group, the teenagers who almost never separate from their ‘pets’. This paper is divided into two sections, theoretical and empirical ones. The theoretical section gives an overview of the pros and cons of the usage of smartphones, while the empirical section presents the results of a research conducted in three elementary schools regarding the usage of smartphones and, specifically, their usage during classes, during breaks and to search information on the Internet, check status updates and 'likes’ on the Facebook social network.

Keywords: education, smartphone, social networks, teenagers

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774 Relationship between Smartphone Addiction and Academic Performance among University Students

Authors: Arooba Azam Khan

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The present study aims to focus on the relationship between smartphone addiction and academic performance of students along with social networking sites, overuse of smartphone, GPA’s and time management skills as their sub-variables. In this world of technology, the smartphone becomes a vital part of everyone’s life. The addiction of smartphones has both negative and positive impact on young people (students). Students keep themselves busy with smartphones without noticing that smartphone addiction is creating a negative impact on their social, academic, and personal lives. A quantitative approach was used to collect data through questionnaire from 360 students of two private universities in Pakistan in summer 2017. The target age group was 19-24 studying in Bachelors programmes. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (version 20), linear correlation and regression tests were applied. Results reveal that there is a negative relationship between smartphone addiction and academic performance. Moreover, it has been proved that students with good time management skills achieve high grades/GPA’s than those who have poor time management skills. From the findings, the researcher suggests that students should spend their time wisely and use their smartphones for educational purpose. However, students need training and close monitoring to get benefits out of smartphones use.

Keywords: smartphone addiction, academic performance, time management skills, quantitative research

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773 Smartphone Photography in Urban China

Authors: Wen Zhang

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The smartphone plays a significant role in media convergence, and smartphone photography is reconstructing the way we communicate and think. This article aims to explore the smartphone photography practices of urban Chinese smartphone users and images produced by smartphones from a techno-cultural perspective. The analysis consists of two types of data: One is a semi-structured interview of 21 participants, and the other consists of the images created by the participants. The findings are organised in two parts. The first part summarises the current tendencies of capturing, editing, sharing and archiving digital images via smartphones. The second part shows that food and selfie/anti-selfie are the preferred subjects of smartphone photographic images from a technical and multi-purpose perspective and demonstrates that screenshots and image texts are new genres of non-photographic images that are frequently made by smartphones, which contributes to improving operational efficiency, disseminating information and sharing knowledge. The analyses illustrate the positive impacts between smartphones and photography enthusiasm and practices based on the diffusion of innovation theory, which also makes us rethink the value of photographs and the practice of ‘photographic seeing’ from the screen itself.

Keywords: digital photography, image-text, media convergence, photographic- seeing, selfie/anti-selfie, smartphone, technological innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
772 Exergy Losses Relation with Driving Forces in Heat Transfer Process

Authors: S. Ali Ashrafizadeh, M. Amidpour, N. Hedayat

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Driving forces along with transfer coefficient affect on heat transfer rate, on the other hand, with regard to the relation of these forces with irriversibilities they are effective on exergy losses. Therefore, the driving forces can be used as a relation between heat transfer rate, transfer coefficients and exergy losses. In this paper, first, the relation of the exergetic efficiency and resistant forces is obtained, next the relation between exergy efficiency, relative driving force, heat transfer rate and heat resistances is considered. In all cases, results are argued graphically. Finally, a case study inspected by obtained results.

Keywords: heat transfer, exergy losses, exergetic efficiency, driving forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 492
771 Smart Irrigation System

Authors: Levent Seyfi, Ertan Akman, Tuğrul C. Topak

Abstract:

In this study, irrigation automation with electronic sensors and its control with smartphones were aimed. In this context, temperature and soil humidity measurements of the area irrigated were obtained by temperature and humidity sensors. A micro controller (Arduino) was utilized for accessing values of these parameters and controlling the proposed irrigation system. The irrigation system could automatically be worked according to obtained measurement values. Besides, a GSM module used together with Arduino provided that the irrigation system was in connection to smartphones. Thus, the irrigation system can be remotely controlled. Not only can we observe whether the irrigation system is working or not via developed special android application but also we can see temperature and humidity measurement values. In addition to this, if desired, the irrigation system can be remotely and manually started or stopped regardless of measured sensor vales thanks to the developed android application. In addition to smartphones, the irrigation system can be alternatively controlled via the designed website (www.sulamadenetim.com).

