Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 411

Search results for: underwater drone imagery

411 Agile Real-Time Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Image Processing System for Drone Imagery in Digital Agriculture

Authors: Sabiha Shahid Antora, Young Ki Chang

Abstract:

Along with various farm management technologies, imagery is an important tool that facilitates crop assessment, monitoring, and management. As a consequence, drone imaging technology is playing a vital role to capture the state of the entire field for yield mapping, crop scouting, weed detection, and so on. Although it is essential to inspect the cultivable lands in real-time for making rapid decisions regarding field variable inputs to combat stresses and diseases, drone imagery is still evolving in this area of interest. Cost margin and post-processing complexions of the image stream are the main challenges of imaging technology. Therefore, this proposed project involves the cost-effective field programmable gate array (FPGA) based image processing device that would process the image stream in real-time as well as providing the processed output to support on-the-spot decisions in the crop field. As a result, the real-time FPGA-based image processing system would reduce operating costs while minimizing a few intermediate steps to deliver scalable field decisions.

Keywords: real-time, FPGA, drone imagery, image processing, crop monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
410 Enhancement of Underwater Haze Image with Edge Reveal Using Pixel Normalization

Authors: M. Dhana Lakshmi, S. Sakthivel Murugan

Abstract:

As light passes from source to observer in the water medium, it is scattered by the suspended particulate matter. This scattering effect will plague the captured images with non-uniform illumination, blurring details, halo artefacts, weak edges, etc. To overcome this, pixel normalization with an Amended Unsharp Mask (AUM) filter is proposed to enhance the degraded image. To validate the robustness of the proposed technique irrespective of atmospheric light, the considered datasets are collected on dual locations. For those images, the maxima and minima pixel intensity value is computed and normalized; then the AUM filter is applied to strengthen the blurred edges. Finally, the enhanced image is obtained with good illumination and contrast. Thus, the proposed technique removes the effect of scattering called de-hazing and restores the perceptual information with enhanced edge detail. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are done on considering the standard non-reference metric called underwater image sharpness measure (UISM), and underwater image quality measure (UIQM) is used to measure color, sharpness, and contrast for both of the location images. It is observed that the proposed technique has shown overwhelming performance compared to other deep-based enhancement networks and traditional techniques in an adaptive manner.

Keywords: underwater drone imagery, pixel normalization, thresholding, masking, unsharp mask filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
409 Stakeholder Analysis of Agricultural Drone Policy: A Case Study of the Agricultural Drone Ecosystem of Thailand

Authors: Thanomsin Chakreeves, Atichat Preittigun, Ajchara Phu-ang

Abstract:

This paper presents a stakeholder analysis of agricultural drone policies that meet the government's goal of building an agricultural drone ecosystem in Thailand. Firstly, case studies from other countries are reviewed. The stakeholder analysis method and qualitative data from the interviews are then presented including data from the Institute of Innovation and Management, the Office of National Higher Education Science Research and Innovation Policy Council, agricultural entrepreneurs and farmers. Study and interview data are then employed to describe the current ecosystem and to guide the implementation of agricultural drone policies that are suitable for the ecosystem of Thailand. Finally, policy recommendations are then made that the Thai government should adopt in the future.

Keywords: drone public policy, drone ecosystem, policy development, agricultural drone

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
408 Robust Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Underwater Robots against Parameter Uncertainties

Authors: Riku Hayashida, Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

This paper provides a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. Underwater robots are expected to be used for various work assignments. The large variety of applications of underwater robots motivates researchers to develop control systems and technologies for underwater robots. Several control methods have been proposed so far for the stabilization of nominal system model of underwater robots with no parameter uncertainty. Parameter uncertainties are considered to be obstacles in implementation of the such nominal control methods for underwater robots. The objective of this study is to establish a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: robust control, stabilization method, underwater robot, parameter uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
407 3D Stereoscopic Measurements from AR Drone Squadron

Authors: R. Schurig, T. Désesquelles, A. Dumont, E. Lefranc, A. Lux

Abstract:

A cost-efficient alternative is proposed to the use of a single drone carrying multiple cameras in order to take stereoscopic images and videos during its flight. Such drone has to be particularly large enough to take off with its equipment, and stable enough in order to make valid measurements. Corresponding performance for a single aircraft usually comes with a large cost. Proposed solution consists in using multiple smaller and cheaper aircrafts carrying one camera each instead of a single expensive one. To give a proof of concept, AR drones, quad-rotor UAVs from Parrot Inc., are experimentally used.

