Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4078

Search results for: trunk function

4078 Effect of Motor Imagery of Truncal Exercises on Trunk Function and Balance in Early Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Elsa Reethu, S. Karthik Babu, N. Syed


Background: Studies in the past focused on the additional benefits of action observation in improving upper and lower limb functions and improving activities of daily living when administered along with conventional therapy. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of literature proving the effects of motor imagery of truncal exercise in improving trunk control in patients with stroke. Aims/purpose: To study the effect of motor imagery of truncal exercises on trunk function and balance in early stroke. Methods: A total of 24 patients were included in the study. 12 were included in the experimental group and 12 were included in control group Trunk function was measured using Trunk Control Test (TCT), Trunk Impairment Scale Verheyden (TIS Verheyden) and Trunk Impairment Scale Fujiwara (TIS Fujiwara). The balance was assessed using Brunel Balance Assessment (BBA) and Tinetti POMA. For the experimental group, each session was for 30 minutes of physical exercises and 15 minutes of motor imagery, once a day, six times a week for 3 weeks and prior to the exercise session, patients viewed a video tape of all the trunk exercises to be performed for 15minutes. The control group practiced the trunk exercises alone for the same duration. Measurements were taken before, after and 4 weeks after intervention. Results: The effect of treatment in motor imagery group showed better improvement when compared with control group when measured after 3 weeks on values of static sitting balance, dynamic balance, total TIS (Verheyden) score, BBA, Tinetti balance and gait with a large effect size of 0.86, 1.99, 1.69, 1.06, 1.63 and 0.97 respectively. The moderate effect size was seen in values of TIS Fujiwara (0.58) and small effect size was seen on TCT (0.12) and TIS coordination component (0.13).at the end of 4 weeks after intervention, the large effect size was identified on values of dynamic balance (2.06), total TIS score (1.59) and Tinetti balance (1.24). The moderate effect size was observed on BBA (0.62) and Tinetti gait (0.72). Conclusion: Trunk motor imagery is effective in improving trunk function and balance in patients with stroke and has a carryover effect in the aspects of mobility. The therapy gain that was observed during the time of discharge was seen to be maintained at the follow-up levels.

Keywords: stroke, trunk rehabilitation, trunk function, balance, motor imagery

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4077 Quantification of Learned Non-Use of the Upper-Limb After a Stroke

Authors: K. K. A. Bakhti, D. Mottet, J. Froger, I. Laffont


Background: After a cerebrovascular accident (or stroke), many patients use excessive trunk movements to move their paretic hand towards a target (while the elbow is maintained flexed) even though they can use the upper-limb when the trunk is restrained. This phenomenon is labelled learned non-use and is known to be detrimental to neuroplasticity and recovery. Objective: The aim of this study is to quantify learned non-use of the paretic upper limb during a hand reaching task using 3D movement analysis. Methods: Thirty-four participants post supratentorial stroke were asked to reach a cone placed in front of them at 80% of their arm length. The reaching movement was repeated 5 times with the paretic hand, and then 5 times with the less-impaired hand. This sequence was first performed with the trunk free, then with the trunk restrained. Learned non-use of the upper-limb (LNUUL) was obtained from the difference of the amount of trunk compensation between the free trunk condition and the restrained trunk condition. Results: LNUUL was significantly higher for the paretic hand, with individual values ranging from 1% to 43%, and one-half of the patients with an LNUUL higher than 15%. Conclusions: Quantification of LNUUL can be used to objectively diagnose patients who need trunk rehabilitation. It can be also used for monitoring the rehabilitation progress. Quantification of LNUUL may guide upper-limb rehabilitation towards more optimal motor recovery avoiding maladaptive trunk compensation and its consequences on neuroplasticity.

Keywords: learned non-use, rehabilitation, stroke, upper limb

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
4076 Electromyographic Analysis of Trunk Muscle Activity of Healthy Individuals While Catching a Ball on Three Different Seating Surfaces

Authors: Hanan H. ALQahtani, Karen Jones


Catching a ball during sitting is a functional exercise commonly used in rehabilitation to enhance trunk muscle activity. To progress this exercise, physiotherapists incorporate a Swiss ball or change seat height. However, no study has assessed the effect of different seating surfaces on trunk muscle activity while catching a ball. Objective: To investigate the effect of catching a ball during sitting on a Swiss ball, a low seat and a high seat on trunk muscle activity. Method: A repeated-measures, counterbalanced design was used. A total of 26 healthy participants (15 female and 11 male) performed three repetitions of catching a ball on each seating surface. Using surface electromyography (sEMG), the activity of the bilateral transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and lumbar multifidus (MF) was recorded. Trunk muscle activity was normalized using maximum voluntary isometric contraction and analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ .05. Results: No significant differences were observed in the activity of RA, TrA/IO, ES or MF between a low seat and a Swiss ball. However, the activity of the right and left ES on a low seat was significantly greater than on a high seat (p = .017 and p = .017, respectively). Conversely, the activity of the right and left RA on a high seat was significantly greater than on a low seat (p = .007 and p = .004, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that replacing a low seat with a Swiss ball while catching a ball is insufficient to increase trunk muscle activity, whereas changing the seat height could induce different trunk muscle activities. However, research conducted on patients is needed before translating these results into clinical settings.

Keywords: catching, electromyography, seating, trunk

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4075 A Study on Coronary Artery Dominance and Divisions of Main Trunk of Left Coronary Artery in Adult Human Cadaveric Hearts of South Indian Population

Authors: Chethan Purushothama


Coronary artery disease is one of the major causes of death in developing countries. The coronary arteries show wide range of variations and these variations have not been dealt with different population groups. The present study aims to focus on the pattern and variations of coronary artery in south Indian population. The study was performed to analyze the coronary artery dominance and divisions of main trunk of left coronary artery in 81 isolated adult human cadaveric hearts of South Indian population. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and were dissected manually. In our specimens, 74.1% of the hearts were right dominant, 11.1% were left dominant, and 14.8% were co-dominant. Bifurcation, trifurcation, and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen in 49.4%, 48.1%, and 2.5% cases respectively. The right dominant hearts had bifurcation, trifurcation and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 46.7%, 50% and 3.3% hearts respectively. The left dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 55.6% and 44.4% cases respectively. The co-dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 58.3% and 41.7% respectively. Quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen only in right dominant hearts. We believe that the data obtained from the present study are important to the interventional cardiologists and radiologists. The details obtained will also be helpful for the clinical anatomists.

