Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 699

Search results for: trunk rehabilitation

699 Quantification of Learned Non-Use of the Upper-Limb After a Stroke

Authors: K. K. A. Bakhti, D. Mottet, J. Froger, I. Laffont

Abstract:

Background: After a cerebrovascular accident (or stroke), many patients use excessive trunk movements to move their paretic hand towards a target (while the elbow is maintained flexed) even though they can use the upper-limb when the trunk is restrained. This phenomenon is labelled learned non-use and is known to be detrimental to neuroplasticity and recovery. Objective: The aim of this study is to quantify learned non-use of the paretic upper limb during a hand reaching task using 3D movement analysis. Methods: Thirty-four participants post supratentorial stroke were asked to reach a cone placed in front of them at 80% of their arm length. The reaching movement was repeated 5 times with the paretic hand, and then 5 times with the less-impaired hand. This sequence was first performed with the trunk free, then with the trunk restrained. Learned non-use of the upper-limb (LNUUL) was obtained from the difference of the amount of trunk compensation between the free trunk condition and the restrained trunk condition. Results: LNUUL was significantly higher for the paretic hand, with individual values ranging from 1% to 43%, and one-half of the patients with an LNUUL higher than 15%. Conclusions: Quantification of LNUUL can be used to objectively diagnose patients who need trunk rehabilitation. It can be also used for monitoring the rehabilitation progress. Quantification of LNUUL may guide upper-limb rehabilitation towards more optimal motor recovery avoiding maladaptive trunk compensation and its consequences on neuroplasticity.

Keywords: learned non-use, rehabilitation, stroke, upper limb

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698 Electromyographic Analysis of Trunk Muscle Activity of Healthy Individuals While Catching a Ball on Three Different Seating Surfaces

Authors: Hanan H. ALQahtani, Karen Jones

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Catching a ball during sitting is a functional exercise commonly used in rehabilitation to enhance trunk muscle activity. To progress this exercise, physiotherapists incorporate a Swiss ball or change seat height. However, no study has assessed the effect of different seating surfaces on trunk muscle activity while catching a ball. Objective: To investigate the effect of catching a ball during sitting on a Swiss ball, a low seat and a high seat on trunk muscle activity. Method: A repeated-measures, counterbalanced design was used. A total of 26 healthy participants (15 female and 11 male) performed three repetitions of catching a ball on each seating surface. Using surface electromyography (sEMG), the activity of the bilateral transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and lumbar multifidus (MF) was recorded. Trunk muscle activity was normalized using maximum voluntary isometric contraction and analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ .05. Results: No significant differences were observed in the activity of RA, TrA/IO, ES or MF between a low seat and a Swiss ball. However, the activity of the right and left ES on a low seat was significantly greater than on a high seat (p = .017 and p = .017, respectively). Conversely, the activity of the right and left RA on a high seat was significantly greater than on a low seat (p = .007 and p = .004, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that replacing a low seat with a Swiss ball while catching a ball is insufficient to increase trunk muscle activity, whereas changing the seat height could induce different trunk muscle activities. However, research conducted on patients is needed before translating these results into clinical settings.

Keywords: catching, electromyography, seating, trunk

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697 Effect of Motor Imagery of Truncal Exercises on Trunk Function and Balance in Early Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Elsa Reethu, S. Karthik Babu, N. Syed

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Background: Studies in the past focused on the additional benefits of action observation in improving upper and lower limb functions and improving activities of daily living when administered along with conventional therapy. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of literature proving the effects of motor imagery of truncal exercise in improving trunk control in patients with stroke. Aims/purpose: To study the effect of motor imagery of truncal exercises on trunk function and balance in early stroke. Methods: A total of 24 patients were included in the study. 12 were included in the experimental group and 12 were included in control group Trunk function was measured using Trunk Control Test (TCT), Trunk Impairment Scale Verheyden (TIS Verheyden) and Trunk Impairment Scale Fujiwara (TIS Fujiwara). The balance was assessed using Brunel Balance Assessment (BBA) and Tinetti POMA. For the experimental group, each session was for 30 minutes of physical exercises and 15 minutes of motor imagery, once a day, six times a week for 3 weeks and prior to the exercise session, patients viewed a video tape of all the trunk exercises to be performed for 15minutes. The control group practiced the trunk exercises alone for the same duration. Measurements were taken before, after and 4 weeks after intervention. Results: The effect of treatment in motor imagery group showed better improvement when compared with control group when measured after 3 weeks on values of static sitting balance, dynamic balance, total TIS (Verheyden) score, BBA, Tinetti balance and gait with a large effect size of 0.86, 1.99, 1.69, 1.06, 1.63 and 0.97 respectively. The moderate effect size was seen in values of TIS Fujiwara (0.58) and small effect size was seen on TCT (0.12) and TIS coordination component (0.13).at the end of 4 weeks after intervention, the large effect size was identified on values of dynamic balance (2.06), total TIS score (1.59) and Tinetti balance (1.24). The moderate effect size was observed on BBA (0.62) and Tinetti gait (0.72). Conclusion: Trunk motor imagery is effective in improving trunk function and balance in patients with stroke and has a carryover effect in the aspects of mobility. The therapy gain that was observed during the time of discharge was seen to be maintained at the follow-up levels.

