Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3472

Search results for: tree density

3472 Historical Landscape Affects Present Tree Density in Paddy Field

Authors: Ha T. Pham, Shuichi Miyagawa


Ongoing landscape transformation is one of the major causes behind disappearance of traditional landscapes, and lead to species and resource loss. Tree in paddy fields in the northeast of Thailand is one of those traditional landscapes. Using three different historical time layers, we acknowledged the severe deforestation and rapid urbanization happened in the region. Despite the general thinking of decline in tree density as consequences, the heterogeneous trend of changes in total tree density in three studied landscapes denied the hypothesis that number of trees in paddy field depend on the length of land use practice. On the other hand, due to selection of planting new trees on levees, existence of trees in paddy field are now rely on their values for human use. Besides, changes in land use and landscape structure had a significant impact on decision of which tree density level is considered as suitable for the landscape.

Keywords: aerial photographs, land use change, traditional landscape, tree in paddy fields

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
3471 Infestation in Omani Date Palm Orchards by Dubas Bug Is Related to Tree Density

Authors: Lalit Kumar, Rashid Al Shidi


Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is a major crop in many middle-eastern countries, including Oman. The Dubas bug Ommatissus lybicus is the main pest that affects date palm crops. However not all plantations are infested. It is still uncertain why some plantations get infested while others are not. This research investigated whether tree density and the system of planting (random versus systematic) had any relationship with infestation and levels of infestation. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems were used to determine the density of trees (number of trees per unit area) while infestation levels were determined by manual counting of insects on 40 leaflets from two fronds on each tree, with a total of 20-60 trees in each village. The infestation was recorded as the average number of insects per leaflet. For tree density estimation, WorldView-3 scenes, with eight bands and 2m spatial resolution, were used. The Local maxima method, which depends on locating of the pixel of highest brightness inside a certain exploration window, was used to identify the trees in the image and delineating individual trees. This information was then used to determine whether the plantation was random or systematic. The ordinary least square regression (OLS) was used to test the global correlation between tree density and infestation level and the Geographic Weight Regression (GWR) was used to find the local spatial relationship. The accuracy of detecting trees varied from 83–99% in agricultural lands with systematic planting patterns to 50–70% in natural forest areas. Results revealed that the density of the trees in most of the villages was higher than the recommended planting number (120–125 trees/hectare). For infestation correlations, the GWR model showed a good positive significant relationship between infestation and tree density in the spring season with R² = 0.60 and medium positive significant relationship in the autumn season, with R² = 0.30. In contrast, the OLS model results showed a weaker positive significant relationship in the spring season with R² = 0.02, p < 0.05 and insignificant relationship in the autumn season with R² = 0.01, p > 0.05. The results showed a positive correlation between infestation and tree density, which suggests the infestation severity increased as the density of date palm trees increased. The correlation result showed that the density alone was responsible for about 60% of the increase in the infestation. This information can be used by the relevant authorities to better control infestations as well as to manage their pesticide spraying programs.

Keywords: dubas bug, date palm, tree density, infestation levels

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3470 An Encapsulation of a Navigable Tree Position: Theory, Specification, and Verification

Authors: Nicodemus M. J. Mbwambo, Yu-Shan Sun, Murali Sitaraman, Joan Krone


This paper presents a generic data abstraction that captures a navigable tree position. The mathematical modeling of the abstraction encapsulates the current tree position, which can be used to navigate and modify the tree. The encapsulation of the tree position in the data abstraction specification avoids the use of explicit references and aliasing, thereby simplifying verification of (imperative) client code that uses the data abstraction. To ease the tasks of such specification and verification, a general tree theory, rich with mathematical notations and results, has been developed. The paper contains an example to illustrate automated verification ramifications. With sufficient tree theory development, automated proving seems plausible even in the absence of a special-purpose tree solver.