Keywords: bifurcation, coronary artery, trifurcation, quadrifurcation

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
4074 Effect of Core Stability Exercises on Trunk Muscle Balance in Healthy Adult Individuals

Authors: Amira A. A. Abdallah, Amir A. Beltagi


Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for improving muscle balance and optimizing performance in healthy and unhealthy individuals. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of beginner’s core stability exercises on trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio and trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques. Methods: Thirty five healthy individuals participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups; experimental “group I, n=20” and control “group II, n=15”. Their mean age, weight and height were 20.7±2.4 vs. 20.3±0.61 years, 66.5±12.1 vs. 68.57±12.2 kg and 166.7±7.8 vs. 164.28 ±7.59 cm. for group I vs. group II. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which group I performed a core stability training program. Results: The 2x2 Mixed Design ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences (p>0.025) in the trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio between the pre-test and post-test conditions for either group. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p>0.025) in the trunk flexion/extension ratios between both groups at either condition. However, the 2x2 Mixed Design MANOVA revealed significant increases (p<0.025) in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the post-test condition compared with the pre-test in group I with no significant differences (p>0.025) in group II. Moreover, there was a significant increase (p<0.025) in the trunk flexors’ peak torque only in group I compared with group II in the post-test condition with no significant differences in the other conditions. Interpretation/Conclusion: The improvement in muscle performance indicated by the increase in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve muscle performance.

Keywords: core stability, isokinetic, trunk muscles, muscle balance

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4073 The Variation of the Inferior Gluteal Artery Origin

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames


The inferior gluteal artery is a prominent branch of the anterior trunk of internal iliac artery. It escapes from the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen below the lower edge of piriformis. In gluteal region, it provides several muscular branches to gluteal maximus and articular branch to hip joint. Further, it provides sciatic branch to sciatic nerve. Current study investigates the origin of the inferior gluteal artery of 41 cadavers in Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK. It arose from the anterior trunk in 37.5% independently and 45.7% dependently as with the internal pudendal artery. Therefore, it arose from the anterior trunk in 83.2%. However, it found to be as a branch of the posterior trunk of internal iliac artery in 7.7% which is either a direct branch in 6.2% as or indirect branch in 1.5%. Beside the inferior gluteal artery arose with internal pudendal artery as from GPT of anterior division in 45.7%, it arose from the GPT arising from the internal iliac artery bifurcation site in 1.5%. Further, the inferior gluteal artery arose from the trunk with internal pudendal and obturator arteries in 1.5% referred as obturatogluteopudendal trunk. Occasionally, it arose from the sciatic artery in 1.5%. In few cases, the inferior gluteal artery found to be congenital absence in 4.6% which is compensated by the persistent sciatic artery. Therefore, radiologists have to aware of the origin variability of the inferior gluteal artery to alert surgeons. Knowing the origin of the inferior gluteal artery may help the surgeons to avoid iatrogenic sciatic neuropathy in pelvic procedures such as removing prostate or of uterine fibroid. Further, it may also prevent avascular necrosis of femur neck as well as gluteal claudication.

Keywords: inferior gluteal artery, internal iliac artery, sciatic neuropathy, gluteal claudication

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4072 Effect of Core Stability Exercises on Trunk Proprioception in Healthy Adult Individuals

Authors: Omaima E. S. Mohammed, Amira A. A. Abdallah, Amal A. M. El Borady


Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for improving muscle performance. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of beginners' core stability exercises on trunk active repositioning error at 30° and 60° trunk flexion. Methods: Forty healthy males participated in the study. They were divided into two equal groups; experimental “group I” and control “group II”. Their mean age, weight and height were 19.35±1.11 vs 20.45±1.64 years, 70.15±6.44 vs 72.45±6.91 kg and 174.7±7.02 vs 176.3±7.24 cm for group I vs group II. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system at an angular velocity of 60º/s. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which group I performed a core stability training program. Results: The Mixed 3-way ANOVA revealed significant increases (p<0.05) in the absolute error (AE) at 30˚ compared with 60˚ flexion in the pre-test condition of group I and II and the post-test condition of group II. Moreover, there were significant decreases (p<0.05) in the AE in the post-test condition compared with the pre-test in group I at both 30˚ and 60˚ flexion with no significant differences for group II. Finally, there were significant decreases (p<0.05) in the AE in group I compared with group II in the post-test condition at 30˚ and 60˚ flexion with no significant differences for the pre-test condition Interpretation/Conclusion: The improvement in trunk proprioception indicated by the decrease in the active repositioning error in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve trunk proprioception.

