Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1330

Search results for: transformational leadership style

1330 Transformational Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Assessment

Authors: Ugochukwu D. Abasilim, Aize I. Obayan, Adedayo J. Odukoya, Godwyns Agube, Power A. I. Wogu, Nchekwube Excellence-Oluye

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of transformational leadership style on organizational commitment among Private University employees in Nigeria. A quantitative methodology was adopted for this study. A structured Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) developed by Bass and Avolio (1997) and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) developed by Meyer and Allen (1997) were the major instruments used for data collection. Simple linear regression was used for testing the hypothesis. The results indicated that there was no significant positive effect of transformational leadership style on organizational commitment among employees of the Nigerian private university studied. Though the respondents rated their leaders high on transformational leadership style, their organizational commitment rating was average for majority, which implies that employees’ level of commitment could be accounted for by transformational leadership style existing in the institution. This finding is antithetical to the common submission in literature that transformational leadership style has a significant effect on organizational commitment. It was therefore recommended that further studies may want to further explore the reasons for this variance.

Keywords: leadership style, Nigeria, organizational, commitment, transformational leadership

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1329 Effect of Leadership Style on Organizational Performance

Authors: Khadija Mushtaq, Mian Saqib Mehmood

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This paper attempts to determine the impact of leadership style and learning orientation on organizational performance in Pakistan. A sample of 158 middle managers selected from sports and surgical factories from Sialkot. The empirical estimation is based on a multiple linear regression analysis of the relationship between leadership style, learning orientation and organizational performance. Leadership style is measure through transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The transformational leadership has insignificant impact on organizational performance. The transactional leadership has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Learning orientation also has positive and significant relation with organizational performance. Linear regression used to estimate the relation between dependent and independent variables. This study suggests top manger should prefer continuous process for improvement for any change in system rather radical change.

Keywords: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, learning orientation, organizational performance, Pakistan

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1328 The Role of Organizational Culture, Organizational Commitment, and Styles of Transformational Leadership towards Employee Performance

Authors: Ahmad Badawi Saluy, Novawiguna Kemalasari

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This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of organizational culture, organizational commitment, and transformational leadership style on employee performance. This study used descriptive survey method with quantitative approach, and questionnaires as a tool used for basic data collection. The sampling technique used is proportionate stratified random sampling technique; all respondents in this study were 70 respondents. The analytical method used in this research is multiple linear regressions. The result of determination coefficient of 52.3% indicates that organizational culture, organizational commitment, and transformational leadership style simultaneously have a significant influence on the performance of employees, while the remaining 47.7% is explained by other factors outside the research variables. Partially, organization culture has strong and positive influence on employee performance, organizational commitment has a moderate and positive effect on employee performance, while the transformational leadership style has a strong and positive influence on employee performance and this is also the variable that has the most impact on employee performance.

Keywords: organizational culture, organizational commitment, transformational leadership style, employee performance

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1327 Transformational Leadership Style of Principal and Conflict Management in Public Secondary Schools in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Odeh Regina Comfort, Angelina Okewu Ogwuche

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The study investigated transformational leadership style of principal and conflict management in secondary schools in North Central Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was adopted. The population of the study comprised 34,473 teachers in 1949 public secondary schools in the study area. Proportionate stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 39 public secondary schools and 689 respondents, respectively, for the study. The researcher utilized a self-structured questionnaire titled 'Influence of Transformational Leadership Style Questionnaire (ITLSQ)'. Face and content validity were ensured. The reliability index of 0.86 was obtained through Cronbach alpha statistics. The instrument was a modified Likert rating scale of Very High Extent (4), High Extent (3), Low Extent (2) and Very Low Extent (1). Mean, and standard deviation were used to answer 2 research questions, while chi-square goodness of fit was used to test the 2 hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results among others indicate: that intellectual stimulation and individualized components of transformational leadership style of principal in public secondary schools in the study area have significant influence on conflict management in secondary schools. Based on the results, it was recommended that principals of secondary schools should be encouraged to practice the intellectual stimulation component of transformational leadership style that would help to consider teachers' levels of knowledge to decide what suits them to reach high levels of attainment thereby minimizing conflict in school settings; also transformational leadership should be taught to all people at all levels of secondary school especially that which pertains to individualized consideration to have a positive impact on the overall performance of teachers and this would help to minimize conflict in schools.