Keywords: automation, data abstraction, maps, specification, tree, verification

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3469 The Effects of Stand Density, Standards and Species Composition on Biomass Production in Traditional Coppices

Authors: Marek Mejstřík, Radim Matula, Martin Šrámek


Traditional coppices and coppice-with-standards were widely used throughout Europe and Asia for centuries but were largely abandoned in the second half of the 19th century, especially in central and northwestern Europe. In the last decades, there has been a renewed interest in traditional coppicing for nature conservation and most often, for rapid woody biomass production. However, there is little information on biomass productivity of traditional coppices and what affects it. Here, we focused on the effects of stand density, standards and tree species composition on sprout biomass production in newly restored coppices in the Czech Republic. We measured sprouts and calculated sprout biomass 7 years after the harvest from 2013 resprouting stumps in two 4 ha experimental plots. Each plot was divided into 64 subplots with different densities of standards and sprouting stumps. Total sprout biomass declined with increasing density of standards, but the effect of standards differed significantly among studied species. Whereas increasing density of standards decreased sprout biomass in Quercus petraea and Carpinus betulus, it did not affect sprout biomass productivity in Acer campestre and Tilia cordata. Sprout biomass on stand-level increased linearly with an increasing number of sprouting stumps and we observed no leveling of this relationship even in the highest densities of stumps. We also found a significant shift in tree species composition with the steeply declining relative abundance of Quercus in favor of other studied tree species.

Keywords: traditional coppice, coppice with standards, sprout biomass, forest management

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3468 Validation of the X-Ray Densitometry Method for Radial Density Pattern Determination of Acacia seyal var. seyal Tree Species

Authors: Hanadi Mohamed Shawgi Gamal, Claus Thomas Bues


Wood density is a variable influencing many of the technological and quality properties of wood. Understanding the pattern of wood density radial variation is important for its end-use. The X-ray technique, traditionally applied to softwood species to assess the wood quality properties, due to its simple and relatively uniform wood structure. On the other hand, very limited information is available about the validation of using this technique for hardwood species. The suitability of using the X-ray technique for the determination of hardwood density has a special significance in countries like Sudan, where only a few timbers are well known. This will not only save the time consumed by using the traditional methods, but it will also enhance the investigations of the great number of the lesser known species, the thing which will fill the huge cap of lake information of hardwood species growing in Sudan. The current study aimed to evaluate the validation of using the X-ray densitometry technique to determine the radial variation of wood density of Acacia seyal var. seyal. To this, a total of thirty trees were collected randomly from four states in Sudan. The wood density radial trend was determined using the basic density as well as density obtained by the X-ray densitometry method in order to assess the validation of X-ray technique in wood density radial variation determination. The results showed that the pattern of radial trend of density obtained by X-ray technique is very similar to that achieved by basic density. These results confirmed the validation of using the X-ray technique for Acacia seyal var. seyal density radial trend determination. It also promotes the suitability of using this method in other hardwood species.

Keywords: x-ray densitometry, wood density, Acacia seyal var. seyal, radial variation

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3467 Exploring Tree Growth Variables Influencing Carbon Sequestration in the Face of Climate Change

Authors: Funmilayo Sarah Eguakun, Peter Oluremi Adesoye


One of the major problems being faced by human society is that the global temperature is believed to be rising due to human activity that releases carbon IV oxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Carbon IV oxide is the most important greenhouse gas influencing global warming and possible climate change. With climate change becoming alarming, reducing CO2 in our atmosphere has become a primary goal of international efforts. Forest landsare major sink and could absorb large quantities of carbon if the trees are judiciously managed. The study aims at estimating the carbon sequestration capacity of Pinus caribaea (pine)and Tectona grandis (Teak) under the prevailing environmental conditions and exploring tree growth variables that influencesthe carbon sequestration capacity in Omo Forest Reserve, Ogun State, Nigeria. Improving forest management by manipulating growth characteristics that influences carbon sequestration could be an adaptive strategy of forestry to climate change. Random sampling was used to select Temporary Sample Plots (TSPs) in the study area from where complete enumeration of growth variables was carried out within the plots. The data collected were subjected to descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that average carbon stored by Pine and Teak are 994.4±188.3 Kg and 1350.7±180.6 Kg respectively. The difference in carbon stored in the species is significant enough to consider choice of species relevant in climate change adaptation strategy. Tree growth variables influence the capacity of the tree to sequester carbon. Height, diameter, volume, wood density and age are positively correlated to carbon sequestration. These tree growth variables could be manipulated by the forest manager as an adaptive strategy for climate change while plantations of high wood density speciescould be relevant for management strategy to increase carbon storage.

Keywords: adaptation, carbon sequestration, climate change, growth variables, wood density

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3466 A Kruskal Based Heuxistic for the Application of Spanning Tree

Authors: Anjan Naidu


In this paper we first discuss the minimum spanning tree, then we use the Kruskal algorithm to obtain minimum spanning tree. Based on Kruskal algorithm we propose Kruskal algorithm to apply an application to find minimum cost applying the concept of spanning tree.