Keywords: core stability, isokinetic, trunk proprioception, biomechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
4071 Effect of Core Stability Exercises on Balance between Trunk Muscles in Healthy Adult Subjects

Authors: Amir A. Beltagi, Ahmed R. Abdelbaki


Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for optimizing performance and improving muscle balance for healthy and unhealthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of beginner’s core stability exercises on the trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio and trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques. Methods: Thirty five healthy individuals, randomly assigned into two groups; experimental (group I) and control (group II), participated in the study. Group I involved 20 participants (10 male & 10 female) with mean ±SD age, weight, and height of 20.7±2.4 years, 66.5±12.1 kg and 166.7±7.8 cm respectively. Group II involved 15 participants (6 male & 9 female) with mean ±SD age, weight, and height of 20.3±0.61 years, 68.57±12.2 kg and 164.28 ±7.59 cm respectively. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which the experimental group performed a core stability training program. Findings: Statistical analysis using the 2x2 Mixed Design ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences in the trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio between the ‘pre’ and ‘post’ tests for either group (p > 0.025). Moreover, there were no significant differences in the trunk flexors’/extensors’ ratios between both groups at either test (p > 0.025). Meanwhile, the 2x2 Mixed Design MANOVA revealed that there were significant differences in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques between the ‘pre’ and ‘post’ tests for group I (p < 0.025), while there were no significant differences inbetween for group II (p > 0.025). Moreover, there were no significant differences between both groups for the tested muscles’ peak torques at either test except for that of the trunk flexors at the ‘post’ test only (p < 0.025). Interpretation: The improvement in muscle performance indicated by the increase in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve muscle performance.

Keywords: core stability, isokinetic, trunk muscles, muscle balance

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4070 Preliminary Study Investigating Trunk Muscle Fatigue and Cognitive Function in Event Riders during a Simulated Jumping Test

Authors: Alice Carter, Lucy Dumbell, Lorna Cameron, Victoria Lewis


The Olympic discipline of eventing is the triathlon of equestrian sport, consisting of dressage, cross-country and show jumping. Falls on the cross-country are common and can be serious even causing death to rider. Research identifies an increased risk of a fall with an increasing number of obstacles and for jumping efforts later in the course suggesting fatigue maybe a contributing factor. Advice based on anecdotal evidence suggests riders undertake strength and conditioning programs to improve their ‘core’, thus improving their ability to maintain and control their riding position. There is little empirical evidence to support this advice. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate truck muscle fatigue and cognitive function during a simulated jumping test. Eight adult riders participated in a riding test on a Racewood Event simulator for 10 minutes, over a continuous jumping programme. The SEMG activity of six trunk muscles were bilaterally measured at every minute, and normalised root mean squares (RMS) and median frequencies (MDF) were computed from the EMG power spectra. Visual analogue scales (VAS) measuring Fatigue and Pain levels and Cognitive Function ‘tapping’ tests were performed before and after the riding test. Average MDF values for all muscles differed significantly between each sampled minute (p = 0.017), however a consistent decrease from Minute 1 and Minute 9 was not found, suggesting the trunk muscles fatigued and then recovered as other muscle groups important in maintaining the riding position during dynamic movement compensated. Differences between the MDF and RMS of different muscles were highly significant (H=213.01, DF=5, p < 0.001), supporting previous anecdotal evidence that different trunk muscles carry out different roles of posture maintenance during riding. RMS values were not significantly different between the sampled minutes or between riders, suggesting the riding test produced a consistent and repeatable effect on the trunk muscles. MDF values differed significantly between riders (H=50.8, DF = 5, p < 0.001), suggesting individuals may experience localised muscular fatigue of the same test differently, and that other parameters of physical fitness should be investigated to provide conclusions. Lumbar muscles were shown to be important in maintaining the position, therefore physical training program should focus on these areas. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-riding test VAS Pain and Fatigue scores or cognitive function test scores, suggesting the riding test was not significantly fatiguing for participants. However, a near significant correlation was found between time of riding test and VAS Pain score (p = 0.06), suggesting somatic pain may be a limiting factor to performance. No other correlations were found between the factors of participant riding test time, VAS Pain and Fatigue, however a larger sample needs to be tested to improve statistical analysis. The findings suggest the simulator riding test was not sufficient to provoke fatigue in the riders, however foundations for future studies have been laid to enable methodologies in realistic eventing settings.

Keywords: eventing, fatigue, horse-rider, surface EMG, trunk muscles

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4069 Effect of Prone Trunk Extension on Scapular and Thoracic Kinematics, and Activity during Scapular Posterior Tilting Exercise in Subjects with Round Shoulder Posture

Authors: A-Reum Shin, Heon-Seock Cynn, Ji-Hyun Lee, Da-Eun Kim


Round shoulder posture (RSP) is a position of scapular protraction and elevation, which may appear as scapular winging, and humeral internal rotation. Flexed posture (FP) may also affect RSP because FP is characterized by hyperkyphosis, forward head posture, and height reduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of scapular posterior tilting exercise with prone trunk extension on round shoulder posture, activities of lower trapezius and serratus anterior, flexed posture, and thoracic erector spinae activity in subjects with round shoulder posture. Fifteen subjects with round shoulder posture were recruited in this study. Activities of lower trapezius, serratus anterior and thoracic erector spinae were measured during both scapular posterior tilting exercise and scapular posterior tilting exercise with prone trunk extension using electromyography, and round shoulder posture and flexed posture were measured immediately after each exercises using caliper. When the prone trunk extension was applied, the round shoulder posture and flexed posture significantly decreased, activities of lower trapezius and thoracic erector spinae significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared with the scapular posterior tilting exercise alone. There was no significant difference in serratus anterior activity between two exercises. Thus, prone trunk extension could be effective method to improve round shoulder posture during scapular posterior tilting exercise in subjects with round shoulder posture.