Keywords: conflict management, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, transformational leadership style

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1326 Relationship with Immediate Superior, Leadership, and Career Success of Managers

Authors: L. N. A. Chandana Jayawardena, Ales Gregar

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Occupational Self Efficacy (OSE) reflects the conviction of a person’s ability to fulfill his job related behavior at a perfectly acceptable level to the employer. Transformational leadership improves followers’ commitment by influencing their needs, values, and self-esteem. Employees also develop a dyadic relationship with their immediate superiors. Study was conducted amongst one hundred and twenty two (122) bank managers in Sri Lanka. They were selected based on multi-stage (seniority in the hierarchy, gender, department-wise etc.) stratified random sampling. Major objectives of this study were to analyze the impact of transformational leadership style, and OSE along with socio-demographic factors, and career, job and organizational experience, to the career satisfaction of managers. SPSS software was used for parametric and non-parametric statistical analyses. Career satisfaction had positive impacts on their transformational leadership style, and their relationships with the immediate superior. Impact of socio-demographic factors, and career exposure to career satisfaction was assessed.

Keywords: career success, relationship with immediate superior, transformational leadership, occupational self efficacy (OSE)

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1325 The Examination of the Mediating Role of Leader-Member Exchange on the Association between Transformational Leadership and Innovative Behavior: A Study in Turkish Technological Organizations

Authors: Gultekin Gurcay

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The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative work behavior and to evaluate the mediating role of leader-member exchange relationships (LMX) on the assumed relationship. This study has focused on the suggestion that LMX might emerge through transformational leadership behaviors and thus could mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative behavior. A cross-sectional survey research has been conducted on the relationship these leadership approaches and their impact on organizational HRM-outcomes has been conducted on two organizations operating in the technical sector in Istanbul-Turkey. The results of the research have supported the hypotheses. Transformational leadership was positively related to the innovative behaviors and LMX emerged to mediate that relationship.

Keywords: innovative leadership, leader-member exchange, transformational leadership, Turkey

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1324 Transformational Leadership and Departmental Performance: The Intervening Role of Internal Communication and Citizen/Customer Participation

Authors: Derrick Boakye Boadu, Zahra Fakhri

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Transformational leaders are the catalyst of change and focus more importantly on members or followers. Involvement of transformational leadership style in organizational structures can provide interesting nuances to the implementation and enhancement of citizen and customer participation mechanisms in an organization regardless of the time consuming, cost, and delaying process of analyzing the feedback of workers and citizens/customers which stifles good outcome of organization’s department performance. It posits that transformational leadership has a positive direct effect on organization-departmental performance and the intervening role of citizen and customer participation and internal communication. Using the NASP-IV 2007 data, the article finds support for the five hypotheses in a structural equation model, and the findings show that transformational leadership does have a direct impact on organizational-departmental performance a partial mediation effect of the relationship through the role of internal communication and citizen and customer participation.  

Keywords: transformational leaders, departmental performance, internal communication, citizen/customer participation

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1323 The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Individual Attributes

Authors: Bilal Liaqat, Muhammad Umar, Zara Bashir, Hassan Rafique, Mohsin Abbasi, Zarak Khan

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Transformational leadership is one of the most studied topics in the organization sciences. However, the impact of transformational leadership on employee’s individual attributes have not yet been studied. Purpose: This research aims to discover the relationship between transformational leadership and employee motivation, performance and creativity. Moreover, the study will also investigate the influence of transformational leadership on employee performance through employee motivation and employee creativity. Design-Methodology-Approach: The data was collected from employees in different organization. This cross-sectional study collected data from employees and the methodology used includes survey data that were collected from employees in organizations. Structured interviews were also conducted to explain the outcomes from the survey. Findings: The results of this study reveal that transformational leadership has a positive impact on employee’s individual attributes. Research Implications: Although this study expands our knowledge about the role of learning orientation between transformational leadership and employee motivation, performance and creativity, the prospects for further research are still present.