Keywords: Minimum Spanning tree, algorithm, Heuxistic, application, classification of Sub 97K90

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3465 Nearest Neighbor Investigate Using R+ Tree

Authors: Rutuja Desai


Search engine is fundamentally a framework used to search the data which is pertinent to the client via WWW. Looking close-by spot identified with the keywords is an imperative concept in developing web advances. For such kind of searching, extent pursuit or closest neighbor is utilized. In range search the forecast is made whether the objects meet to query object. Nearest neighbor is the forecast of the focuses close to the query set by the client. Here, the nearest neighbor methodology is utilized where Data recovery R+ tree is utilized rather than IR2 tree. The disadvantages of IR2 tree is: The false hit number can surpass the limit and the mark in Information Retrieval R-tree must have Voice over IP bit for each one of a kind word in W set is recouped by Data recovery R+ tree. The inquiry is fundamentally subordinate upon the key words and the geometric directions.

Keywords: information retrieval, nearest neighbor search, keyword search, R+ tree

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3464 Variations in Wood Traits across Major Gymnosperm and Angiosperm Tree Species and the Driving Factors in China

Authors: Meixia Zhang, Chengjun Ji, Wenxuan Han


Many wood traits are important functional attributes for tree species, connected with resource competition among species, community dynamics, and ecosystem functions. Large variations in these traits exist among taxonomic categories, but variation in these traits between gymnosperms and angiosperms is still poorly documented. This paper explores the systematic differences in 12 traits between the two tree categories and the potential effects of environmental factors and life form. Based on a database of wood traits for major gymnosperm and angiosperm tree species across China, the values of 12 wood traits and their driving factors in gymnosperms vs. angiosperms were compared. The results are summarized below: i) Means of wood traits were all significantly lower in gymnosperms than in angiosperms. ii) Air-dried density (ADD) and tangential shrinkage coefficient (TSC) reflect the basic information of wood traits for gymnosperms, while ADD and radial shrinkage coefficient (RSC) represent those for angiosperms, providing higher explanation power when used as the evaluation index of wood traits. iii) For both gymnosperm and angiosperm species, life form exhibits the largest explanation rate for large-scale spatial patterns of ADD, TSC (RSC), climatic factors the next, and edaphic factors have the least effect, suggesting that life form is the dominant factor controlling spatial patterns of wood traits. Variations in the magnitude and key traits between gymnosperms and angiosperms and the same dominant factors might indicate the evolutionary divergence and convergence in key functional traits among woody plants.

Keywords: allometry, functional traits, phylogeny, shrinkage coefficient, wood density

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3463 Effect of Different Spacings on Growth Yield and Fruit Quality of Peach in the Sub-Tropics of India

Authors: Harminder Singh, Rupinder Kaur


Peach is primarily a temperate fruit, but its low chilling cultivars are grown quite successfully in the sub-tropical climate as well. The area under peach cultivation is picking up rapidly in the sub tropics of northern India due to higher return on a unit area basis, availability of suitable peach cultivar and their production technology. Information on the use of different training systems on peach in the sub tropics is inadequate. In this investigation, conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India, the trees of the Shan-i-Punjab peach were planted at four different spacings i.e. 6.0x3.0m, 6.0x2.5m, 4.5x3.0m and 4.5x2.5m and were trained to central leader system. The total radiation interception and penetration in the upper and lower canopy parts were higher in 6x3.0m and 6x2.5m planted trees as compared to other spacings. Average radiation interception was maximum in the upper part of the tree canopy, and it decreased significantly with the depth of the canopy in all the spacings. Tree planted at wider spacings produced more vegetative (tree height, tree girth, tree spread and canopy volume) and reproductive growth (flower bud density, number of fruits and fruit yield) per tree but productivity was maximum in the closely planted trees. Fruits harvested from the wider spaced trees were superior in fruit quality (size, weight, colour, TSS and acidity) and matured earlier than those harvested from closed spaced trees.

Keywords: quality, radiation, spacings, yield

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3462 A Novel PSO Based Decision Tree Classification

Authors: Ali Farzan


Classification of data objects or patterns is a major part in most of Decision making systems. One of the popular and commonly used classification methods is Decision Tree (DT). It is a hierarchical decision making system by which a binary tree is constructed and starting from root, at each node some of the classes is rejected until reaching the leaf nods. Each leaf node is a representative of one specific class. Finding the splitting criteria in each node for constructing or training the tree is a major problem. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has been adopted as a metaheuristic searching method for finding the best splitting criteria. Result of evaluating the proposed method over benchmark datasets indicates the higher accuracy of the new PSO based decision tree.