Keywords: stroke, trunk rehabilitation, trunk function, balance, motor imagery

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696 Trunk and Gluteus-Medius Muscles’ Fatigability during Occupational Standing in Clinical Instructors with Low Back Pain

Authors: Eman A. Embaby, Amira A. A. Abdallah

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Background: Occupational standing is associated with low back pain (LBP) development. Yet, trunk and gluteus-medius muscles’ fatigability has not been extensively studied during occupational standing. This study examined and correlated the rectus abdominus (RA), erector-spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), and gluteus-medius (GM) muscles’ fatigability on both sides while standing in a confined area for 30 min Methods: Median frequency EMG data were collected from 15 female clinical instructors with chronic LBP (group A) and 15 asymptomatic controls (group B) (mean age 29.53±2.4 vs. 29.07±2.4 years, weight 63.6±7 vs. 60±7.8 kg, and height 162.73±4 vs. 162.8±6 cm respectively) using a spectrum analysis program. Data were collected in the first and last 5min of the standing task. Results: Using Mixed three-way ANOVA, group A showed significantly (p<0.05) lower frequencies for the right and left ES, and right GM in the last 5 min and significantly higher frequencies for the left RA in the first and last 5min than group B. In addition, the left ES and right EO, ES and GM in group B showed significantly higher frequencies and the left ES in group A showed significantly lower frequencies in the last 5min compared with the first. Moreover, the right RA showed significantly higher frequencies than the left in the last 5min in group B. Finally, there were significant (p<0.05) correlations among the median frequencies of the tested four muscles on the same side and between both sides in both groups. Discussion/Conclusions: Clinical instructors with LBP are more liable to have higher trunk and gluteus-medius muscle fatigue than asymptomatic individuals. Thus, endurance training for these muscles should be included in the rehabilitation of such patients.

Keywords: EMG, fatigability, gluteus-medius, LBP, standing, trunk

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695 A Study on Coronary Artery Dominance and Divisions of Main Trunk of Left Coronary Artery in Adult Human Cadaveric Hearts of South Indian Population

Authors: Chethan Purushothama

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Coronary artery disease is one of the major causes of death in developing countries. The coronary arteries show wide range of variations and these variations have not been dealt with different population groups. The present study aims to focus on the pattern and variations of coronary artery in south Indian population. The study was performed to analyze the coronary artery dominance and divisions of main trunk of left coronary artery in 81 isolated adult human cadaveric hearts of South Indian population. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and were dissected manually. In our specimens, 74.1% of the hearts were right dominant, 11.1% were left dominant, and 14.8% were co-dominant. Bifurcation, trifurcation, and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen in 49.4%, 48.1%, and 2.5% cases respectively. The right dominant hearts had bifurcation, trifurcation and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 46.7%, 50% and 3.3% hearts respectively. The left dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 55.6% and 44.4% cases respectively. The co-dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 58.3% and 41.7% respectively. Quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen only in right dominant hearts. We believe that the data obtained from the present study are important to the interventional cardiologists and radiologists. The details obtained will also be helpful for the clinical anatomists.

Keywords: bifurcation, coronary artery, trifurcation, quadrifurcation

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694 Effect of Core Stability Exercises on Trunk Muscle Balance in Healthy Adult Individuals

Authors: Amira A. A. Abdallah, Amir A. Beltagi

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Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for improving muscle balance and optimizing performance in healthy and unhealthy individuals. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of beginner’s core stability exercises on trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio and trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques. Methods: Thirty five healthy individuals participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups; experimental “group I, n=20” and control “group II, n=15”. Their mean age, weight and height were 20.7±2.4 vs. 20.3±0.61 years, 66.5±12.1 vs. 68.57±12.2 kg and 166.7±7.8 vs. 164.28 ±7.59 cm. for group I vs. group II. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which group I performed a core stability training program. Results: The 2x2 Mixed Design ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences (p>0.025) in the trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio between the pre-test and post-test conditions for either group. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p>0.025) in the trunk flexion/extension ratios between both groups at either condition. However, the 2x2 Mixed Design MANOVA revealed significant increases (p<0.025) in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the post-test condition compared with the pre-test in group I with no significant differences (p>0.025) in group II. Moreover, there was a significant increase (p<0.025) in the trunk flexors’ peak torque only in group I compared with group II in the post-test condition with no significant differences in the other conditions. Interpretation/Conclusion: The improvement in muscle performance indicated by the increase in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve muscle performance.

Keywords: core stability, isokinetic, trunk muscles, muscle balance

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693 The Variation of the Inferior Gluteal Artery Origin

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames

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The inferior gluteal artery is a prominent branch of the anterior trunk of internal iliac artery. It escapes from the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen below the lower edge of piriformis. In gluteal region, it provides several muscular branches to gluteal maximus and articular branch to hip joint. Further, it provides sciatic branch to sciatic nerve. Current study investigates the origin of the inferior gluteal artery of 41 cadavers in Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK. It arose from the anterior trunk in 37.5% independently and 45.7% dependently as with the internal pudendal artery. Therefore, it arose from the anterior trunk in 83.2%. However, it found to be as a branch of the posterior trunk of internal iliac artery in 7.7% which is either a direct branch in 6.2% as or indirect branch in 1.5%. Beside the inferior gluteal artery arose with internal pudendal artery as from GPT of anterior division in 45.7%, it arose from the GPT arising from the internal iliac artery bifurcation site in 1.5%. Further, the inferior gluteal artery arose from the trunk with internal pudendal and obturator arteries in 1.5% referred as obturatogluteopudendal trunk. Occasionally, it arose from the sciatic artery in 1.5%. In few cases, the inferior gluteal artery found to be congenital absence in 4.6% which is compensated by the persistent sciatic artery. Therefore, radiologists have to aware of the origin variability of the inferior gluteal artery to alert surgeons. Knowing the origin of the inferior gluteal artery may help the surgeons to avoid iatrogenic sciatic neuropathy in pelvic procedures such as removing prostate or of uterine fibroid. Further, it may also prevent avascular necrosis of femur neck as well as gluteal claudication.