Keywords: flexed posture, prone trunk extension, round shoulder posture, scapular posterior tilting

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4068 Adjustment of the Whole-Body Center of Mass during Trunk-Flexed Walking across Uneven Ground

Authors: Soran Aminiaghdam, Christian Rode, Reinhard Blickhan, Astrid Zech


Despite considerable studies on the impact of imposed trunk posture on human walking, less is known about such locomotion while negotiating changes in ground level. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the VBCOM in response to a two-fold expected perturbation, namely alterations in body posture and in ground level. To this end, the kinematic data and ground reaction forces of twelve able participants were collected. We analyzed the vertical position of the body center of mass (VBCOM) from the ground determined by the body segmental analysis method relative to the laboratory coordinate system at touchdown and toe-off instants during walking across uneven ground — characterized by perturbation contact (a 10-cm visible drop) and pre- and post-perturbation contacts — in comparison to unperturbed level contact while maintaining three postures (regular erect, ~30° and ~50° of trunk flexion from the vertical). The VBCOM was normalized to the distance between the greater trochanter marker and the lateral malleoli marker at the instant of TD. Moreover, we calculated the backward rotation during step-down as the difference of the maximum of the trunk angle in the pre-perturbation contact and the minimal trunk angle in the perturbation contact. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed contact-specific effects of posture on the VBCOM at touchdown (F = 5.96, p = 0.00). As indicated by the analysis of simple main effects, during unperturbed level and pre-perturbation contacts, no between-posture differences for the VBCOM at touchdown were found. In the perturbation contact, trunk-flexed gaits showed a significant increase of VBCOM as compared to the pre-perturbation contact. In the post-perturbation contact, the VBCOM demonstrated a significant decrease in all gait postures relative to the preceding corresponding contacts with no between-posture differences. Main effects of posture revealed that the VBCOM at toe-off significantly decreased in trunk-flexed gaits relative to the regular erect gait. For the main effect of contact, the VBCOM at toe-off demonstrated changes across perturbation and post-perturbation contacts as compared to the unperturbed level contact. Furthermore, participants exhibited a backward trunk rotation during step-down possibly to control the angular momentum of their whole body. A more pronounced backward trunk rotation (2- to 3-fold compared with level contacts) in trunk-flexed walking contributed to the observed elevated VBCOM during the step-down which may have facilitated drop negotiation. These results may shed light on the interaction between posture and locomotion in able gait, and specifically on the behavior of the body center of mass during perturbed locomotion.

Keywords: center of mass, perturbation, posture, uneven ground, walking

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4067 Comparative Antibacterial Property of Matured Trunk and Stem Bark Extract of Tamarindus indica L., Preformulation, Development and Quality Control of Cream

Authors: A. M. T. Jacinto, M.O. Osi


Tamarind has various medicinal properties among which is its antibacterial property. Its bark contains saponins, alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and tannins. It is rich in phlobapenes which is responsible for antibacterial property. The objective of the study was to determine which bark will produce the highest antibacterial property, develop it into a topical cream and evaluate its quality and characteristics. Powdered barks of Tamarind were extracted by soxhlet method using 70% acetone. Stem bark produced a higher yield than trunk bark (5.85 g vs. 4.73 g). It was found that the trunk bark was more sensitive than stem bark to microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Streptococcus spp. Sensitivity of trunk bark can be attributed to a more developed phytoconstituents. Dermal sensitization test on both sexes of rabbits using the following concentrations: 100%, 40% and 20% of extract showed that Tamarind has no irritating property and therefore safe for formulation into an antibacterial cream. Excipients used for formulation such as methyl paraben, propyl paraben, stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum were compatible with the Tamarind acetone extract through Differential Scanning Calorimetry except sodium lauryl sulfate that exhibited crystallization when subjected at 200˚C. The method of manufacture used in cream is fusion, therefore strict compliance of processing temperature should be observed to prevent polymorphism. Quality control tests of formulated cream based on USP 30 and Philippine Pharmacopeia were satisfactory.

Keywords: antibacterial, differential scanning calorimetry, tannins, dermal sensitization

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4066 Trunk and Gluteus-Medius Muscles’ Fatigability during Occupational Standing in Clinical Instructors with Low Back Pain

Authors: Eman A. Embaby, Amira A. A. Abdallah


Background: Occupational standing is associated with low back pain (LBP) development. Yet, trunk and gluteus-medius muscles’ fatigability has not been extensively studied during occupational standing. This study examined and correlated the rectus abdominus (RA), erector-spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), and gluteus-medius (GM) muscles’ fatigability on both sides while standing in a confined area for 30 min Methods: Median frequency EMG data were collected from 15 female clinical instructors with chronic LBP (group A) and 15 asymptomatic controls (group B) (mean age 29.53±2.4 vs. 29.07±2.4 years, weight 63.6±7 vs. 60±7.8 kg, and height 162.73±4 vs. 162.8±6 cm respectively) using a spectrum analysis program. Data were collected in the first and last 5min of the standing task. Results: Using Mixed three-way ANOVA, group A showed significantly (p<0.05) lower frequencies for the right and left ES, and right GM in the last 5 min and significantly higher frequencies for the left RA in the first and last 5min than group B. In addition, the left ES and right EO, ES and GM in group B showed significantly higher frequencies and the left ES in group A showed significantly lower frequencies in the last 5min compared with the first. Moreover, the right RA showed significantly higher frequencies than the left in the last 5min in group B. Finally, there were significant (p<0.05) correlations among the median frequencies of the tested four muscles on the same side and between both sides in both groups. Discussion/Conclusions: Clinical instructors with LBP are more liable to have higher trunk and gluteus-medius muscle fatigue than asymptomatic individuals. Thus, endurance training for these muscles should be included in the rehabilitation of such patients.

Keywords: EMG, fatigability, gluteus-medius, LBP, standing, trunk

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4065 The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function

Authors: Nur Rokhman


A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.

Keywords: Secton method, interpolation, non linear function, numerical solution

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4064 The Effect of 12-Week Pilates Training on Flexibility and Level of Perceived Exertion of Back Muscles among Karate Players

Authors: Seyedeh Nahal Sadiri, Ardalan Shariat


Developing flexibility, by using pilates, would be useful for karate players by reducing the stiffness of muscles and tendons. This study aimed to determine the effects of 12-week pilates training on flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles among karate players. In this experimental study, 29 male karate players (age: 16-18 years) were randomized to pilates (n=15), and control (n=14) groups and the assessments were done in baseline and after 12-week intervention. Both groups completed 12-week of intervention (2 hours of training, 3 times weekly). The experimental group performed 30 minutes pilates within their warm-up and preparation phase, where the control group only attended their usual karate training. Digital backward flexmeter was used to evaluate the trunk extensors flexibility, and digital forward flexmeter was used to measure the trunk flexors flexibility. Borg CR-10 Scale was also used to determine the perceived exertion of back muscles. Independent samples t-test and paired sample t-test were used to analyze the data. There was a significant difference between the mean score of experimental and control groups in the level of backward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05), forward trunk flexibility (P < 0.05) after 12-week intervention. The results of Borg CR-10 scale showed a significant improvement in pilates group (P < 0.05). Karate instructors, coaches, and athletes can integrate pilates exercises with karate training in order to improve the flexibility, and level of perceived exertion of back muscles.