Keywords: decision tree, particle swarm optimization, splitting criteria, metaheuristic

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3461 Monitoring Three-Dimensional Models of Tree and Forest by Using Digital Close-Range Photogrammetry

Authors: S. Y. Cicekli


In this study, tree-dimensional model of tree was created by using terrestrial close range photogrammetry. For this close range photos were taken. Photomodeler Pro 5 software was used for camera calibration and create three-dimensional model of trees. In first test, three-dimensional model of a tree was created, in the second test three-dimensional model of three trees were created. This study aim is creating three-dimensional model of trees and indicate the use of close-range photogrammetry in forestry. At the end of the study, three-dimensional model of tree and three trees were created. This study showed that usability of close-range photogrammetry for monitoring tree and forests three-dimensional model.

Keywords: close- range photogrammetry, forest, tree, three-dimensional model

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3460 Use of Fault Tree Analysis for Technical Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Plants

Authors: Ying-Chu Chen


Waste to energy (WTE) technology is becoming increasingly important throughout the world. There are 24 WTE plants in operation in Taiwan that might be ranked the top in density (number of MSW incinerators/area) in the world. Many problems exist in WTE plants, such as low-quality construction, leakage of pipelines, irregular feedings, and lack of maintenance. These problems should be identified and analyzed for effective implementation and efficient operation of WTE plants. This research applies a fault tree analysis (FTA) to identify failures and evaluate their effects on the operation of WTE plants from a technical point of view. Five subsystems of a WTE plant were defined, including loading system, incineration system, effluent disposal system, structural components, and control system. This research results proved that FTA is suitable for WTE evaluation and is an effective analysis tool for technical evaluation in the field of WTE technology.

Keywords: delphi method, fault tree approach, municipal solid waste, waste to energy, WTE

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3459 A Dynamic Round Robin Routing for Z-Fat Tree

Authors: M. O. Adda


In this paper, we propose a topology called Zoned fat tree (Z-Fat tree) which is a further extension to the classical fat trees. The extension relates to the provision of extra degree of connectivity to maximize the number of deployed ports per routing nodes, and hence increases the bisection bandwidth especially for slimmed fat trees. The extra links, when classical routing is used, tend, in deterministic environment, to be under-utilized for some traffic patterns, hence achieving poor performance. We suggest two versions of a dynamic round robin scheme that outperforms the classical D-mod-k and S-mod-K routing and show by simulation that our proposal utilize all the extra added links to the classical fat tree, and achieve better performance for general applications.

Keywords: deterministic routing, fat tree, interconnection, traffic pattern

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3458 Unconventional Dating of Old Peepal Tree of Chandigarh (India) Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence

Authors: Rita Rani, Ramesh Kumar


The intend of the current study is to date an old grand Peepal tree that is still alive. The tree is situated in Kalibard village, Sector 9, Chandigarh (India). Due to its huge structure, it has got the status of ‘Heritage tree.’ Optically Stimulated Luminescence of sediments beneath the roots is used to determine the age of the tree. Optical dating is preferred over conventional dating methods due to more precession. The methodology includes OSL of quartz grain using SAR protocol for accumulated dose measurement. The age determination of an alive tree using sedimentary quartz is in close agreement with the approximated age provided by the related agency. This is the first attempt at using optically stimulated luminescence in the age determination of alive trees in this region. The study concludes that the Luminescence dating of alive trees is the nondestructive and more precise method.

Keywords: luminescence, dose rate, optical dating, sediments

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3457 Fuzzy Approach for Fault Tree Analysis of Water Tube Boiler

Authors: Syed Ahzam Tariq, Atharva Modi


This paper presents a probabilistic analysis of the safety of water tube boilers using fault tree analysis (FTA). A fault tree has been constructed by considering all possible areas where a malfunction could lead to a boiler accident. Boiler accidents are relatively rare, causing a scarcity of data. The fuzzy approach is employed to perform a quantitative analysis, wherein theories of fuzzy logic are employed in conjunction with expert elicitation to calculate failure probabilities. The Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis (FFTA) provides a scientific and contingent method to forecast and prevent accidents.