Keywords: drone squadron, flight control, rotorcraft, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), AR drone, stereoscopic vision

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
406 Design of an Acoustic Imaging Sensor Array for Mobile Robots

Authors: Dibyendu Roy, V. Ramu Reddy, Parijat Deshpande, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

Imaging of underwater objects is primarily conducted by acoustic imagery due to the severe attenuation of electro-magnetic waves in water. Acoustic imagery underwater has varied range of significant applications such as side-scan sonar, mine hunting sonar. It also finds utility in other domains such as imaging of body tissues via ultrasonography and non-destructive testing of objects. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using active acoustic imagery in air and simulate phased array beamforming techniques available in literature for various array designs to achieve a suitable acoustic sensor array design for a portable mobile robot which can be applied to detect the presence/absence of anomalous objects in a room. The multi-path reflection effects especially in enclosed rooms and environmental noise factors are currently not simulated and will be dealt with during the experimental phase. The related hardware is designed with the same feasibility criterion that the developed system needs to be deployed on a portable mobile robot. There is a trade of between image resolution and range with the array size, number of elements and the imaging frequency and has to be iteratively simulated to achieve the desired acoustic sensor array design. The designed acoustic imaging array system is to be mounted on a portable mobile robot and targeted for use in surveillance missions for intruder alerts and imaging objects during dark and smoky scenarios where conventional optic based systems do not function well.

Keywords: acoustic sensor array, acoustic imagery, anomaly detection, phased array beamforming

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
405 Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph

Authors: Sumit Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Chandan Deep Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the underwater robot is analyzed, which is the main focus of this investigation. The control of robot trajectory is not discussed in this paper. Simulation is performed using Symbol Shakti software.

Keywords: bond graph modeling, dynamics. modeling, rayleigh beam, underwater robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
404 A Secure Routing Algorithm for ‎Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Jameii

Abstract:

Underwater wireless sensor networks have been attracting the interest of many ‎researchers lately, and the past three decades have beheld the rapid progress of ‎underwater acoustic communication. One of the major problems in underwater wireless ‎sensor networks is how to transfer data from the moving node to the base stations and ‎choose the optimized route for data transmission. Secure routing in underwater ‎wireless sensor network (UWCNs) is necessary for packet delivery. Some routing ‎protocols are proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks. However, a few ‎researches have been done on secure routing in underwater sensor networks. In this ‎article, a secure routing protocol is provided to resist against wormhole and sybil ‎attacks. The results indicated acceptable performance in terms of increasing the packet ‎delivery ratio with regards to the attacks, increasing network lifetime by creating ‎balance in the network energy consumption, high detection rates against the attacks, ‎and low-end to end delay.‎

Keywords: attacks, routing, security, underwater wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
403 Monitoring Spatial Distribution of Blue-Green Algae Blooms with Underwater Drones

Authors: R. L. P. De Lima, F. C. B. Boogaard, R. E. De Graaf-Van Dinther

Abstract:

Blue-green algae blooms (cyanobacteria) is currently a relevant ecological problem that is being addressed by most water authorities in the Netherlands. These can affect recreation areas by originating unpleasant smells and toxins that can poison humans and animals (e.g. fish, ducks, dogs). Contamination events usually take place during summer months, and their frequency is increasing with climate change. Traditional monitoring of this bacteria is expensive, labor-intensive and provides only limited (point sampling) information about the spatial distribution of algae concentrations. Recently, a novel handheld sensor allowed water authorities to quicken their algae surveying and alarm systems. This study converted the mentioned algae sensor into a mobile platform, by combining it with an underwater remotely operated vehicle (also equipped with other sensors and cameras). This provides a spatial visualization (mapping) of algae concentrations variations within the area covered with the drone, and also in depth. Measurements took place in different locations in the Netherlands: i) lake with thick silt layers at the bottom, very eutrophic former bottom of the sea and frequent / intense mowing regime; ii) outlet of waste water into large reservoir; iii) urban canal system. Results allowed to identify probable dominant causes of blooms (i), provide recommendations for the placement of an outlet, day-night differences in algae behavior (ii), or the highlight / pinpoint higher algae concentration areas (iii). Although further research is still needed to fully characterize these processes and to optimize the measuring tool (underwater drone developments / improvements), the method here presented can already provide valuable information about algae behavior and spatial / temporal variability and shows potential as an efficient monitoring system.