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, internal iliac artery, sciatic neuropathy, gluteal claudication

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692 Effect of Core Stability Exercises on Trunk Proprioception in Healthy Adult Individuals

Authors: Omaima E. S. Mohammed, Amira A. A. Abdallah, Amal A. M. El Borady

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Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for improving muscle performance. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of beginners' core stability exercises on trunk active repositioning error at 30° and 60° trunk flexion. Methods: Forty healthy males participated in the study. They were divided into two equal groups; experimental “group I” and control “group II”. Their mean age, weight and height were 19.35±1.11 vs 20.45±1.64 years, 70.15±6.44 vs 72.45±6.91 kg and 174.7±7.02 vs 176.3±7.24 cm for group I vs group II. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system at an angular velocity of 60º/s. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which group I performed a core stability training program. Results: The Mixed 3-way ANOVA revealed significant increases (p<0.05) in the absolute error (AE) at 30˚ compared with 60˚ flexion in the pre-test condition of group I and II and the post-test condition of group II. Moreover, there were significant decreases (p<0.05) in the AE in the post-test condition compared with the pre-test in group I at both 30˚ and 60˚ flexion with no significant differences for group II. Finally, there were significant decreases (p<0.05) in the AE in group I compared with group II in the post-test condition at 30˚ and 60˚ flexion with no significant differences for the pre-test condition Interpretation/Conclusion: The improvement in trunk proprioception indicated by the decrease in the active repositioning error in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve trunk proprioception.

Keywords: core stability, isokinetic, trunk proprioception, biomechanics

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691 Effect of Core Stability Exercises on Balance between Trunk Muscles in Healthy Adult Subjects

Authors: Amir A. Beltagi, Ahmed R. Abdelbaki

Abstract:

Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for optimizing performance and improving muscle balance for healthy and unhealthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of beginner’s core stability exercises on the trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio and trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques. Methods: Thirty five healthy individuals, randomly assigned into two groups; experimental (group I) and control (group II), participated in the study. Group I involved 20 participants (10 male & 10 female) with mean ±SD age, weight, and height of 20.7±2.4 years, 66.5±12.1 kg and 166.7±7.8 cm respectively. Group II involved 15 participants (6 male & 9 female) with mean ±SD age, weight, and height of 20.3±0.61 years, 68.57±12.2 kg and 164.28 ±7.59 cm respectively. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which the experimental group performed a core stability training program. Findings: Statistical analysis using the 2x2 Mixed Design ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences in the trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio between the ‘pre’ and ‘post’ tests for either group (p > 0.025). Moreover, there were no significant differences in the trunk flexors’/extensors’ ratios between both groups at either test (p > 0.025). Meanwhile, the 2x2 Mixed Design MANOVA revealed that there were significant differences in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques between the ‘pre’ and ‘post’ tests for group I (p < 0.025), while there were no significant differences inbetween for group II (p > 0.025). Moreover, there were no significant differences between both groups for the tested muscles’ peak torques at either test except for that of the trunk flexors at the ‘post’ test only (p < 0.025). Interpretation: The improvement in muscle performance indicated by the increase in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve muscle performance.

Keywords: core stability, isokinetic, trunk muscles, muscle balance

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690 Effect of Prone Trunk Extension on Scapular and Thoracic Kinematics, and Activity during Scapular Posterior Tilting Exercise in Subjects with Round Shoulder Posture

Authors: A-Reum Shin, Heon-Seock Cynn, Ji-Hyun Lee, Da-Eun Kim

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Round shoulder posture (RSP) is a position of scapular protraction and elevation, which may appear as scapular winging, and humeral internal rotation. Flexed posture (FP) may also affect RSP because FP is characterized by hyperkyphosis, forward head posture, and height reduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of scapular posterior tilting exercise with prone trunk extension on round shoulder posture, activities of lower trapezius and serratus anterior, flexed posture, and thoracic erector spinae activity in subjects with round shoulder posture. Fifteen subjects with round shoulder posture were recruited in this study. Activities of lower trapezius, serratus anterior and thoracic erector spinae were measured during both scapular posterior tilting exercise and scapular posterior tilting exercise with prone trunk extension using electromyography, and round shoulder posture and flexed posture were measured immediately after each exercises using caliper. When the prone trunk extension was applied, the round shoulder posture and flexed posture significantly decreased, activities of lower trapezius and thoracic erector spinae significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared with the scapular posterior tilting exercise alone. There was no significant difference in serratus anterior activity between two exercises. Thus, prone trunk extension could be effective method to improve round shoulder posture during scapular posterior tilting exercise in subjects with round shoulder posture.