Keywords: pilates training, karate players, flexibility, Borg CR-10

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4063 Multiple Variations of the Nerves of Gluteal Region and Their Clinical Implications, a Case Report

Authors: A. M. Prasad


Knowledge of variations of nerves of gluteal region is important for clinicians administering intramuscular injections, for orthopedic surgeons dealing with the hip surgeries, possibly for physiotherapists managing the painful conditions and paralysis of this region. Herein, we report multiple variations of the nerves of gluteal region. In the current case, the sciatic nerve was absent. The common peroneal and tibial nerves arose from sacral plexus and reached the gluteal region through greater sciatic foramen above and below piriformis respectively. The common peroneal nerve gave a muscular branch to the gluteus maximus. The inferior gluteal nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh arose from a common trunk. The common trunk was formed by three roots. Upper and middle roots arose from sacral plexus and entered gluteal region through greater sciatic foramen respectively above and below piriformis. The lower root arose from the pudendal nerve and joined the common trunk. These variations were seen in the right gluteal region of an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. Innervation of gluteus maximus by common peroneal nerve and presence of a common trunk of inferior gluteal nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh make this case unique. The variant nerves may be subjected to iatrogenic injuries during surgical approach to the hip. They may also get compressed if there is a hypertrophy of the piriformis syndrome. Hence, the knowledge of these variations is of importance to clinicians, orthopedic surgeons and possibly for physiotherapists.

Keywords: gluteal region, multiple variations, nerve injury, sciatic nerve

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4062 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb


The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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4061 The Effects of an Exercise Program Integrated with the Transtheoretical Model on Pain and Trunk Muscle Endurance of Rice Farmers with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Thanakorn Thanawat, Nomjit Nualnetr


Background and Purpose: In Thailand, rice farmers have the most prevalence of low back pain when compared with other manual workers. Exercises have been suggested to be a principal part of treatment programs for low back pain. However, the programs should be tailored to an individual’s readiness to change categorized by a behavioral approach. This study aimed to evaluate a difference between the responses of rice farmers with chronic low back pain who received an exercise program integrated with the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) and those of the comparison group regarding severity of pain and trunk muscle endurance. Materials and Methods: An 8-week exercise program was conducted to rice farmers with chronic low back pain who were randomized to either the TTM (n=62, 52 woman and 10 men, mean age ± SD 45.0±5.4 years) or non-TTM (n=64, 53 woman and 11 men, mean age ± SD 44.7±5.4 years) groups. All participants were tested for their severity of pain and trunk (abdominal and back) muscle endurance at baseline (week 0) and immediately after termination of the program (week 8). Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and student’s t-tests. The results revealed that both TTM and non-TTM groups could decrease their severity of pain and improve trunk muscle endurance after participating in the 8-week exercise program. When compared with the non-TTM group, however, the TTM showed a significantly greater increase in abdominal muscle endurance than did the non-TTM (P=0.004, 95% CI -12.4 to -2.3). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: An exercise program integrated with the TTM could provide benefits to rice farmers with chronic low back pain. Future studies with a longitudinal design and more outcome measures such as physical performance and quality of life are suggested to reveal further benefits of the program.

Keywords: chronic low back pain, transtheoretical model, rice farmers, exercise program

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4060 The Origin Variability of the Iliolumbar Artery

Authors: Raid Hommady, Waseem Al-Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames


The iliolumbar artery is a regular branch of posterior division of the internal iliac artery. The present study investigate 82 specimens to identify the origin of iliolumbar artery. The present study targets the sciatic nerve root supply from iliolumbar artery based on its origin and course. In present study, the ililumbar artery arose from the posterior division of internal iliac artery in 52.2%. In few cases, it arose from dorsomedial aspect of the internal iliac artery in 28.8%. In few cases, the iliolumbar artery arose from the dorsal aspects of the internal iliac artery as well as from the common and external iliac artery 1.7%. Also, the iliolumbar artery arose from the sciatic artery as well as from superior and inferior gluteal arteries in 5.1%. Conversely, it found to be congenital absent in 8.5%. Therefore, the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery is the most common origin of the iliolumbar artery. With the origin variability of the iliolumbar artery, there is a vascular supply variability of the lumbosacral trunk and sacral root of sciatic nerve. The iliolumbar artery provides vascular supply for lumbosacral trunk 57.3% in whereas the sacral root in 5.1%. As a result, surgeons should pay attention to these variations to decrease iatrogenic fault.