Keywords: fault tree analysis water tube boiler, fuzzy probability score, failure probability

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3456 Handshake Algorithm for Minimum Spanning Tree Construction

Authors: Nassiri Khalid, El Hibaoui Abdelaaziz et Hajar Moha


In this paper, we introduce and analyse a probabilistic distributed algorithm for a construction of a minimum spanning tree on network. This algorithm is based on the handshake concept. Firstly, each network node is considered as a sub-spanning tree. And at each round of the execution of our algorithm, a sub-spanning trees are merged. The execution continues until all sub-spanning trees are merged into one. We analyze this algorithm by a stochastic process.

Keywords: Spanning tree, Distributed Algorithm, Handshake Algorithm, Matching, Probabilistic Analysis

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3455 Spatial Interactions Between Earthworm Abundance and Tree Growth Characteristics in Western Niger Delta

Authors: Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin, Charles Obiechina Olisa


The study examined the spatial interactions between earthworm abundance (EA) and tree growth characteristics in ecological belts of Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Eight 20m x 20m quadrat were delimited in the natural vegetation in each of the rainforest (RF), mangrove (M), fresh water swamp (FWS), and guinea savanna (GS) ecological belts to gather data about the tree species (TS) characteristics which included individual number of tree species (IN), diversity (Di), density (De) and richness (Ri). Three quadrats of 1m x 1m were delineated in each of the 20m x 20m quadrats to collect earthworm species the topsoil (0-15cm), and subsoil (15-30cm) and were taken to laboratory for further analysis. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Findings showed that a total of 19 earthworm species was found, with 58.5% individual species recorded in the topsoil and 41.5% recorded in the subsoil. The total population ofEudriliuseugeniae was predominantly highest in both topsoil (38.4%) and subsoil (27.1%). The total population of individual species of earthworm was least in GS in the topsoil (11.9%) and subsoil (8.4%). A total of 40 different species of TS was recorded, of which 55.5% were recorded in FWS, while RF was significantly highest in the species diversity(0.5971). Regression analysis revealed that Ri, IN, DBH, Di, and De of trees explained 65.9% of the variability of EA in the topsoil, while 46.9 % of the variability of earthworm abundance was explained by the floristic parameters in the subsoil.Similarly, correlation statistics revealed that in the topsoil, EA is positively and significantly correlated with Ri (r=0.35; p<0.05), IN (r=0.523; p<0.05) and De (r=0.469; p<0.05) while DBH was negatively and significantly correlated with earthworm abundance (r=-0.437; p<0.05). In the subsoil, only Ri and DBH correlated significantly with EA. The study concluded that EA in the study locations was highly influenced by tree growth species especially Ri, IN, DBH, Di, and De. The study recommended that the TSabundance should be improved in the study locations to ensure the survival of earthworms for ecosystem functions.

Keywords: interactions, earthworm abundance, tree growth, ecological zones, western niger delta

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3454 Decision Tree Based Scheduling for Flexible Job Shops with Multiple Process Plans

Authors: H.-H. Doh, J.-M. Yu, Y.-J. Kwon, J.-H. Shin, H.-W. Kim, S.-H. Nam, D.-H. Lee


This paper suggests a decision tree based approach for flexible job shop scheduling with multiple process plans, i. e. each job can be processed through alternative operations, each of which can be processed on alternative machines. The main decision variables are: (a) selecting operation/machine pair; and (b) sequencing the jobs assigned to each machine. As an extension of the priority scheduling approach that selects the best priority rule combination after many simulation runs, this study suggests a decision tree based approach in which a decision tree is used to select a priority rule combination adequate for a specific system state and hence the burdens required for developing simulation models and carrying out simulation runs can be eliminated. The decision tree based scheduling approach consists of construction and scheduling modules. In the construction module, a decision tree is constructed using a four-stage algorithm, and in the scheduling module, a priority rule combination is selected using the decision tree. To show the performance of the decision tree based approach suggested in this study, a case study was done on a flexible job shop with reconfigurable manufacturing cells and a conventional job shop, and the results are reported by comparing it with individual priority rule combinations for the objectives of minimizing total flow time and total tardiness.