Keywords: flexed posture, prone trunk extension, round shoulder posture, scapular posterior tilting

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689 Adjustment of the Whole-Body Center of Mass during Trunk-Flexed Walking across Uneven Ground

Authors: Soran Aminiaghdam, Christian Rode, Reinhard Blickhan, Astrid Zech

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Despite considerable studies on the impact of imposed trunk posture on human walking, less is known about such locomotion while negotiating changes in ground level. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the VBCOM in response to a two-fold expected perturbation, namely alterations in body posture and in ground level. To this end, the kinematic data and ground reaction forces of twelve able participants were collected. We analyzed the vertical position of the body center of mass (VBCOM) from the ground determined by the body segmental analysis method relative to the laboratory coordinate system at touchdown and toe-off instants during walking across uneven ground — characterized by perturbation contact (a 10-cm visible drop) and pre- and post-perturbation contacts — in comparison to unperturbed level contact while maintaining three postures (regular erect, ~30° and ~50° of trunk flexion from the vertical). The VBCOM was normalized to the distance between the greater trochanter marker and the lateral malleoli marker at the instant of TD. Moreover, we calculated the backward rotation during step-down as the difference of the maximum of the trunk angle in the pre-perturbation contact and the minimal trunk angle in the perturbation contact. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed contact-specific effects of posture on the VBCOM at touchdown (F = 5.96, p = 0.00). As indicated by the analysis of simple main effects, during unperturbed level and pre-perturbation contacts, no between-posture differences for the VBCOM at touchdown were found. In the perturbation contact, trunk-flexed gaits showed a significant increase of VBCOM as compared to the pre-perturbation contact. In the post-perturbation contact, the VBCOM demonstrated a significant decrease in all gait postures relative to the preceding corresponding contacts with no between-posture differences. Main effects of posture revealed that the VBCOM at toe-off significantly decreased in trunk-flexed gaits relative to the regular erect gait. For the main effect of contact, the VBCOM at toe-off demonstrated changes across perturbation and post-perturbation contacts as compared to the unperturbed level contact. Furthermore, participants exhibited a backward trunk rotation during step-down possibly to control the angular momentum of their whole body. A more pronounced backward trunk rotation (2- to 3-fold compared with level contacts) in trunk-flexed walking contributed to the observed elevated VBCOM during the step-down which may have facilitated drop negotiation. These results may shed light on the interaction between posture and locomotion in able gait, and specifically on the behavior of the body center of mass during perturbed locomotion.

Keywords: center of mass, perturbation, posture, uneven ground, walking

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688 Concept of a Low Cost Gait Rehabilitation Robot for Children with Neurological Dysfunction

Authors: Mariana Volpini, Volker Bartenbach, Marcos Pinotti, Robert Riener

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Restoration of gait ability is an important task in the rehabilitation of people with neurological disorders presenting a great impact in the quality of life of an individual. Based on the motor learning concept, robotic assisted treadmill training has been introduced and found to be a feasible and promising therapeutic option in neurological rehabilitation but unfortunately it is not available for most patients in developing countries due to the high cost. This paper presents the concept of a low cost rehabilitation robot to help consolidate the robotic-assisted gait training as a reality in clinical practice in most countries. This work indicates that it is possible to build a simpler rehabilitation device respecting the physiological trajectory of the ankle.

Keywords: bioengineering, gait therapy, low cost rehabilitation robot, rehabilitation robotics

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687 Comparative Antibacterial Property of Matured Trunk and Stem Bark Extract of Tamarindus indica L., Preformulation, Development and Quality Control of Cream

Authors: A. M. T. Jacinto, M.O. Osi

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Tamarind has various medicinal properties among which is its antibacterial property. Its bark contains saponins, alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and tannins. It is rich in phlobapenes which is responsible for antibacterial property. The objective of the study was to determine which bark will produce the highest antibacterial property, develop it into a topical cream and evaluate its quality and characteristics. Powdered barks of Tamarind were extracted by soxhlet method using 70% acetone. Stem bark produced a higher yield than trunk bark (5.85 g vs. 4.73 g). It was found that the trunk bark was more sensitive than stem bark to microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Streptococcus spp. Sensitivity of trunk bark can be attributed to a more developed phytoconstituents. Dermal sensitization test on both sexes of rabbits using the following concentrations: 100%, 40% and 20% of extract showed that Tamarind has no irritating property and therefore safe for formulation into an antibacterial cream. Excipients used for formulation such as methyl paraben, propyl paraben, stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum were compatible with the Tamarind acetone extract through Differential Scanning Calorimetry except sodium lauryl sulfate that exhibited crystallization when subjected at 200˚C. The method of manufacture used in cream is fusion, therefore strict compliance of processing temperature should be observed to prevent polymorphism. Quality control tests of formulated cream based on USP 30 and Philippine Pharmacopeia were satisfactory.

Keywords: antibacterial, differential scanning calorimetry, tannins, dermal sensitization

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686 Impact of Pediatric Cardiac Rehabilitation on the Physical Condition of Children with Congenital Heart Defects

Authors: Hady Atef Labib

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Pediatric cardiac rehabilitation has the potential to benefit many children with congenital heart defects (CHD). Instead of excellent surgical results most of children usually present with a depression of physical condition so early rehabilitation program is recommended to avoid that decline in physical tolerance and prevent any post surgical complications. Unfortunately, the limited experience with and availability of these programs has caused the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation to be unavailable to most children with CHD. Therefore, it is recommended to study that field in more detail and apply it on wider scale.

Keywords: pediatric cardiac rehabilitation, congenital heart disease, quality of life, pediatric

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685 A Robotic Rehabilitation Arm Driven by Somatosensory Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Jiewei Li, Hongyan Cui, Chunqi Chang, Yong Hu

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It was expected to benefit patient with hemiparesis after stroke by extensive arm rehabilitation, to partially regain forearm and hand function. This paper propose a robotic rehabilitation arm in assisting the hemiparetic patient to learn new ways of using and moving their weak arms. In this study, the robotic arm was driven by a somatosensory stimulated brain computer interface (BCI), which is a new modality BCI. The use of somatosensory stimulation is not only an input for BCI, but also a electrical stimulation for treatment of hemiparesis to strengthen the arm and improve its range of motion. A trial of this robotic rehabilitation arm was performed in a stroke patient with pure motor hemiparesis. The initial trial showed a promising result from the patient with great motivation and function improvement. It suggests that robotic rehabilitation arm driven by somatosensory BCI can enhance the rehabilitation performance and progress for hemiparetic patients after stroke.