Keywords: blue-green algae, cyanobacteria, underwater drones / ROV / AUV, water quality monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
402 A Research on the Benefits of Drone Usage in Industry by Determining Companies Using Drone in the World

Authors: Ahmet Akdemir, Güzide Karakuş, Leyla Polat

Abstract:

Aviation that has been arisen in accordance with flying request that is existing inside of people, has not only made life easier by making a great contribution to humanity; it has also accelerated globalization by reducing distances between countries. It is seen that the growth rate of aviation industry has reached the undreamed level when it is looked back on. Today, the last point in aviation is unmanned aerial vehicles that are self-ventilating and move in desired coordinates without any onboard pilot. For those vehicles, there are two different control systems are developed. In the first type of control, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) moves according to instructions of a remote control. UAV that moves with a remote control is named as drone; it can be used personally. In the second one, there is a flight plan that is programmed and placed inside of UAV before flight. Recently, drones have started to be used in unimagined areas and utilize specific, important benefits for any industry. Within this framework, this study answers the question that is drone usage would be beneficial for businesses or not. To answer this question, applied basic methodologies are determining businesses using drone in the world, their purposes to use drone, and then, comparing their economy as before drone and after drone. In the end of this study, it is seen that many companies in different business areas use drone in logistics support, and it makes their work easier than before. This paper has contributed to academic literature about this subject, and it has introduced the benefits of drone usage for businesses. In addition, it has encouraged businesses that they keep pace with this technological age by following the developments about drones.

Keywords: aviation, drone, drone in business, unmanned aerial vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
401 Uncovering Underwater Communication for Multi-Robot Applications via CORSICA

Authors: Niels Grataloup, Micael S. Couceiro, Manousos Valyrakis, Javier Escudero, Patricia A. Vargas

Abstract:

This paper benchmarks the possible underwater communication technologies that can be integrated into a swarm of underwater robots by proposing an underwater robot simulator named CORSICA (Cross platfORm wireleSs communICation simulator). Underwater exploration relies increasingly on the use of mobile robots, called Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). These robots are able to reach goals in harsh underwater environments without resorting to human divers. The introduction of swarm robotics in these scenarios would facilitate the accomplishment of complex tasks with lower costs. However, swarm robotics requires implementation of communication systems to be operational and have a non-deterministic behaviour. Inter-robot communication is one of the key challenges in swarm robotics, especially in underwater scenarios, as communication must cope with severe restrictions and perturbations. This paper starts by presenting a list of the underwater propagation models of acoustic and electromagnetic waves, it also reviews existing transmitters embedded in current robots and simulators. It then proposes CORSICA, which allows validating the choices in terms of protocol and communication strategies, whether they are robot-robot or human-robot interactions. This paper finishes with a presentation of possible integration according to the literature review, and the potential to get CORSICA at an industrial level.

Keywords: underwater simulator, robot-robot underwater communication, swarm robotics, transceiver and communication models

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
400 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate

Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson

Abstract:

This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding(FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, distortion, fatigue, friction stir welding(FSW), micro-hardness, underwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
399 The Effect of PETTLEP Imagery on Equestrian Jumping Tasks

Authors: Nurwina Anuar, Aswad Anuar

Abstract:

Imagery is a popular mental technique used by athletes and coaches to improve learning and performance. It has been widely investigated and beneficial in the sports context. However, the imagery application in equestrian sport has been understudied. Thus, the effectiveness of imagery should encompass the application in the equestrian sport to ensure its application covert all sports. Unlike most sports (e.g., football, badminton, tennis, ski) which are both mental and physical are dependent solely upon human decision and response, equestrian sports involves the interaction of human-horse collaboration to success in the equestrian tasks. This study aims to investigate the effect of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks, motivation and imagery ability. It was hypothesized that the use of PETTLEP imagery intervention will significantly increase in the skill equestrian jumping tasks. It was also hypothesized that riders’ imagery ability and motivation will increase across phases. The participants were skilled riders with less to no imagery experience. A single-subject ABA design was employed. The study was occurred over five week’s period at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Equestrian Park. Imagery ability was measured using the Sport Imagery Assessment Questionnaires (SIAQ), the motivational measured based on the Motivational imagery ability measure for Sport (MIAMS). The effectiveness of the PETTLEP imagery intervention on show jumping tasks were evaluated by the professional equine rider on the observational scale. Results demonstrated the improvement on all equestrian jumping tasks for the most participants from baseline to intervention. Result shows the improvement on imagery ability and participants’ motivations after the PETTLEP imagery intervention. Implication of the present study include underlining the impact of PETTLEP imagery on equestrian jumping tasks. The result extends the previous research on the effectiveness of PETTLEP imagery in the sports context that involves interaction and collaboration between human and horse.

Keywords: PETTLEP imagery, imagery ability, equestrian, equestrian jumping tasks

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
398 4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea

Authors: Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz, Jonathan Adams, Felix Pedrotti

Abstract:

This paper introduces the applicability of underwater photogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main tool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological excavation through the creation of 4D models. Photogrammetry was being attempted on underwater archaeological sites at least as early as the 1970s’ and today the production of traditional 3D models is becoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry underwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater archaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool.  Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and when underwater visibility is > 1m, reducing its implementation on most submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions. Recent years have seen significant development of better digital photographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology, ideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with powerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater photogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording and interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5, GoPro5 Hero Black cameras) this paper presents the accumulation of daily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Early Bronze Age (3,300 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of Ropotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions (< 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can and should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low light and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand the complexity of the underwater archaeological record.

Keywords: 4D modelling, Black Sea Maritime Archaeology Project, multi-source photogrammetry, low visibility underwater survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
397 A Study for Turkish Underwater Sports Federation Athletes: Evaluation of the Street Foods Consumption

Authors: Su Tezel

Abstract:

The paper deals with licensed athletes affiliated with the Turkish Underwater Sports Federation to assess the consumption status of street food. The aim of the paper is the frequency of training during competition preparatory training or season periods, the athletes' economic situation, social life, work-life or education situations are the directs them to street food? Also to evaluate the importance that athletes attach to their nutritional status. Data were collected with survey method. 141 underwater sports athletes participated in the survey. Empirical findings on 141 respondents are related to athletes' demographic information, which underwater sports branch they doing (underwater hockey, underwater rugby and free diving), with whom they live, training hours and frequency, street food consumption frequency and preferences, which type drinks they prefer drink with or without street foods and other similar things. Most of the athletes were male (64.5%), female (35.5%) and the most athletes from the sports branches included in the survey belong to underwater hockey (95.7%). 93.7% of athletes have a training time between 08:00 pm to 00:00 am and the frequency of consuming street food after training is 88%. As a remarkable result, 48% of the reasons for consuming street food easy access to street foods after training. Statistical analyzes were made with the data obtained and the status of street food consumption of athletes, whether they were suitable for professional athlete nutrition and their attitudes were evaluated.

Keywords: nutrition, street foods, underwater hockey, underwater sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
396 Effects of X and + Tail-Body Configurations on Hydrodynamic Performance and Stability of an Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Kadri Koçer, Sezer Kefeli

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This paper proposes a comparison of hydrodynamic performance and stability characteristic for an underwater vehicle which has two type of tail design, namely X and +tail-body configurations. The effects of these configurations on the underwater vehicle’s hydrodynamic performance and maneuvering characteristic will be investigated comprehensively. Hydrodynamic damping coefficients for modeling the motion of the underwater vehicles will be predicted. Additionally, forces and moments due to control surfaces will be compared using computational fluid dynamics methods. In the aviation, the X tail-body configuration is widely used for high maneuverability requirements. However, in the underwater, the + tail-body configuration is more commonly used than the X tail-body configuration for its stability characteristics. Thus it is important to see the effect and differences of the tail designs in the underwater world. For CFD analysis, the incompressible, three-dimensional, and steady Navier-Stokes equations will be used to simulate the flows. Also, k-ε Realizable turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment will be taken. Numerical results is verified with experimental results for verification. The overall goal of this study is to present the advantages and disadvantages of hydrodynamic performance and stability characteristic for X and + tail-body configurations of the underwater vehicle.