Keywords: employee creativity, employee motivation, employee performance, transformational leadership

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1322 A Study of Relationship between Leadership Style and Organisational Culture in Private Organisations

Authors: Shreya Sirohi, Vineeta Sirohi

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In the 21st century, the nature of work has become quite complex and dynamic, and in response to this, the organizational culture continues to change and develop new perspectives. Organizational culture and leadership are important elements of any organization. Organization’s performance and success to a large extent, depend upon these two factors. The ability of a leader lies in confronting with the challenge of evolving and adapting the culture of the organization as per the situational demands. Leadership and organizational culture are conceptually intertwined. Leadership is a key ingredient for the successful transformation of any organization, and a favorable organizational culture helps to motivate the employees towards their work. Organizational culture and leadership style plays a crucial role in achieving the specified objectives of an organization. The harmony between culture and leader within organization undoubtedly affects relationships, processes, and employee performance. The present investigation aimed to study the Leadership style and Organisational Culture of private organizations and the relationship between the two. The study was carried out on a sample of 100 employees from five private organizations located in the cities of Gurgaon and Delhi in India. The data was collected by employing organisational culture profile and multifactor leadership questionnaire. The findings of the study indicate that the selected organizations had dominant transformation leadership style, whereas the organizational culture varied from one organization to another. However, technocratic culture was found to be prominent, followed by entrepreneurial organizational culture. A low positive correlation was found between leadership style and organizational culture. The transformational leaders have a positive and significant relationship with employee’s satisfaction, productivity, and organization’s culture. The leaders practicing transformational leadership style inspire their followers, are innovative and are aware of their needs as well as of their followers. Such leadership style has a positive impact both on employees and working culture. Employees of such organization are able to come up with innovative ideas and are efficient in handling situations and making effective decisions. However, low correlation is self indicative of the fact that a single leadership style or a single culture type alone cannot contribute solely towards the growth of an organization. There is a need to blend the culture types and leadership styles suiting the needs of the organization. Organisational culture represents the deeper values and beliefs of the employees and influences organizational performance; hence, the leader has a crucial role to play in creating and managing organizational culture in aligning to the requirements of the present era of competitiveness, globalization and technological advancement.

Keywords: leadership style, organizational culture, technocratic, transformational

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1321 The Effect of Leadership Styles on Continuous Improvement Teams

Authors: Paul W. Murray

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This research explores the relationship between leadership style and continuous improvement (CI) teams. CI teams have several features that are not always found in other types of teams, including multi-functional members, short time period for performance, positive and actionable results, and exposure to senior leadership. There is not only one best style of leadership for these teams. Instead, it is important to select the best leadership style for the situation. The leader must have the flexibility to change styles and the skill to use the chosen style effectively in order to ensure the team’s success.

Keywords: leadership style, lean manufacturing, teams, cross-functional

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1320 A Value-Based Approach to Recognize Authentic Transformational Leaders' Delivering Process of Corporate Social Responsibility Values

Authors: Yi-Jung Chen, Yunshi Liu

Abstract:

To explain how followers can perceive whether or not transformational leaders are authentic on the basis of their leadership behaviors based on value-based leadership theory, this study adopts the dual-focus model of transformational leadership and evaluates leaders’ corporate social responsibility values along with followers’ perceptions of leaders’ values. Using dyadic questionnaires, the final study sample consisted of 252 followers and 43 leaders at a private firm in Taiwan. Results show that followers perceive corporate social responsibility values of transformational leaders through their group-focused leadership behaviors because such group-focused leadership is in line with these values.

Keywords: authentic transformational leadership, corporate social responsibility value, value-based leadership theory, dual-focus leadership

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1319 Transformational Leadership in the United States to Negate Current Ethnocentrisms

Authors: Molly Meadows

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Following the presidency of Donald J. Trump, Americans have become hyperaware of ethnocentrisms that plague the culture. The president's egoist ethics encouraged a divide between what the citizens of the US identified as just or unjust. In the race for global supremacy and leading ideology, fears have arisen, exacerbated by the ethnocentricity of the country's leader, pointing to the possible harmful ethical standards of competing nations. Due to the concept of ethical absolutism, an international code of ethics would not be possible, and the changes needed to eliminate the stigma surrounding other cultures of thought would need to come from the governing body of the US. As the current leading global ideology, the US would need its government to embody a transformational leadership style in order to unite the motivations of the citizens and encourage intercultural tolerance.