Keywords: iliolumbar, sciatic artery, internal iliac, external iliac, posterior division

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4059 Prominent Lipid Parameters Correlated with Trunk-to-Leg and Appendicular Fat Ratios in Severe Pediatric Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma


The examination of both serum lipid fractions and body’s lipid composition are quite informative during the evaluation of obesity stages. Within this context, alterations in lipid parameters are commonly observed. The variations in the fat distribution of the body are also noteworthy. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TRG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are considered as the basic lipid fractions. Fat deposited in trunk and extremities may give considerable amount of information and different messages during discrete health states. Ratios are also derived from distinct fat distribution in these areas. Trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLFR) and trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR) are the most recently introduced ratios. In this study, lipid fractions and TLFR, as well as TAFR, were evaluated, and the distinctions among healthy, obese (OB), and morbid obese (MO) groups were investigated. Three groups [normal body mass index (N-BMI), OB, MO] were constituted from a population aged 6 to 18 years. Ages and sexes of the groups were matched. The study protocol was approved by the Non-interventional Ethics Committee of Tekirdag Namik Kemal University. Written informed consent forms were obtained from the parents of the participants. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, head circumference, neck circumference) were obtained and recorded during the physical examination. Body mass index values were calculated. Total, trunk, leg, and arm fat mass values were obtained by TANITA Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. These values were used to calculate TLFR and TAFR. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were measured. Routine biochemical tests including TC, TRG, LDL-C, HDL-C, and insulin were performed. Data were evaluated using SPSS software. p value smaller than 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. There was no difference among the age values and gender ratios of the groups. Any statistically significant difference was not observed in terms of DBP, TLFR as well as serum lipid fractions. Higher SBP values were measured both in OB and MO children than those with N-BMI. TAFR showed a significant difference between N-BMI and OB groups. Statistically significant increases were detected between insulin values of N-BMI group and OB as well as MO groups. There were bivariate correlations between LDL and TLFR (r=0.396; p=0.037) as well as TAFR values (r=0.413; p=0.029) in MO group. When adjusted for SBP and DBP, partial correlations were calculated as (r=0.421; p=0.032) and (r=0.438; p=0.025) for LDL-TLFR as well as LDL-TAFR, respectively. Much stronger partial correlations were obtained for the same couples (r=0.475; p=0.019 and r=0.473; p=0.020, respectively) upon controlling for TRG and HDL-C. Much stronger partial correlations observed in MO children emphasize the potential transition from morbid obesity to metabolic syndrome. These findings have concluded that LDL-C may be suggested as a discriminating parameter between OB and MO children.

Keywords: children, lipid parameters, obesity, trunk-to-leg fat ratio, trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio

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4058 A New Obesity Index Derived from Waist Circumference and Hip Circumference Well-Matched with Other Indices in Children with Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma


Anthropometric obesity indices such as waist circumference (WC), indices derived from anthropometric measurements such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and indices created from body fat mass composition such as trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLFR) are commonly used for the evaluation of mild or severe forms of obesity. Their clinical utilities are being compared using body mass index (BMI) percentiles to classify obesity groups. The best of them is still being investigated to make a clear-cut discrimination between healthy normal individuals (N-BMI) and overweight or obese (OB) or morbid obese patients. The aim of this study is to derive a new index, which best suits the purpose for the discrimination of children with N-BMI from OB children. A total of eighty-three children participated in the study. Two groups were constituted. The first group comprised 42 children with N-BMI, and the second group was composed of 41 OB children, whose age- and sex- adjusted BMI percentile values vary between 95 and 99. The corresponding values for the first group were between 15 and 85. This classification was based upon the tables created by World Health Organization. The institutional ethics committee approved the study protocol. Informed consent forms were filled by the parents of the participants. Anthropometric measurements were taken and recorded following a detailed physical examination. Within this context, weight, height (Ht), WC, hip C (HC), neck C (NC) values were taken. Body mass index, WHR, (WC+HC)/2, WC/Ht, (WC/HC)/Ht, WC*NC were calculated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed to obtain body’s fat compartments in terms of total fat, trunk fat, leg fat, arm fat masses. Trunk-to-leg fat ratio, trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR), (trunk fat+leg fat)/2 ((TF+LF)/2) were calculated. Fat mass index (FMI) and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment-II (D2I) index values were calculated. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. Significantly increased values of (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, D2I, and FMI were observed in OB group in comparison with those of N-BMI group. Significant correlations were calculated between BMI and WC, (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, TLFR, TAFR, D2I as well as FMI both in N-BMI and OB groups. The same correlations were obtained for WC. (WC+HC)/2 was correlated with TLFR, TAFR, (TF+LF)/2, D2I, and FMI in N-BMI group. In OB group, the correlations were the same except those with TLFR and TAFR. These correlations were not present with WHR. Correlations were observed between TLFR and BMI, WC, (WC+HC)/2, (TF+LF)/2, D2I as well as FMI in N-BMI group. Same correlations were observed also with TAFR. In OB group, correlations between TLFR or TAFR and BMI, WC as well as (WC+HC)/2 were missing. None was noted with WHR. From these findings, it was concluded that (WC+HC)/2, but not WHR, was much more suitable as an anthropometric obesity index. The only correlation valid in both groups was that exists between (WC+HC)/2 and (TF+LF)/2. This index was suggested as a link between anthropometric and fat-based indices.

Keywords: children, hip circumference, obesity, waist circumference

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4057 Self-Directed-Car on GT Road: Grand Trunk Road

Authors: Rameez Ahmad, Aqib Mehmood, Imran Khan


Self-directed car (SDC) that can drive itself from one fact to another without support from a driver. Certain trust that self-directed car obligate the probable to transform the transportation manufacturing while essentially removing coincidences, and cleaning up the environment. This study realizes the effects that SDC (also called a self-driving, driver or robotic) vehicle travel demands and ride scheme is likely to have. Without the typical obstacles that allows detection of a audio vision based hardware and software construction (It (SDC) and cost benefits, the vehicle technologies, Gold (Generic Obstacle and Lane Detection) to a knowledge-based system to predict their potential and consider the shape, color, or balance) and an organized environment with colored lane patterns, lane position ban. Discovery the problematic consequence of (SDC) on GT (grand trunk road) road and brand the car further effectual.

Keywords: SDC, gold, GT, knowledge-based system

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
4056 On a Univalent Function and the Integral Means of Its Derivative

Authors: Shatha S. Alhily


The purpose of this research paper is to show all the possible values of the pth power of the integrable function which make the integral means of the derivative of univalent function existing and finite.