Keywords: flexible job shop scheduling, decision tree, priority rules, case study

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3453 The Structure and Composition of Plant Communities in Ajluon Forest Reserve in Jordan

Authors: Maher J. Tadros, Yaseen Ananbeh


The study area is located in Ajluon Forest Reserve northern part of Jordan. It consists of Mediterranean hills dominated by open woodlands of oak and pistachio. The aims of the study were to investigate the positive and negative relationships between the locals and the protected area and how it can affect the long-term forest conservation. The main research objectives are to review the impact of establishing Ajloun Forest Reserve on nature conservation and on the livelihood level of local communities around the reserve. The Ajloun forest reserve plays a fundamental role in Ajloun area development. The existence of initiatives of nature conservation in the area supports various socio-economic activities around the reserve that contribute towards the development of local communities in Ajloun area. A part of this research was to conduct a survey to study the impact of Ajloun forest reserve on biodiversity composition. Also, studying the biodiversity content especially for vegetation to determine the economic impacts of Ajloun forest reserve on its surroundings was studied. In this study, several methods were used to fill the objectives including point-centered quarter method which involves selecting randomly 50 plots at the study site. The collected data from the field showed that the absolute density was (1031.24 plant per hectare). Density was recorded and found to be the highest for Quecus coccifera, and relative density of (73.7%), this was followed by Arbutus andrachne and relative density (7.1%), Pistacia palaestina and relative density (10.5%) and Crataegus azarulus (82.5 p/ha) and relative density (5.1%),

Keywords: composition, density, frequency, importance value, point-centered quarter, structure, tree cover

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3452 Semi-Supervised Hierarchical Clustering Given a Reference Tree of Labeled Documents

Authors: Ying Zhao, Xingyan Bin


Semi-supervised clustering algorithms have been shown effective to improve clustering process with even limited supervision. However, semi-supervised hierarchical clustering remains challenging due to the complexities of expressing constraints for agglomerative clustering algorithms. This paper proposes novel semi-supervised agglomerative clustering algorithms to build a hierarchy based on a known reference tree. We prove that by enforcing distance constraints defined by a reference tree during the process of hierarchical clustering, the resultant tree is guaranteed to be consistent with the reference tree. We also propose a framework that allows the hierarchical tree generation be aware of levels of levels of the agglomerative tree under creation, so that metric weights can be learned and adopted at each level in a recursive fashion. The experimental evaluation shows that the additional cost of our contraint-based semi-supervised hierarchical clustering algorithm (HAC) is negligible, and our combined semi-supervised HAC algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world datasets. The experiments also show that our proposed methods can improve clustering performance even with a small number of unevenly distributed labeled data.

Keywords: semi-supervised clustering, hierarchical agglomerative clustering, reference trees, distance constraints

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3451 Use of Dendrochronology in Estimation of Creep Velocity and Its Dependence on the Bulk Density of Soils

Authors: Mohammad Amjad Sabir, Ishtiaq Khan, Shahid Ali, Umar Shabbir, Aneel Ahmad


Creep, being the main silt contributor to the rivers, is a slow, downhill flow of soils. The creep velocity is measured in millimeters to a couple of centimeters per year and is determined with the help of tilt caused by creep in the vertical objects and needs at least ten years to get a reliable creep velocity. This project was devised to calculate creep velocity using dendrochronology and looking for the difference of creep velocity registered by different trees on the same slope. It was concluded that dendrochronology provides a very reliable procedure of creep velocity estimation if ‘J’ shaped trees are studied for their horizontal movement and age. The age of these trees was measured using tree coring, and the horizontal movement was measured with a conventional tape. Using this procedure it does not require decades and additionally the data reveals the creep velocity for up to 150 years and even more instead of just a decade. It was also concluded that the creep velocity does not only depend on bulk density of soil hence no pronounced effect of bulk density was detected.

Keywords: creep velocity, Galiyat, Pakistan, dendrochronology, Nagri Bala

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3450 Using Data Mining Technique for Scholarship Disbursement

Authors: J. K. Alhassan, S. A. Lawal


This work is on decision tree-based classification for the disbursement of scholarship. Tree-based data mining classification technique is used in other to determine the generic rule to be used to disburse the scholarship. The system based on the defined rules from the tree is able to determine the class (status) to which an applicant shall belong whether Granted or Not Granted. The applicants that fall to the class of granted denote a successful acquirement of scholarship while those in not granted class are unsuccessful in the scheme. An algorithm that can be used to classify the applicants based on the rules from tree-based classification was also developed. The tree-based classification is adopted because of its efficiency, effectiveness, and easy to comprehend features. The system was tested with the data of National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) Abuja, a Parastatal of Federal Ministry of Communication Technology that is mandated to develop and regulate information technology in Nigeria. The system was found working according to the specification. It is therefore recommended for all scholarship disbursement organizations.