Keywords: smartphone, Android Operating System, sensors, irrigation System, arduino

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
770 Eco-Drive Predictive Analytics

Authors: Sharif Muddsair, Eisels Martin, Giesbrecht Eugenie

Abstract:

With development of society increase the demand for the movement of people also increases gradually. The various modes of the transport in different extent which expat impacts, which depends on mainly technical-operating conditions. The up-to-date telematics systems provide the transport industry a revolutionary. Appropriate use of these systems can help to substantially improve the efficiency. Vehicle monitoring and fleet tracking are among services used for improving efficiency and effectiveness of utility vehicle. There are many telematics systems which may contribute to eco-driving. Generally, they can be grouped according to their role in driving cycle. • Before driving - eco-route selection, • While driving – Advanced driver assistance, • After driving – remote analysis. Our point of interest is regulated in third point [after driving – remote analysis]. TS [Telematics-system] make it possible to record driving patterns in real time and analysis the data later on, So that driver- classification-specific hints [fast driver, slow driver, aggressive driver…)] are given to imitate eco-friendly driving style. Together with growing number of vehicle and development of information technology, telematics become an ‘active’ research subject in IT and the car industry. Telematics has gone a long way from providing navigation solution/assisting the driver to become an integral part of the vehicle. Today’s telematics ensure safety, comfort and become convenience of the driver.

Keywords: internet of things, iot, connected vehicle, cv, ts, telematics services, ml, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
769 The Effects of Using Telephone and Social Media Applications While Driving in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Alsanaa

Abstract:

Social media have totally converged with social life all around the globe. Using social media applications and mobile phones have become somewhat of an addiction to most people. Driving while using mobile applications falls under such addiction when usage is not of urgency. This study aims to investigate the impact of using such applications while driving in the small rich state of Kuwait, where most people juggle more than one phone for different purposes. Positive and negative effects will be explored in detail as well as causes for these effects and possible reasons. A full range of recommendations will be presented so as to give other countries a specific case study upon which to build solutions and remedies to this emerging and dangerous social phenomenon.

Keywords: social media, driving, mobile applications, communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
768 Optimal Driving Strategies for a Hybrid Street Type Motorcycle: Modelling and Control

Authors: Jhon Vargas, Gilberto Osorio-Gomez, Tatiana Manrique

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This work presents an optimal driving strategy proposal for a 125 c.c. street-type hybrid electric motorcycle with a parallel configuration. The results presented in this article are complementary regarding the control proposal of a hybrid motorcycle. In order to carry out such developments, a representative dynamic model of the motorcycle is used, in which also are described different optimization functionalities for predetermined driving modes. The purpose is to implement an off-line optimal driving strategy which distributes energy to both engines by minimizing an objective torque requirement function. An optimal dynamic contribution is found from the optimization routine, and the optimal percentage contribution for vehicle cruise speed is implemented in the proposed online PID controller.