Keywords: derivative, integral means, self conformal maps, univalent function

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
4055 Comparison of EMG Normalization Techniques Recommended for Back Muscles Used in Ergonomics Research

Authors: Saif Al-Qaisi, Alif Saba


Normalization of electromyography (EMG) data in ergonomics research is a prerequisite for interpreting the data. Normalizing accounts for variability in the data due to differences in participants’ physical characteristics, electrode placement protocols, time of day, and other nuisance factors. Typically, normalized data is reported as a percentage of the muscle’s isometric maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC). Various MVC techniques have been recommended in the literature for normalizing EMG activity of back muscles. This research tests and compares the recommended MVC techniques in the literature for three back muscles commonly used in ergonomics research, which are the lumbar erector spinae (LES), latissimus dorsi (LD), and thoracic erector spinae (TES). Six healthy males from a university population participated in this research. Five different MVC exercises were compared for each muscle using the Tringo wireless EMG system (Delsys Inc.). Since the LES and TES share similar functions in controlling trunk movements, their MVC exercises were the same, which included trunk extension at -60°, trunk extension at 0°, trunk extension while standing, hip extension, and the arch test. The MVC exercises identified in the literature for the LD were chest-supported shoulder extension, prone shoulder extension, lat-pull down, internal shoulder rotation, and abducted shoulder flexion. The maximum EMG signal was recorded during each MVC trial, and then the averages were computed across participants. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to determine the effect of MVC technique on muscle activity. Post-hoc analyses were performed using the Tukey test. The MVC technique effect was statistically significant for each of the muscles (p < 0.05); however, a larger sample of participants was needed to detect significant differences in the Tukey tests. The arch test was associated with the highest EMG average at the LES, and also it resulted in the maximum EMG activity more often than the other techniques (three out of six participants). For the TES, trunk extension at 0° was associated with the largest EMG average, and it resulted in the maximum EMG activity the most often (three out of six participants). For the LD, participants obtained their maximum EMG either from chest-supported shoulder extension (three out of six participants) or prone shoulder extension (three out of six participants). Chest-supported shoulder extension, however, had a larger average than prone shoulder extension (0.263 and 0.240, respectively). Although all the aforementioned techniques were superior in their averages, they did not always result in the maximum EMG activity. If an accurate estimate of the true MVC is desired, more than one technique may have to be performed. This research provides additional MVC techniques for each muscle that may elicit the maximum EMG activity.

Keywords: electromyography, maximum voluntary contraction, normalization, physical ergonomics

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4054 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang


This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

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4053 A Compressor Map Optimizing Tool for Prediction of Compressor Off-Design Performance

Authors: Zhongzhi Hu, Jie Shen, Jiqiang Wang


A high precision aeroengine model is needed when developing the engine control system. Compared with other main components, the axial compressor is the most challenging component to simulate. In this paper, a compressor map optimizing tool based on the introduction of a modifiable β function is developed for FWorks (FADEC Works). Three parameters (d density, f fitting coefficient, k₀ slope of the line β=0) are introduced to the β function to make it modifiable. The comparison of the traditional β function and the modifiable β function is carried out for a certain type of compressor. The interpolation errors show that both methods meet the modeling requirements, while the modifiable β function can predict compressor performance more accurately for some areas of the compressor map where the users are interested in.

Keywords: beta function, compressor map, interpolation error, map optimization tool

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4052 Production of Bioethanol from Oil PalmTrunk by Cocktail Carbohydrases Enzyme Produced by Thermophilic Bacteria Isolated from Hot spring in West Sumatera, Indonesia

Authors: Yetti Marlida, Syukri Arif, Nadirman Haska


Recently, alcohol fuels have been produced on industrial scales by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane etc. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic materials to produce fermentable sugars has an enormous potential in meeting global bioenergy demand through the biorefinery concept, since agri-food processes generate millions of tones of waste each year (Xeros and Christakopoulos 2009) such as sugar cane baggase , wheat straw, rice straw, corn cob, and oil palm trunk. In fact oil palm trunk is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic wastes by-products worldwide especially come from Malaysia, Indonesia and Nigeria and provides an alternative substrate to produce useful chemicals such as bioethanol. Usually, from the ages 3 years to 25 years, is the economical life of oil palm and after that, it is cut for replantation. The size of trunk usually is 15-18 meters in length and 46-60 centimeters in diameter. The trunk after cutting is agricultural waste causing problem in elimination but due to the trunk contains about 42% cellulose, 34.4%hemicellulose, 17.1% lignin and 7.3% other compounds,these agricultural wastes could make value added products (Pumiput, 2006).This research was production of bioethanol from oil palm trunk via saccharafication by cocktail carbohydrases enzymes. Enzymatic saccharification of acid treated oil palm trunk was carried out in reaction mixture containing 40 g treated oil palm trunk in 200 ml 0.1 M citrate buffer pH 4.8 with 500 unit/kg amylase for treatment A: Treatment B: Treatment A + 500 unit/kg cellulose; C: treatment B + 500 unit/kgg xylanase: D: treatment D + 500 unit/kg ligninase and E: OPT without treated + 500 unit/kg amylase + 500 unit/kg cellulose + 500 unit/kg xylanase + 500 unit/kg ligninase. The reaction mixture was incubated on a water bath rotary shaker adjusted to 600C and 75 rpm. The samples were withdraw at intervals 12 and 24, 36, 48,60, and 72 hr. For bioethanol production in biofermentor of 5L the hydrolysis product were inoculated a loop of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then incubated at 34 0C under static conditions. Samples are withdraw after 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hr for bioethanol and residual glucose. The results of the enzymatic hidrolysis (Figure1) showed that the treatment B (OPT hydrolyzed with amylase and cellulase) have optimum condition for glucose production, where was both of enzymes can be degraded OPT perfectly. The same results also reported by Primarini et al., (2012) reported the optimum conditions the hydrolysis of OPT was at concentration of 25% (w /v) with 0.3% (w/v) amylase, 0.6% (w /v) glucoamylase and 4% (w/v) cellulase. In the Figure 2 showed that optimum bioethanol produced at 48 hr after incubation,if time increased the biothanol decreased. According Roukas (1996), a decrease in the concentration of ethanol occur at excess glucose as substrate and product inhibition effects. Substrate concentration is too high reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen, although in very small amounts, oxygen is still needed in the fermentation by Saccaromyces cerevisiae to keep life in high cell concentrations (Nowak 2000, Tao et al. 2005). The results of the research can be conluded that the optimum enzymatic hydrolysis occured when the OPT added with amylase and cellulase and optimum bioethanol produced at 48 hr incubation using Saccharomyses cerevicea whereas 18.08 % bioethanol produced from glucose conversion. This work was funded by Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE), Ministry of Education and Culture, contract no.245/SP2H/DIT.LimtabMas/II/2013