Keywords: robotic rehabilitation arm, brain computer interface (BCI), hemiparesis, stroke, somatosensory stimulation

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684 The Effect of 12-Week Pilates Training on Flexibility and Level of Perceived Exertion of Back Muscles among Karate Players

Authors: Seyedeh Nahal Sadiri, Ardalan Shariat

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Developing flexibility, by using pilates, would be useful for karate players by reducing the stiffness of muscles and tendons. This study aimed to determine the effects of 12-week pilates training on flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles among karate players. In this experimental study, 29 male karate players (age: 16-18 years) were randomized to pilates (n=15), and control (n=14) groups and the assessments were done in baseline and after 12-week intervention. Both groups completed 12-week of intervention (2 hours of training, 3 times weekly). The experimental group performed 30 minutes pilates within their warm-up and preparation phase, where the control group only attended their usual karate training. Digital backward flexmeter was used to evaluate the trunk extensors flexibility, and digital forward flexmeter was used to measure the trunk flexors flexibility. Borg CR-10 Scale was also used to determine the perceived exertion of back muscles. Independent samples t-test and paired sample t-test were used to analyze the data. There was a significant difference between the mean score of experimental and control groups in the level of backward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05), forward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05) after 12-week intervention. The results of Borg CR-10 scale showed a significant improvement in pilates group (P < 0.05). Karate instructors, coaches, and athletes can integrate pilates exercises with karate training in order to improve the flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles.

Keywords: pilates training, karate players, flexibility, Borg CR-10

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683 Multiple Variations of the Nerves of Gluteal Region and Their Clinical Implications, a Case Report

Authors: A. M. Prasad

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Knowledge of variations of nerves of gluteal region is important for clinicians administering intramuscular injections, for orthopedic surgeons dealing with the hip surgeries, possibly for physiotherapists managing the painful conditions and paralysis of this region. Herein, we report multiple variations of the nerves of gluteal region. In the current case, the sciatic nerve was absent. The common peroneal and tibial nerves arose from sacral plexus and reached the gluteal region through greater sciatic foramen above and below piriformis respectively. The common peroneal nerve gave a muscular branch to the gluteus maximus. The inferior gluteal nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh arose from a common trunk. The common trunk was formed by three roots. Upper and middle roots arose from sacral plexus and entered gluteal region through greater sciatic foramen respectively above and below piriformis. The lower root arose from the pudendal nerve and joined the common trunk. These variations were seen in the right gluteal region of an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. Innervation of gluteus maximus by common peroneal nerve and presence of a common trunk of inferior gluteal nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh make this case unique. The variant nerves may be subjected to iatrogenic injuries during surgical approach to the hip. They may also get compressed if there is a hypertrophy of the piriformis syndrome. Hence, the knowledge of these variations is of importance to clinicians, orthopedic surgeons and possibly for physiotherapists.

Keywords: gluteal region, multiple variations, nerve injury, sciatic nerve

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682 Assessment of Rehabilitation Possibilities in Case of Budapest Jewish Quarter Building Stock

Authors: Viktória Sugár, Attila Talamon, András Horkai, Michihiro Kita

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The dense urban fabric of the Budapest 7th district is known as the former Jewish Quarter. The majority of the historical building stock contains multi-story tenement houses with courtyards, built around the end of the 19th century. Various rehabilitation and urban planning attempt occurred until today, mostly left unfinished. Present paper collects the past rehabilitation plans, actions and their effect which took place in the former Jewish District of Budapest. The authors aim to assess the boundaries of a complex building stock rehabilitation, by taking into account the monument protection guidelines. As a main focus of the research, structural as well as energetic rehabilitation possibilities are analyzed in case of each building by using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods.

Keywords: geographic information system, Hungary, Jewish Quarter, monument, protection, rehabilitation

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681 The Effects of an Exercise Program Integrated with the Transtheoretical Model on Pain and Trunk Muscle Endurance of Rice Farmers with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Thanakorn Thanawat, Nomjit Nualnetr

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Background and Purpose: In Thailand, rice farmers have the most prevalence of low back pain when compared with other manual workers. Exercises have been suggested to be a principal part of treatment programs for low back pain. However, the programs should be tailored to an individual’s readiness to change categorized by a behavioral approach. This study aimed to evaluate a difference between the responses of rice farmers with chronic low back pain who received an exercise program integrated with the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) and those of the comparison group regarding severity of pain and trunk muscle endurance. Materials and Methods: An 8-week exercise program was conducted to rice farmers with chronic low back pain who were randomized to either the TTM (n=62, 52 woman and 10 men, mean age ± SD 45.0±5.4 years) or non-TTM (n=64, 53 woman and 11 men, mean age ± SD 44.7±5.4 years) groups. All participants were tested for their severity of pain and trunk (abdominal and back) muscle endurance at baseline (week 0) and immediately after termination of the program (week 8). Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and student’s t-tests. The results revealed that both TTM and non-TTM groups could decrease their severity of pain and improve trunk muscle endurance after participating in the 8-week exercise program. When compared with the non-TTM group, however, the TTM showed a significantly greater increase in abdominal muscle endurance than did the non-TTM (P=0.004, 95% CI -12.4 to -2.3). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: An exercise program integrated with the TTM could provide benefits to rice farmers with chronic low back pain. Future studies with a longitudinal design and more outcome measures such as physical performance and quality of life are suggested to reveal further benefits of the program.