Keywords: maneuverability, stability, CFD, tail configuration, hydrodynamic design

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395 Guidance and Control of a Torpedo Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Soheil Arash Moghadam, Abdol R. Kashani Nia, Ali Akrami Zade

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Considering numerous applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in various industries, there has been plenty of researches and studies on the motion control of such vehicles. One of the useful aspects for studying is the guidance of these vehicles. In this paper, while presenting motion equations with six degrees of freedom for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, Proportional Navigation Guidance Law and the first order sliding mode control for TAIPAN AUV was used to address its guidance for the purpose of collision with a moving target.

Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), degree of freedom (DOF), hydrodynamic, line of sight(LOS), proportional navigation guidance(PNG), sliding mode control(SMC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
394 Comparison of Direction of Arrival Estimation Method for Drone Based on Phased Microphone Array

Authors: Jiwon Lee, Yeong-Ju Go, Jong-Soo Choi

Abstract:

Drones were first developed for military use and were used in World War 1. But recently drones have been used in a variety of fields. Several companies actively utilize drone technology to strengthen their services, and in agriculture, drones are used for crop monitoring and sowing. Other people use drones for hobby activities such as photography. However, as the range of use of drones expands rapidly, problems caused by drones such as improperly flying, privacy and terrorism are also increasing. As the need for monitoring and tracking of drones increases, researches are progressing accordingly. The drone detection system estimates the position of the drone using the physical phenomena that occur when the drones fly. The drone detection system measures being developed utilize many approaches, such as radar, infrared camera, and acoustic detection systems. Among the various drone detection system, the acoustic detection system is advantageous in that the microphone array system is small, inexpensive, and easy to operate than other systems. In this paper, the acoustic signal is acquired by using minimum microphone when drone is flying, and direction of drone is estimated. When estimating the Direction of Arrival(DOA), there is a method of calculating the DOA based on the Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA) and a method of calculating the DOA based on the beamforming. The TDOA technique requires less number of microphones than the beamforming technique, but is weak in noisy environments and can only estimate the DOA of a single source. The beamforming technique requires more microphones than the TDOA technique. However, it is strong against the noisy environment and it is possible to simultaneously estimate the DOA of several drones. When estimating the DOA using acoustic signals emitted from the drone, it is impossible to measure the position of the drone, and only the direction can be estimated. To overcome this problem, in this work we show how to estimate the position of drones by arranging multiple microphone arrays. The microphone array used in the experiments was four tetrahedral microphones. We simulated the performance of each DOA algorithm and demonstrated the simulation results through experiments.

Keywords: acoustic sensing, direction of arrival, drone detection, microphone array

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393 Safe Zone: A Framework for Detecting and Preventing Drones Misuse

Authors: AlHanoof A. Alharbi, Fatima M. Alamoudi, Razan A. Albrahim, Sarah F. Alharbi, Abdullah M Almuhaideb, Norah A. Almubairik, Abdulrahman Alharby, Naya M. Nagy

Abstract:

Recently, drones received a rapid interest in different industries worldwide due to its powerful impact. However, limitations still exist in this emerging technology, especially privacy violation. These aircrafts consistently threaten the security of entities by entering restricted areas accidentally or deliberately. Therefore, this research project aims to develop drone detection and prevention mechanism to protect the restricted area. Until now, none of the solutions have met the optimal requirements of detection which are cost-effectiveness, high accuracy, long range, convenience, unaffected by noise and generalization. In terms of prevention, the existing methods are focusing on impractical solutions such as catching a drone by a larger drone, training an eagle or a gun. In addition, the practical solutions have limitations, such as the No-Fly Zone and PITBULL jammers. According to our study and analysis of previous related works, none of the solutions includes detection and prevention at the same time. The proposed solution is a combination of detection and prevention methods. To implement the detection system, a passive radar will be used to properly identify the drone against any possible flying objects. As for the prevention, jamming signals and forceful safe landing of the drone integrated together to stop the drone’s operation. We believe that applying this mechanism will limit the drone’s invasion of privacy incidents against highly restricted properties. Consequently, it effectively accelerates drones‘ usages at personal and governmental levels.