Keywords: classification, data mining, decision tree, scholarship

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
3449 Breeding Biology of the House Crow Corvus splendens at Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Awais


Study on the nesting biology of the House Crow Corvus splendens was conducted at Hazara University, Garden Campus (125 acres), Mansehra during the 2013 breeding season (June to September). Details about nest locations, tree characteristics, nest and egg characteristics were recorded. Mean nest density of House Crow was 2.4 nests/ acre. Mean tree and nest height were 14.8±6.30 and 11.8±5.42m. Mean tree canopy spread 9.5±2.48m. Mean maximum and minimum nest diameters were 42.3±2.08 and 39.0±1.73cm respectively while maximum and minimum diameters of nest cup were 15.6±1.52 and 13.3±1.15cm respectively. Nest depth and nest cup depth were measured 19.3±2.08 and 8.3±1.15cm respectively. Mean nest weight was 1.4±0.24 kg. Mean clutch size was 4.0 (ranged 1–6). Mean egg length was 38.6±0.69mm, breadth 26.0±0.69mm, egg volume 13.3±0.83cm3 and egg shape index 1.42±0.83. Mean egg weight was 12.3±0.70g. Egg and nest success was calculated 55.1% and 69.0%. Hatchlings and fledglings produced per nest were 2.20 and 1.44 respectively. Main reasons for reproductive failures were unhatched eggs, poor nest construction, bad weather conditions and observer’s disturbance.

Keywords: breeding, Corvus splendens, fledglings, Hazara university, house crow, Mansehra, populus orientalis

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3448 Dynamic Fault Tree Analysis of Dynamic Positioning System through Monte Carlo Approach

Authors: A. S. Cheliyan, S. K. Bhattacharyya


Dynamic Positioning System (DPS) is employed in marine vessels of the offshore oil and gas industry. It is a computer controlled system to automatically maintain a ship’s position and heading by using its own thrusters. Reliability assessment of the same can be analyzed through conventional fault tree. However, the complex behaviour like sequence failure, redundancy management and priority of failing of events cannot be analyzed by the conventional fault trees. The Dynamic Fault Tree (DFT) addresses these shortcomings of conventional Fault Tree by defining additional gates called dynamic gates. Monte Carlo based simulation approach has been adopted for the dynamic gates. This method of realistic modeling of DPS gives meaningful insight into the system reliability and the ability to improve the same.

Keywords: dynamic positioning system, dynamic fault tree, Monte Carlo simulation, reliability assessment

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3447 Valuing Public Urban Street Trees and Their Environmental Spillover Benefits

Authors: Sofia F. Franco, Jacob Macdonald


This paper estimates the value of urban public street trees and their complementary and substitution value with other broader urban amenities and dis-amenities via the residential housing market. We estimate a lower bound value on a city’s tree amenities under instrumental variable and geographic regression discontinuity approaches with an application to Lisbon, Portugal. For completeness, we also explore how urban trees and in particular public street trees impact house prices across the city. Finally, we jointly analyze the planting and maintenance costs and benefits of urban street trees. The estimated value of all public trees in Lisbon is €8.84M. When considering specifically trees planted alongside roads and in public squares, the value is €6.06M or €126.64 per tree. This value is conditional on the distribution of trees in terms of their broader density, with higher effects coming from the overall greening of larger areas of the city compared to the greening of the direct neighborhood. Detrimental impacts are found when the number of trees is higher near street canyons, where they may exacerbate the stagnation of air pollution from traffic. Urban street trees also have important spillover benefits due to pollution mitigation around €6.21 million, or an additional €129.93 per tree. There are added benefits of €26.32 and €28.58 per tree in terms of flooding and heat mitigation, respectively. With significant resources and policies aimed at urban greening, the value obtained is shown to be important for discussions on the benefits of urban trees as compared to mitigation and abatement costs undertaken by a municipality.