Keywords: chronic low back pain, transtheoretical model, rice farmers, exercise program

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680 Tracking Trajectory of a Cable-Driven Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Hachmia Faqihi, Maarouf Saad, Khalid Benjelloun, Mohammed Benbrahim, M. Nabil Kabbaj

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This paper investigates and presents a cable-driven robot to lower limb rehabilitation use in sagittal plane. The presented rehabilitation robot is used for a trajectory tracking in joint space. The paper covers kinematic and dynamic analysis, which reveals the tensionability of the used cables as being the actuating source to provide a rehabilitation exercises of the human leg. The desired trajectory is generated to be used in the control system design in joint space. The obtained simulation results is showed to be efficient in this kind of application.

Keywords: cable-driven multi-body system, computed-torque controller, lower limb rehabilitation, tracking trajectory

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
679 The Origin Variability of the Iliolumbar Artery

Authors: Raid Hommady, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames

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The iliolumbar artery is a regular branch of posterior division of the internal iliac artery. The present study investigate 82 specimens to identify the origin of iliolumbar artery. The present study targets the sciatic nerve root supply from iliolumbar artery based on its origin and course. In present study, the ililumbar artery arose from the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 52.2%. In few cases, it arose from dorsomedial aspect of the internal iliac artery in 28.8%. In few cases, the iliolumbar artery arose from the dorsal aspects of the internal iliac artery as well as from the common and external iliac artery 1.7%. Also, the iliolumbar artery arose from the sciatic artery as well as from superior and inferior gluteal arteries in 5.1%. Conversely, it found to be congenital absent in 8.5%. Therefore, the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery is the most common origin of the iliolumbar artery. With the origin variability of the iliolumbar artery, there is a vascular supply variability of the lumbosacral trunk and sacral root of sciatic nerve. The iliolumbar artery provides vascular supply for lumbosacral trunk 57.3% in whereas the sacral root in 5.1%. As a result, surgeons should pay attention to these variations to decrease iatrogenic fault.

Keywords: iliolumbar, sciatic artery, internal iliac, external iliac, posterior division

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
678 Vocational Rehabilitation for People with Disabilities: Employment Rates, Job Persistence and Wages

Authors: Hester Fass, Ofir Pinto

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Research indicates gaps in education, employment rates and wages between people with disabilities and those without disabilities. One of the main tools available to reduce these gaps is vocational rehabilitation. In order to examine the effects of vocational rehabilitation, a follow-up study, based on comprehensive administrative data, was conducted. The study included 88,286 people with disabilities who participated in vocational rehabilitation of the National Insurance Institute of Israel (NII), and completed the process between 1999 and 2012. Research variables included: employment rates, job persistence and wage levels. This research, the first of its kind in Israel, has several unique aspects: a)a long-range follow-up study on people who completed vocational rehabilitation; b) examination of a broad population spectrum, including also people that are not eligible to disability pensions ; c) a comparison among those with work-related injuries, those injured in hostile acts and those injured in other circumstances; and finally d) the identification of the characteristics of those who are entitled to vocational rehabilitation but who do not participate in any vocational rehabilitation plan. The most notable results include: 1. Vocational rehabilitation contributed to employment, job persistence and wage levels. Participation in vocational rehabilitation resulted in an employment rate of 65% within two years after completing the program, and 73% eventually. Participation in a vocational rehabilitation plan also contributed to job persistence and wage levels. 2. Vocational rehabilitation plans aimed at integration in universal frameworks increased the chances of being employed, persisting at the job and receiving a higher wage than did the vocational rehabilitation aimed at selective frameworks (such as sheltered workshops). 3. The type of disability affected the chances of integration in a vocational rehabilitation plan and in the labor market. People with a disability from birth had greater chances of integration in a vocational rehabilitation plan, while the type of disability and its severity affected the chances of the person with disabilities to find employment.

Keywords: vocational rehabilitation, employment, job persistence, wages

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
677 The Important of Nutritional Status in Rehabilitation of Children with CP: Saudi Perspective

Authors: Reem Al-Garni

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Malnutrition is a global epidemic, but the under-weight or Failure-To-Thrive risk is increasing in rehabilitation setting and considered one of the contribution factor for developmental delay. Beside the consequences of malnutrition on children growth and development, there are other side-effects that might delay or hold the progress of rehabilitation. The awareness for malnutrition must be raised and discussed by the rehabilitation team, to promote the treatment and to optimize the client care. The solution can start from food supplements intake and / or Enteral Nutrition plan, depending on the malnutrition level and to reach the goal, the medical team should to work together in order to provide comprehensive treatment and to help the family to be able to manage their child condition. We have explore the outcomes of rehabilitation between the children with CP whose diagnosed with malnutrition and children with normal body Wight Over a period of 4 months who received 4-6 weeks of rehabilitation two hours daily by using WeeFIM score to measure rehabilitation outcomes. WeeFIM measures and covers various domains, such as: self-care, mobility, locomotion, communication and other psycho-social aspects. Our findings reported that children with normal body Wight has better outcomes and improvement comparing with children with malnutrition for the entire study sample.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy (CP), pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM), rehabilitation, malnutrition

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676 Effect of Rehabilitation on Outcomes for Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury: Results from a Single Center