Keywords: detection, drone, jamming, prevention, privacy, RF, radar, UAV

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
392 Effects of Different Kinds of Combined Action Observation and Motor Imagery on Improving Golf Putting Performance and Learning

Authors: Chi H. Lin, Chi C. Lin, Chih L. Hsieh

Abstract:

Motor Imagery (MI) alone or combined with action observation (AO) has been shown to enhance motor performance and skill learning. The most effective way to combine these techniques has received limited scientific scrutiny. In the present study, we examined the effects of simultaneous (i.e., observing an action whilst imagining carrying out the action concurrently), alternate (i.e., observing an action and then doing imagery related to that action consecutively) and synthesis (alternately perform action observation and imagery action and then perform observation and imagery action simultaneously) AOMI combinations on improving golf putting performance and learning. Participants, 45 university students who had no formal experience of using imagery for the study, were randomly allocated to one of four training groups: simultaneous action observation and motor imagery (S-AOMI), alternate action observation and motor imagery (A-AOMI), synthesis action observation and motor imagery (A-S-AOMI), and a control group. And it was applied 'Different Experimental Groups with Pre and Post Measured' designs. Participants underwent eighteen times of different interventions, which were happened three times a week and lasting for six weeks. We analyzed the information we received based on two-factor (group × times) mixed between and within analysis of variance to discuss the real effects on participants' golf putting performance and learning about different intervention methods of different types of combined action observation and motor imagery. After the intervention, we then used imagery questionnaire and journey to understand the condition and suggestion about different motor imagery and action observation intervention from the participants. The results revealed that the three experimental groups both are effective in putting performance and learning but not for the control group, and the A-S-AOMI group is significantly better effect than S-AOMI group on golf putting performance and learning. The results confirmed the effect of motor imagery combined with action observation on the performance and learning of golf putting. In particular, in the groups of synthesis, motor imagery, or action observation were alternately performed first and then performed motor imagery, and action observation simultaneously would have the best effectiveness.

Keywords: motor skill learning, motor imagery, action observation, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
391 Estimation and Restoration of Ill-Posed Parameters for Underwater Motion Blurred Images

Authors: M. Vimal Raj, S. Sakthivel Murugan

Abstract:

Underwater images degrade their quality due to atmospheric conditions. One of the major problems in an underwater image is motion blur caused by the imaging device or the movement of the object. In order to rectify that in post-imaging, parameters of the blurred image are to be estimated. So, the point spread function is estimated by the properties, using the spectrum of the image. To improve the estimation accuracy of the parameters, Optimized Polynomial Lagrange Interpolation (OPLI) method is implemented after the angle and length measurement of motion-blurred images. Initially, the data were collected from real-time environments in Chennai and processed. The proposed OPLI method shows better accuracy than the existing classical Cepstral, Hough, and Radon transform estimation methods for underwater images.

Keywords: image restoration, motion blur, parameter estimation, radon transform, underwater

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390 Should the U.S. Rely on Drone Strikes to Combat the Islamic State? Why Deploying a Drone Campaign against ISIS Will Do Nothing to Address the Causes of the Insurgency or Prevent Its Resurgence?

Authors: Danielle Jablanski

Abstract:

This article addresses the use of drone strikes under international law and the intersection between Islamic law and current terrorist trends worldwide. It breaks down the legality of drone strikes under international law and dissects certain aspects of their usage in modern warfare; i.e. concepts of directly participating in hostilities and the role of CIA operators. The article then looks at international paradigms of law enforcement versus the use of military force in relation to terrorism. Lastly, it describes traditional aspects of Islamic law and several interpretations of the law today as applied to widespread campaigns of terrorism, namely that of the recent group ISIS or ISIL operating between the battlegrounds of Iraq and Syria. The piece concludes with appraisals for moving forward on the basis of honing in on reasons for terrorism and negative opinions of solely military campaigns to dismantle or disrupt terror organizations and breeding grounds.