Keywords: urban public goods, urban street trees, spatial boundary discontinuities, geospatial and remote sensing methods

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3446 CanVis: Towards a Web Platform for Cancer Progression Tree Analysis

Authors: Michael Aupetit, Mahmoud Al-ismail, Khaled Mohamed


Cancer is a major public health problem all over the world. Breast cancer has the highest incidence rate over all cancers for women in Qatar making its study a top priority of the country. Human cancer is a dynamic disease that develops over an extended period through the accumulation of a series of genetic alterations. A Darwinian process drives the tumor cells toward higher malignancy growing the branches of a progression tree in the space of genes expression. Although it is not possible to track these genetic alterations dynamically for one patient, it is possible to reconstruct the progression tree from the aggregation of thousands of tumor cells’ genetic profiles from thousands of different patients at different stages of the disease. Analyzing the progression tree is a way to detect pivotal molecular events that drive the malignant evolution and to provide a guide for the development of cancer diagnostics, prognostics and targeted therapeutics. In this work we present the development of a Visual Analytic web platform CanVis enabling users to upload gene-expression data and analyze their progression tree. The server computes the progression tree based on state-of-the-art techniques and allows an interactive visual exploration of this tree and the gene-expression data along its branching structure helping to discover potential driver genes.

Keywords: breast cancer, progression tree, visual analytics, web platform

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3445 Ecobiological Study of Olivier in the Northern Slopes of the Mountains of Tlemcen, Western Algeria

Authors: Hachemi Nouria


The olive tree is a Mediterranean tree, which belongs to the family Oleaceae. The Olea genus contains various species and subspecies, and the only species bearing edible fruit is Olea europaea. The desired issue in this study is to provide the current status of plant cover and especially the training in Olea europaea currently existing in the major centers of the region of Tlemcen. While based on the flora and biometric aspect of this plant germplasm. In order to make an assessment of the phytomass, we made measurements of the four parameters of the aerial part of the taxon: height, diameter, and canopy density to ten feet of the olive tree per station. The floristic analysis shows a certain floristic difference between the different stations. The vegetal formations reflect the biotic and abiotic conditions including climate affecting the ecosystem. Biometric study on the feet of Olea in the six study sites, has led us to conclude that the four measured parameters provides insight on the development or degradation of Olea feet depending on the layout of the stations and the factors environmental. We find that the terrains are havens for these assets. Also the local microclimate (Oued Thalweg) promotes the healthy development of this species.

Keywords: olivier, ecology, biometrics, Tlemcen, Algeria

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3444 Brain Tumor Segmentation Based on Minimum Spanning Tree

Authors: Simeon Mayala, Ida Herdlevær, Jonas Bull Haugsøen, Shamundeeswari Anandan, Sonia Gavasso, Morten Brun


In this paper, we propose a minimum spanning tree-based method for segmenting brain tumors. The proposed method performs interactive segmentation based on the minimum spanning tree without tuning parameters. The steps involve preprocessing, making a graph, constructing a minimum spanning tree, and a newly implemented way of interactively segmenting the region of interest. In the preprocessing step, a Gaussian filter is applied to 2D images to remove the noise. Then, the pixel neighbor graph is weighted by intensity differences and the corresponding minimum spanning tree is constructed. The image is loaded in an interactive window for segmenting the tumor. The region of interest and the background are selected by clicking to split the minimum spanning tree into two trees. One of these trees represents the region of interest and the other represents the background. Finally, the segmentation given by the two trees is visualized. The proposed method was tested by segmenting two different 2D brain T1-weighted magnetic resonance image data sets. The comparison between our results and the standard gold segmentation confirmed the validity of the minimum spanning tree approach. The proposed method is simple to implement and the results indicate that it is accurate and efficient.

Keywords: brain tumor, brain tumor segmentation, minimum spanning tree, segmentation, image processing

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3443 Pressure Losses on Realistic Geometry of Tracheobronchial Tree

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Jakub Elcner


Real bronchial tree is very complicated piping system. Analysis of flow and pressure losses in this system is very difficult. Due to the complex geometry and the very small size in the lower generations is examination by CFD possible only in the central part of bronchial tree. For specify the pressure losses of lower generations is necessary to provide a mathematical equation. Determination of mathematical formulas for calculating the pressure losses in the real lungs is due to its complexity and diversity lengthy and inefficient process. For these calculations is necessary the lungs to slightly simplify (same cross-section over the length of individual generation) or use one of the models of lungs. The simplification could cause deviations from real values. The article compares the values of pressure losses obtained from CFD simulation of air flow in the central part of the real bronchial tree with the values calculated in a slightly simplified real lungs by using a mathematical relationship derived from the Bernoulli equation and continuity equation. Then, evaluate the desirability of using this formula to determine the pressure loss across the bronchial tree.

Keywords: pressure gradient, airways resistance, real geometry of bronchial tree, breathing

Procedia PDF Downloads 248