Authors: Savaş Karpuz, Sami Küçükşen

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The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of neurological rehabilitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. Participants were 45 consecutive adults with traumatic brain injury who were received the neurologic rehabilitation. Sociodemographic characteristics of the patients, the cause of the injury, the duration of the coma and posttraumatic amnesia, the length of stay in the other inpatient clinics before rehabilitation, the time between injury and admission to the rehabilitation clinic, and the length of stay in the rehabilitation clinic were recorded. The differences in functional status between admission and discharge were determined with Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Functional Ambulation Scale (FAS) and levels of cognitive functioning determined with Ranchos Los Amigos Scale (RLAS). According to admission time, there was a significant improvement identified in functional status of patients who had been given the intensive in-hospital cognitive rehabilitation program. At discharge time, the statistically significant differences were obtained in DRS, FIM, FAS and RLAS scores according to admission time. Better improvement in functional status was detected in patients with lower scores in DRS, and higher scores FIM and RLAS scores at the entry time. The neurologic rehabilitation significantly affects the recovery of functional status after traumatic brain injury.

Keywords: traumatic brain injury, rehabilitation, functional status, neurological

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
675 Evaluation of Rehabilitation in Ischemic Stroke

Authors: Amirmohammad Dahouri

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Each year, more than 795,000 individuals in the United States grieve a stroke, and by 2030, it is predictable that 4% of the U.S. people will have had a stroke. Ischemic stroke, accounting for about 80% of all strokes, is one of the main causes of disability. The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to help patients return to physical and mental functions and relearn the required aids to living everyday life. This flagging has an adverse effect on patients’ quality of life and affects their daily living activities. In recent years, the rehabilitation of ischemic stroke attractions more attention in the world. A review of the rudimentary perceptions of stroke rehabilitation that are price stressing to all specialists who delicacy patients with stroke. Ideas are made for patients on how to functionally manage daily activities after they have qualified for a stroke. It is vital for home healthcare clinicians to understand the process from acute events to medical equilibrium and rehabilitation to adaptation. Different sources such as Pub Med Google Scholar and science direct have been used and various contemporary articles in this era have been analyzed. The care plan must also foundation actual actions to protect against recurrent stroke, as stroke patients are generally at significant risk for further ischemic or hemorrhagic attacks. Here, we review evidence of rehabilitation in treating post-stroke impairment.

Keywords: rehabilitation, stroke, ischemic, hemorrhagic, brain

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674 Video-Based System for Support of Robot-Enhanced Gait Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients

Authors: Matjaž Divjak, Simon Zelič, Aleš Holobar

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We present a dedicated video-based monitoring system for quantification of patient’s attention to visual feedback during robot assisted gait rehabilitation. Two different approaches for eye gaze and head pose tracking are tested and compared. Several metrics for assessment of patient’s attention are also presented. Experimental results with healthy volunteers demonstrate that unobtrusive video-based gaze tracking during the robot-assisted gait rehabilitation is possible and is sufficiently robust for quantification of patient’s attention and assessment of compliance with the rehabilitation therapy.

Keywords: video-based attention monitoring, gaze estimation, stroke rehabilitation, user compliance

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
673 General Principles of Accident Prevention in Built Environment Rehabilitation

Authors: Alfredo Soeiro

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Rehabilitation in construction or built environment is a particular type of operations when concerning prevention of accidents. In fact, it is also a different type of task in construction itself. Therefore, due to the complex characteristics of construction rehabilitation tasks and due to the intrinsic difficulty of preventing accidents in construction, a major challenge faces the responsibility for implementing adequate safety levels in this type of safety management. This paper addresses a set of proposed generic measures to face the unknown characteristics of built environment in terms of stability, materials and actual performance of buildings or other constructions. It is also addressed the necessary adaptation of preventive guidelines to this type of delicate refurbishing and renovating of existing facilities. Training, observation and reflective approaches are necessary to perform this safety management in the rehabilitation of built environment.

Keywords: built environment, rehabilitation, construction safety, accident prevention, safety plan

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
672 Impact of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Respiratory Parameters in Interstitial Lung Disease Patients: A Tertiary Care Hospital Study

Authors: Vivek Ku, A. K. Janmeja, D. Aggarwal, R. Gupta

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Purpose: Pulmonary rehabilitation plays a key role in management of chronic lung diseases. However, pulmonary rehabilitation is an underused modality in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). This is because limited information is available in literature and no data is available from India on this issue so far. The study was carried out to evaluate the role of pulmonary rehabilitation on respiratory parameters in ILD patients. Methods: The present study was a prospective randomized non-blind case control study. Total of 40 ILD patients were randomized into 2 groups of 20 patients each viz ‘pulmonary rehabilitation group’ and ‘control group’. Pulmonary rehabilitation group underwent 8 weeks pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) along with medical management as per guidelines and the control group was advised only medical management. Results: Mean age in case group was 59.15 ± 10.39 years and in control group was 62.10 ± 14.54 years. The case and the control groups were matched for age and sex. Mean MRC grading at the end of 8 weeks showed significant improvement in the case group as compared to control group (p= 0.011 vs p = 0.655). Similarly, mean St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score also showed significant improvement in pulmonary rehabilitation group at the end of the study (p= 0.001 vs p= 0.492). However, FEV1 and FVC had no significant change in the case and control group. Similarly, blood gases also did not show any significant difference in the group. Conclusion: Pulmonary rehabilitation improves breathlessness and thereby improves quality of life in the patients suffering from ILD. However, the pulmonary function values and blood gases are unaffected by pulmonary rehabilitation. Clinical Implications: Further large scale multicentre study is needed to ascertain the association.