Keywords: international law, terrorism, ISIS, islamic law

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
389 Image Distortion Correction Method of 2-MHz Side Scan Sonar for Underwater Structure Inspection

Authors: Youngseok Kim, Chul Park, Jonghwa Yi, Sangsik Choi

Abstract:

The 2-MHz Side Scan SONAR (SSS) attached to the boat for inspection of underwater structures is affected by shaking. It is difficult to determine the exact scale of damage of structure. In this study, a motion sensor is attached to the inside of the 2-MHz SSS to get roll, pitch, and yaw direction data, and developed the image stabilization tool to correct the sonar image. We checked that reliable data can be obtained with an average error rate of 1.99% between the measured value and the actual distance through experiment. It is possible to get the accurate sonar data to inspect damage in underwater structure.

Keywords: image stabilization, motion sensor, safety inspection, sonar image, underwater structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
388 A Regression Analysis Study of the Applicability of Side Scan Sonar based Safety Inspection of Underwater Structures

Authors: Chul Park, Youngseok Kim, Sangsik Choi

Abstract:

This study developed an electric jig for underwater structure inspection in order to solve the problem of the application of side scan sonar to underwater inspection, and analyzed correlations of empirical data in order to enhance sonar data resolution. For the application of tow-typed sonar to underwater structure inspection, an electric jig was developed. In fact, it was difficult to inspect a cross-section at the time of inspection with tow-typed equipment. With the development of the electric jig for underwater structure inspection, it was possible to shorten an inspection time over 20%, compared to conventional tow-typed side scan sonar, and to inspect a proper cross-section through accurate angle control. The indoor test conducted to enhance sonar data resolution proved that a water depth, the distance from an underwater structure, and a filming angle influenced a resolution and data quality. Based on the data accumulated through field experience, multiple regression analysis was conducted on correlations between three variables. As a result, the relational equation of sonar operation according to a water depth was drawn.

Keywords: underwater structure, SONAR, safety inspection, resolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
387 Heat Transfer Studies for LNG Vaporization During Underwater LNG Releases

Authors: S. Naveen, V. Sivasubramanian

Abstract:

A modeling theory is proposed to consider the vaporization of LNG during its contact with water following its release from an underwater source. The spillage of LNG underwater can lead to a decrease in the surface temperature of water and subsequent freezing. This can in turn affect the heat flux distribution from the released LNG onto the water surrounding it. The available models predict the rate of vaporization considering the surface of contact as a solid wall, and considering the entire phenomena as a solid-liquid operation. This assumption greatly under-predicted the overall heat transfer on LNG water interface. The vaporization flux would first decrease during the film boiling, followed by an increase during the transition boiling and a steady decrease during the nucleate boiling. A superheat theory is introduced to enhance the accuracy in the prediction of the heat transfer between LNG and water. The work suggests that considering the superheat theory can greatly enhance the prediction of LNG vaporization on underwater releases and also help improve the study of overall thermodynamics.

Keywords: evaporation rate, heat transfer, LNG vaporization, underwater LNG release

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
386 Comparative Study of Accuracy of Land Cover/Land Use Mapping Using Medium Resolution Satellite Imagery: A Case Study

Authors: M. C. Paliwal, A. K. Jain, S. K. Katiyar

Abstract:

Classification of satellite imagery is very important for the assessment of its accuracy. In order to determine the accuracy of the classified image, usually the assumed-true data are derived from ground truth data using Global Positioning System. The data collected from satellite imagery and ground truth data is then compared to find out the accuracy of data and error matrices are prepared. Overall and individual accuracies are calculated using different methods. The study illustrates advanced classification and accuracy assessment of land use/land cover mapping using satellite imagery. IRS-1C-LISS IV data were used for classification of satellite imagery. The satellite image was classified using the software in fourteen classes namely water bodies, agricultural fields, forest land, urban settlement, barren land and unclassified area etc. Classification of satellite imagery and calculation of accuracy was done by using ERDAS-Imagine software to find out the best method. This study is based on the data collected for Bhopal city boundaries of Madhya Pradesh State of India.