Keywords: dynamic model, driving strategies, parallel hybrid motorcycle, PID controller, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
767 Human-Computer Interaction: Strategies for Ensuring the Design of User-Centered Web Interfaces for Smartphones

Authors: Byron Joseph A. Hallar, Annjeannette Alain D. Galang, Maria Visitacion N. Gumabay

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The widespread adoption and increasing proliferation of smartphones that started during the first decade of the twenty-first century have enabled their users to communicate and access information in ways that were merely thought of as possibilities in the few years before the smartphone revolution. A product of the convergence of the cellular phone and portable computer, the smartphone provides an additional important function that used to be the exclusive domain of desktop-bound computers and portable computers: Web Browsing. For increasing numbers of users, the smartphone and allied devices such as tablet computers have become their first and often their only means of accessing the World Wide Web. This has led to the development of websites that cater to the needs of the new breed of smartphone-carrying web users. The smaller size of smartphones as compared with conventional computers has provided unique challenges to web interface designers. The smaller screen size and touchscreen interface have made it much more difficult to read and navigate through web pages that were in most part designed for traditional desktop and portable computers. Although increasing numbers of websites now provide an alternate website formatted for smartphones, problems with ease of use, reliability and usability still remain. This study focuses on the identification of the problems associated with smartphone web interfaces, the compliance with accepted standards of user-oriented web interface design, the strategies that could be utilized to ensure the design of user-centric web interfaces for smartphones, and the identification of the current trends and developments related to user-centric web interface design intended for the consumption of smartphone users.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, user-centered design, web interface, mobile, smartphone

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
766 Social Media Effects on Driving: An Exploratory Study Applied to Drivers in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Alsanaa

Abstract:

Social media have totally converged with social life all around the globe. Using social media applications and mobile phones have become somewhat of an addiction to most people. Driving while using mobile applications falls under such addiction when usage is not of urgency. This study aims to investigate the impact of using such applications while driving in the small, rich state of Kuwait, where most people juggle more than one phone for different purposes. Positive and negative effects will be explored in detail as well as causes for these effects and possible reasons. A full range of recommendations will be presented so as to give other countries a specific case study upon which to build solutions and remedies to this emerging and dangerous social phenomenon.

Keywords: communications, driving, mobile, social media

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
765 Research on Morning Commuting Behavior under Autonomous Vehicle Environment Based on Activity Method

Authors: Qing Dai, Zhengkui Lin, Jiajia Zhang, Yi Qu

Abstract:

Based on activity method, this paper focuses on morning commuting behavior when commuters travel with autonomous vehicles (AVs). Firstly, a net utility function of commuters is constructed by the activity utility of commuters at home, in car and at workplace, and the disutility of travel time cost and that of schedule delay cost. Then, this net utility function is applied to build an equilibrium model. Finally, under the assumption of constant marginal activity utility, the properties of equilibrium are analyzed. The results show that, in autonomous driving, the starting and ending time of morning peak and the number of commuters who arrive early and late at workplace are the same as those in manual driving. In automatic driving, however, the departure rate of arriving early at workplace is higher than that of manual driving, while the departure rate of arriving late is just the opposite. In addition, compared with manual driving, the departure time of arriving at workplace on time is earlier and the number of people queuing at the bottleneck is larger in automatic driving. However, the net utility of commuters and the total net utility of system in automatic driving are greater than those in manual driving.

Keywords: autonomous cars, bottleneck model, activity utility, user equilibrium

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764 Optimal Trajectories for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Christian Rathgeber, Franz Winkler, Xiaoyu Kang, Steffen Müller

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In this contribution two approaches for calculating optimal trajectories for highly automated vehicles are presented and compared. The first one is based on a non-linear vehicle model, used for evaluation. The second one is based on a simplified model and can be implemented on a current ECU. In usual driving situations both approaches show very similar results.

Keywords: trajectory planning, direct method, indirect method, highly automated driving

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
763 Improvement of Brige Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering the Driving Conditions of Vehicles

Authors: Changgil Lee, Jooyoung Park, Seunghee Park

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In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various driving conditions of vehicles to improve the performance of the BWIM system. Two driving conditions were considered. One was the number of the axle of the vehicles. Since the vehicles have different number of axle according to the types of the vehicle, the vehicles were modeled considering the number of the axle. The other was the speed of the vehicles because the speed of the vehicles is not consistent on the bridge. To achieve the goal, the dynamic characteristics of a bridge such as modal parameters were considered in numerical simulation by analyzing precision models. Also, the driving vehicles were modeled as mass-spring-damping systems reflecting the axle information.