Keywords: ILD, pulmonary rehabilitation, quality of life, pulmonary functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
671 Prominent Lipid Parameters Correlated with Trunk-to-Leg and Appendicular Fat Ratios in Severe Pediatric Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

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The examination of both serum lipid fractions and body’s lipid composition are quite informative during the evaluation of obesity stages. Within this context, alterations in lipid parameters are commonly observed. The variations in the fat distribution of the body are also noteworthy. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TRG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are considered as the basic lipid fractions. Fat deposited in trunk and extremities may give considerable amount of information and different messages during discrete health states. Ratios are also derived from distinct fat distribution in these areas. Trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLFR) and trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR) are the most recently introduced ratios. In this study, lipid fractions and TLFR, as well as TAFR, were evaluated, and the distinctions among healthy, obese (OB), and morbid obese (MO) groups were investigated. Three groups [normal body mass index (N-BMI), OB, MO] were constituted from a population aged 6 to 18 years. Ages and sexes of the groups were matched. The study protocol was approved by the Non-interventional Ethics Committee of Tekirdag Namik Kemal University. Written informed consent forms were obtained from the parents of the participants. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, head circumference, neck circumference) were obtained and recorded during the physical examination. Body mass index values were calculated. Total, trunk, leg, and arm fat mass values were obtained by TANITA Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. These values were used to calculate TLFR and TAFR. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were measured. Routine biochemical tests including TC, TRG, LDL-C, HDL-C, and insulin were performed. Data were evaluated using SPSS software. p value smaller than 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. There was no difference among the age values and gender ratios of the groups. Any statistically significant difference was not observed in terms of DBP, TLFR as well as serum lipid fractions. Higher SBP values were measured both in OB and MO children than those with N-BMI. TAFR showed a significant difference between N-BMI and OB groups. Statistically significant increases were detected between insulin values of N-BMI group and OB as well as MO groups. There were bivariate correlations between LDL and TLFR (r=0.396; p=0.037) as well as TAFR values (r=0.413; p=0.029) in MO group. When adjusted for SBP and DBP, partial correlations were calculated as (r=0.421; p=0.032) and (r=0.438; p=0.025) for LDL-TLFR as well as LDL-TAFR, respectively. Much stronger partial correlations were obtained for the same couples (r=0.475; p=0.019 and r=0.473; p=0.020, respectively) upon controlling for TRG and HDL-C. Much stronger partial correlations observed in MO children emphasize the potential transition from morbid obesity to metabolic syndrome. These findings have concluded that LDL-C may be suggested as a discriminating parameter between OB and MO children.

Keywords: children, lipid parameters, obesity, trunk-to-leg fat ratio, trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio

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670 A New Obesity Index Derived from Waist Circumference and Hip Circumference Well-Matched with Other Indices in Children with Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

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Anthropometric obesity indices such as waist circumference (WC), indices derived from anthropometric measurements such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and indices created from body fat mass composition such as trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLFR) are commonly used for the evaluation of mild or severe forms of obesity. Their clinical utilities are being compared using body mass index (BMI) percentiles to classify obesity groups. The best of them is still being investigated to make a clear-cut discrimination between healthy normal individuals (N-BMI) and overweight or obese (OB) or morbid obese patients. The aim of this study is to derive a new index, which best suits the purpose for the discrimination of children with N-BMI from OB children. A total of eighty-three children participated in the study. Two groups were constituted. The first group comprised 42 children with N-BMI, and the second group was composed of 41 OB children, whose age- and sex- adjusted BMI percentile values vary between 95 and 99. The corresponding values for the first group were between 15 and 85. This classification was based upon the tables created by World Health Organization. The institutional ethics committee approved the study protocol. Informed consent forms were filled by the parents of the participants. Anthropometric measurements were taken and recorded following a detailed physical examination. Within this context, weight, height (Ht), WC, hip C (HC), neck C (NC) values were taken. Body mass index, WHR, (WC+HC)/2, WC/Ht, (WC/HC)/Ht, WC*NC were calculated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed to obtain body’s fat compartments in terms of total fat, trunk fat, leg fat, arm fat masses. Trunk-to-leg fat ratio, trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR), (trunk fat+leg fat)/2 ((TF+LF)/2) were calculated. Fat mass index (FMI) and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment-II (D2I) index values were calculated. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. Significantly increased values of (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, D2I, and FMI were observed in OB group in comparison with those of N-BMI group. Significant correlations were calculated between BMI and WC, (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, TLFR, TAFR, D2I as well as FMI both in N-BMI and OB groups. The same correlations were obtained for WC. (WC+HC)/2 was correlated with TLFR, TAFR, (TF+LF)/2, D2I, and FMI in N-BMI group. In OB group, the correlations were the same except those with TLFR and TAFR. These correlations were not present with WHR. Correlations were observed between TLFR and BMI, WC, (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, D2I as well as FMI in N-BMI group. Same correlations were observed also with TAFR. In OB group, correlations between TLFR or TAFR and BMI, WC as well as (WC+HC)/2 were missing. None was noted with WHR. From these findings, it was concluded that (WC+HC)/2, but not WHR, was much more suitable as an anthropometric obesity index. The only correlation valid in both groups was that exists between (WC+HC)/2 and (TF+LF)/2. This index was suggested as a link between anthropometric and fat-based indices.

Keywords: children, hip circumference, obesity, waist circumference

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