Keywords: resolution, accuracy assessment, land use mapping, satellite imagery, ground truth data, error matrices

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
385 Proposing a Boundary Coverage Algorithm ‎for Underwater Sensor Network

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Jameii

Abstract:

Wireless underwater sensor networks are a type of sensor networks that are located in underwater environments and linked together by acoustic waves. The application of these kinds of network includes monitoring of pollutants (chemical, biological, and nuclear), oil fields detection, prediction of the likelihood of a tsunami in coastal areas, the use of wireless sensor nodes to monitor the passing submarines, and determination of appropriate locations for anchoring ships. This paper proposes a boundary coverage algorithm for intrusion detection in underwater sensor networks. In the first phase of the proposed algorithm, optimal deployment of nodes is done in the water. In the second phase, after the employment of nodes at the proper depth, clustering is executed to reduce the exchanges of messages between the sensors. In the third phase, the algorithm of "divide and conquer" is used to save energy and increase network efficiency. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: boundary coverage, clustering, divide and ‎conquer, underwater sensor nodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
384 Evaluation of Low Power Wi-Fi Modules in Simulated Ocean Environments

Authors: Gabriel Chenevert, Abhilash Arora, Zeljko Pantic

Abstract:

The major problem underwater acoustic communication faces is the low data rate due to low signal frequency. By contrast, the Wi-Fi communication protocol offers high throughput but limited operating range due to the attenuation effect of the sea and ocean medium. However, short-range near-field underwater wireless power transfer systems offer an environment where Wi-Fi communication can be effectively integrated to collect data and deliver instructions to sensors in underwater sensor networks. In this paper, low-power, low-cost off-the-shelf Wi-Fi modules are explored experimentally for four selected parameters for different distances between units and water salinities. The results reveal a shorter operating range and stronger dependence on water salinity than reported so far for high-end Wi-Fi modules.

Keywords: Wi-Fi, wireless power transfer, underwater communications, ESP

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383 Drone Swarm Routing and Scheduling for Off-shore Wind Turbine Blades Inspection

Authors: Mohanad Al-Behadili, Xiang Song, Djamila Ouelhadj, Alex Fraess-Ehrfeld

Abstract:

In off-shore wind farms, turbine blade inspection accessibility under various sea states is very challenging and greatly affects the downtime of wind turbines. Maintenance of any offshore system is not an easy task due to the restricted logistics and accessibility. The multirotor unmanned helicopter is of increasing interest in inspection applications due to its manoeuvrability and payload capacity. These advantages increase when many of them are deployed simultaneously in a swarm. Hence this paper proposes a drone swarm framework for inspecting offshore wind turbine blades and nacelles so as to reduce downtime. One of the big challenges of this task is that when operating a drone swarm, an individual drone may not have enough power to fly and communicate during missions and it has no capability of refueling due to its small size. Once the drone power is drained, there are no signals transmitted and the links become intermittent. Vessels equipped with 5G masts and small power units are utilised as platforms for drones to recharge/swap batteries. The research work aims at designing a smart energy management system, which provides automated vessel and drone routing and recharging plans. To achieve this goal, a novel mathematical optimisation model is developed with the main objective of minimising the number of drones and vessels, which carry the charging stations, and the downtime of the wind turbines. There are a number of constraints to be considered, such as each wind turbine must be inspected once and only once by one drone; each drone can inspect at most one wind turbine after recharging, then fly back to the charging station; collision should be avoided during the drone flying; all wind turbines in the wind farm should be inspected within the given time window. We have developed a real-time Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) algorithm to generate real-time and near-optimal solutions to the drone swarm routing problem. The schedule will generate efficient and real-time solutions to indicate the inspection tasks, time windows, and the optimal routes of the drones to access the turbines. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the quality of the solutions generated by ACO.

Keywords: drone swarm, routing, scheduling, optimisation model, ant colony optimisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
382 Compressive Strength Evaluation of Underwater Concrete Structures Integrating the Combination of Rebound Hardness and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Methods with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Seunghee Park, Junkyeong Kim, Eun-Seok Shin, Sang-Hun Han

Abstract:

In this study, two kinds of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods) are investigated for the effective maintenance of underwater concrete structures. A new methodology to estimate the underwater concrete strengths more effectively, named “artificial neural network (ANN) – based concrete strength estimation with the combination of rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods” is proposed and verified throughout a series of experimental works.

Keywords: underwater concrete, rebound hardness, Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, ultrasonic sensor, artificial neural networks, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 434