Keywords: bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system, driving conditions, precision analysis model, the number of axle, the speed of vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
762 Simulation Research of City Bus Fuel Consumption during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle

Authors: P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker

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The fuel consumption of city buses depends on a number of factors that characterize the technical properties of the bus and driver, as well as traffic conditions. This parameter related to greenhouse gas emissions is regulated by law in many countries. This applies to both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Simulation studies are a way to reduce the costs of optimization studies. The paper describes simulation research of fuel consumption city bus driving. Parameters of the developed model are based on experimental results obtained on chassis dynamometer test stand and road tests. The object of the study was a city bus equipped with a compression-ignition engine. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle. The results of the calculations showed a direct influence of driving dynamics on fuel consumption.

Keywords: Australian Driving Cycle, city bus, diesel engine, fuel consumption

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761 A Study of Smartphone Engagement Patterns of Millennial in India

Authors: Divyani Redhu, Manisha Rathaur

Abstract:

India has emerged as a very lucrative market for the smartphones in a very short span of time. The number of smartphone users here is growing massively with each passing day. Also, the expansion of internet services to far corners of the nation has also given a push to the smartphone revolution in India. Millennial, also known as Generation Y or the Net Generation is the generation born between the early 1980s and mid-1990s (some definitions extending further to early 2000s). Spanning roughly over 15 years, different social classes, cultures, and continents; it is irrational to imagine that millennial have a unified identity. But still, it cannot be denied that the growing millennial population is not only young but is highly tech-savvy too. It is not just the appearance of the device that today; we call it ‘smart’. Rather, it is the numerous tasks and functions that it can perform which has led its name to evolve as that of a ‘smartphone’. From usual tasks that were earlier performed by a simple mobile phone like making calls, sending messages, clicking photographs, recording videos etc.; today, the time has come where most of our day – to – day tasks are being taken care of by our all-time companion, i.e. smartphones. From being our alarm clock to being our note-maker, from our watch to our radio, our book-reader to our reminder, smartphones are present everywhere. Smartphone has now become an essential device for particularly the millennial to communicate not only with their friends but also with their family, colleagues, and teachers. The study by the researchers would be quantitative in nature. For the same, a survey would be conducted in particularly the capital of India, i.e. Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR), which is the metropolitan area covering the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi and urban areas covering states of Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The tool of the survey would be a questionnaire and the number of respondents would be 200. The results derived from the study would primarily focus on the increasing reach of smartphones in India, smartphones as technological innovation and convergent tools, smartphone usage pattern of millennial in India, most used applications by the millennial, the average time spent by them, the impact of smartphones on the personal interactions of millennial etc. Thus, talking about the smartphone technology and the millennial in India, it would not be wrong to say that the growth, as well as the potential of the smartphones in India, is still immense. Also, very few technologies have made it possible to give a global exposure to the users and smartphone, if not the only one is certainly an immensely effective one that comes to the mind in this case.

Keywords: Delhi – NCR, India, millennial, smartphone

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760 Effects of Low Sleep Efficiency and Sleep Deprivation on Driver Physical Fatigue

Authors: Chen-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Chen-Chen Lo, Kang Lo, Yin-Tzu Lin

Abstract:

Background: Driving drowsiness related to insufficient or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of vehicular accidents. Sleep deprivation is the primary reason related to low sleep efficiency. Nevertheless, the mechanism of sleep deprivation induces driving fatigue to remain unclear. Objective: The objective of this study is to associate the relationship between insufficient sleep efficiency and driving fatigue. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. Sleep efficiency was quantified as the polysomnography (PSG), and the sleep stages were sentenced by the reregistered Technologist during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The independent T-test was used to investigate the correlation between sleep efficiency, sleep stages ratio, and driving drowsiness. Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. Four-hundred-eighty-four subjects (55%) were classified as fatigue group, and 396 subjects (45%) were served as the control group. The ratio of stage three sleep (N3) (0.032 ± 0.056) in fatigue group were significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.01). The significantly higher value of snoring index (242.14 ± 205.51 /hours) was observed in the fatigue group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We observe the considerable correlation between deep sleep reduce and driving drowsiness. To avoid drowsy driving, the sleep deprivation, and the snoring events during the sleeping time should be monitored and alleviated.