Keywords: oil palm trunk, enzymatic hydrolysis, saccharification

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4051 Origin Variability of Superior Vesical Artery

Authors: Waseem Al-Talalwah


The superior vesical artery usually arises directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It may arise from the umbilical artery as three or four branches to supply the upper and middle parts of bladder. Current study focuses on the different origins of the superior vesical artery to provide a sufficient data for surgeons to disease iatrogenic fault. The superior vesical artery arises directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 24.5% whereas it arises indirectly as from umbilical artery in 83.7%. Further, it may arise from any branch of the anterior division as from the utrine and obturator arteries in 6.1% and in 6.3% respectively. It also shares the origin of the internal pudendal and inferior glutyeal artery as it arises from the gluteopudendal trunk in 4.1%. The superior vesical artery arises as a single, double, triple and quadruple in 69.4%, 20.4%, 8.2% and 2% respectively. In case of cystectomy for bladder cancer, surgeons have to be aware of the origin variability of superior vesical artery to prevent post-surgical complication such as intra-pelvic bleeding. Also, the as intra-pelvic bleeding has to be expected in case of hysterectomy therefore a great caution of the vesical branches arising from uterine artery has to be considered. In case of aneurysm resection of inferior gluteal artery arising from the gluteopudendal trunk, the surgeons have to be careful of the vascular supply of urinary bladder coming from above and below this common trunk as from superior and inferior vesical arteries respectively. Therefore, present study increases the awareness of clinical significance of superior vesical artery origin for surgeons to minimise the iatroginc errors.

Keywords: superior vesical artery, anterior division, internal iliac, internal pudendal, inferior glutyeal, intra-pelvic bleeding, hysterectomy, cystectomy

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4050 A Cadaveric Study of Branching Pattern of Arch of Aorta and Its Clinical Significance in Nepalese Population

Authors: Gulam Anwer Khan, A. Gautam


Background: The arch of aorta is a large artery that arches over the root of the left lung and connects the ascending aorta and descending aorta. It is situated in the superior mediastinum behind the manubrium sterni. It gives off three major branches i.e. brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery arising from the superior surface of arch of aorta from right to left. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study. It was carried out in 44 cadavers, obtained during dissections for undergraduates of Department of Anatomy, Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, between March 2015 to October 2016. Cadavers of both sexes were included in the present study. The arch of aorta was dissected and exposed according to the methods described by Romanes in Cunningham’s manual of practical anatomy. Results: Out of 44 dissected cadavers, 35 (79.54%) were male and 9 (20.46%) were female cadavers. The normal branching pattern of the arch of aorta was encountered in 28 (63.64%) cadavers and the remaining 16 (36.36%) cadavers showed variations in the branching pattern of arch of aorta. Two different types of variations on the branching pattern of arch of aorta were noted in the present study, in which 12 (27.27%) cadavers had common trunk of the Arch of Aorta. In 3 (5.00%) male cadavers, we found the origin of the Thyroid ima artery. This variation was noted in 1(1.66%) female cadaver. Conclusion: The present study carried out on adult human cadavers’ revealed wide variations in the branching pattern of the arch of ao rta. These variations are of clinical significance and also very useful for the anatomists, radiologists, anesthesiologists, surgeons for practice during angiography, instrumentation, supra-aortic thoracic, head and neck surgery.

Keywords: arch of aorta, brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, Thyroidea ima artery

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4049 Study on the Relationship between Obesity Indicators and Mineral Status in Qatari Adults

Authors: Alaa A. H. Shehada, Eman Abdelnasser Abouhassanein, Reem Mohsen Ali, Joyce J. Moawad, Hiba Bawadi, Abdelhamid Kerkadi


Background: The association between obesity and micronutrient deficiencies is well documented. Among minerals that have been widely studied: zinc, iron and magnesium. Objectives: This study aims to determine the association between obesity indices and mineral status among Qatari adults. Methods: Secondary data was obtained from Qatar Biobank. 414 healthy Qatari aged 20-50 years old were randomly selected from the database. Anthropometric measurements (WC, Weight, and height), body fat, and mineral status (Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na) were obtained for all selected participants. Differences in anthropometric measurements and mineral status were analyzed by t-test or ANOVA. Spearman correlation coefficients were determined to assess the association between minerals and anthropometric variables. Statistical significance for the hypothesis tests was set at p <0.05. All statistical analysis was preformed using SPSS software version 23.0. Results: Iron, calcium, and sodium levels decreased with an increase in body mass index. Moreover, only iron showed a significant correlation with waist circumference, and waist to height ratio increased. Additionally, calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium had a statistically significant negative correlation with total body fat percentage and trunk fat percentage. There were statistically significant negative correlations of anthropometrics with minerals. Conclusion: Body fat and trunk fat percentage had a significant inverse relationship with iron, calcium, sodium, and magnesium, while there was no correlation between body fat or trunk fat percentage with potassium.

Keywords: Qatar biobank, body fat distribution, mineral status, Qatari adults

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