Keywords: driving drowsiness, sleep deprivation, stage three sleep, snoring index

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759 Risky Driving Behavior among Bus Driver in Jakarta

Authors: Ratri A. Benedictus, Felicia M. Yolanda

Abstract:

Public transport is a crucial issue for capital city in developing country, such as Jakarta. Inadequate number and low quality of public transport services resulting personal vehicles as the main option. As a result, traffic jams are getting worse in Jakarta. The low quality of public transport, particularly buses, compounded by the risk behavior of the driver. Traffic accidents involving public bus in Jakarta were often the case, even result in fatality. The purpose of this study is to get a description of risk behavior among the public bus drivers in Jakarta. 132 bus drivers become respondent of this study. Risky Driving Behavior scale of Dorn were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 51.5% of respondents felt often showing risky behavior while on driving. The highest type of risky driving behavior is still using the unsafe bus (62%). Followed by trespass the bus line (30%), over speed (21%), violate the road signs (15%) and driving with unhealthy physical condition (4%). Results of this study suggested that high understanding of the bus drivers on their risk behaviors have not lead to the emergence of safe driving behavior. Therefore, together with technical engineering and instrumentation work intervention over this issue, psychological aspects also need to be considered, such as: risk perception, safety attitude,safety culture, locus of control and Fatalism.

Keywords: bus driver, psychological factors, public transportation, risky driving behavior

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758 Modelling the Effect of Alcohol Consumption on the Accelerating and Braking Behaviour of Drivers

Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav, Nagendra R. Velaga

Abstract:

Driving under the influence of alcohol impairs the driving performance and increases the crash risks worldwide. The present study investigated the effect of different Blood Alcohol Concentrations (BAC) on the accelerating and braking behaviour of drivers with the help of driving simulator experiments. Eighty-two licensed Indian drivers drove on the rural road environment designed in the driving simulator at BAC levels of 0.00%, 0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.08% respectively. Driving performance was analysed with the help of vehicle control performance indicators such as mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force of the participants. Preliminary analysis reported an increase in mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force with increasing BAC levels. Generalized linear mixed models were developed to quantify the effect of different alcohol levels and explanatory variables such as driver’s age, gender and other driver characteristic variables on the driving performance indicators. Alcohol use was reported as a significant factor affecting the accelerating and braking performance of the drivers. The acceleration model results indicated that mean acceleration of the drivers increased by 0.013 m/s², 0.026 m/s² and 0.027 m/s² for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Results of the brake pedal force model reported that mean brake pedal force of the drivers increased by 1.09 N, 1.32 N and 1.44 N for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Age was a significant factor in both the models where one year increase in drivers’ age resulted in 0.2% reduction in mean acceleration and 19% reduction in mean brake pedal force of the drivers. It shows that driving experience could compensate for the negative effects of alcohol to some extent while driving. Female drivers were found to accelerate slower and brake harder as compared to the male drivers which confirmed that female drivers are more conscious about their safety while driving. It was observed that drivers who were regular exercisers had better control on their accelerator pedal as compared to the non-regular exercisers during drunken driving. The findings of the present study revealed that drivers tend to be more aggressive and impulsive under the influence of alcohol which deteriorates their driving performance. Drunk driving state can be differentiated from sober driving state by observing the accelerating and braking behaviour of the drivers. The conclusions may provide reference in making countermeasures against drinking and driving and contribute to traffic safety.

Keywords: alcohol, acceleration, braking behaviour, driving simulator

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