Keywords: ethics, transformational leadership, American politics, egoism, cultural intelligence, ethical relativism

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1318 Impact of Leadership Styles on Work Motivation and Organizational Commitment among Faculty Members of Public Sector Universities in Punjab

Authors: Wajeeha Shahid

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The study was designed to assess the impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on work motivation and organizational commitment among faculty members of universities of Punjab. 713 faculty members were selected as sample through convenient random sampling technique. Three self-constructed questionnaires namely Leadership Styles Questionnaire (LSQ), Work Motivation Questionnaire (WMQ) and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCMQ) were used as research instruments. Major objectives of the study included assessing the effect and impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on work motivation and organizational commitment. Theoretical frame work of the study included Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, Individualized Consideration, Contingent Rewards and Management by Exception as independent variables and Extrinsic motivation, Intrinsic motivation, Affective commitment, Continuance commitment and Normative commitment as dependent variables. SPSS Version 21 was used to analyze and tabulate data. Cronbach's Alpha reliability, Pearson Correlation and Multiple regression analysis were applied as statistical treatments for the analysis. Results revealed that Idealized Influence correlated significantly with intrinsic motivation and Affective commitment whereas Contingent rewards had a strong positive correlation with extrinsic motivation and affective commitment. Multiple regression models revealed a variance of 85% for transformational leadership style over work motivation and organizational commitment. Whereas transactional style as a predictor manifested a variance of 79% for work motivation and 76% for organizational commitment. It was suggested that changing organizational cultures are demanding more from their leadership. All organizations need to consider transformational leadership style as an important part of their equipment in leveraging both soft and hard organizational targets.

Keywords: leadership styles, work motivation, organizational commitment, faculty member

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1317 The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Process Innovation through Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Sawsan J. Al-Husseini, Talib A. Dosa

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Transformational leadership has been identified as the most important factor affecting innovation and knowledge sharing; it leads to increased goal-directed behavior exhibited by followers and thus to enhanced performance and innovation for the organization. However, there is a lack of models linking transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, and process innovation within higher education (HE) institutions in general within developing countries, particularly in Iraq. This research aims to examine the mediating role of knowledge sharing in the transformational leadership and process innovation relationship. A quantitative approach was taken and 254 usable questionnaires were collected from public HE institutions in Iraq. Structural equation modelling with AMOS 22 was used to analyze the causal relationships among factors. The research found that knowledge sharing plays a pivotal role in the relationship between transformational leadership and process innovation, and that transformational leadership would be ideal in an educational context, promoting knowledge sharing activities and influencing process innovation in the public HE in Iraq. The research has developed some guidelines for researchers as well as leaders and provided evidence to support the use of TL to increase process innovation within HE environment in developing countries, particularly in Iraq.

Keywords: transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, process innovation, structural equation modelling, developing countries

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1316 The Effect of Transformational Leadership and Change Self-Efficacy on Employees' Commitment to Change

Authors: Denvi Giovanita, Wustari L. H. Mangundjaya

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The pace of globalization and technological development make changes inevitable to organizations. However, organizational change is not easy to implement and is prone to failure. One of the reasons of change failure is due to lack of employees’ commitment to change. There are many variables that can influence employees’ commitment to change. The influencing factors can be sourced from the organization or individuals themselves. This study focuses on the affective form of commitment to change. The objective of this study is to identify the effect of transformational leadership (organizational factor) and employees’ change self-efficacy (individual factor) on affective commitment to change. The respondents of this study were employees who work in organizations that are or have faced organizational change. The data were collected using Affective Commitment to Change, Change Self-Efficacy, and Transformational Leadership Inventory. The data were analyzed using regression. The result showed that both transformational leadership and change self-efficacy have a positive and significant impact on affective commitment to change. The implication of the study can be used for practitioners to enhance the success of organizational change, by developing transformational leadership on the leaders and change self-efficacy on the employees in order to create a high affective commitment to change.

Keywords: affective commitment to change, change self-efficacy, organizational change, transformational leadership

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1315 Influence of Transformation Leadership Style on Employee Engagement among Generation Y

Authors: Z. D. Mansor, C. P. Mun, B. S. Nurul Farhana, Wan Aisyah Nasuha Wan Mohamed Tarmizi

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The aim of this research is to determine the influence of transformation leadership style on employee engagement among Generation Y. The growing of Generation Y employees in Malaysia has raised concerns about how to engage and motivate this cohort. Transformation Leadership style is one of the key factors to increase employee engagement levels in the organization. This study has proven to be important for the researchers and the organization to properly understand the concept of employee engagement, transformation leadership style and their relationship. The samples in this study included 221 respondents of Generation Y who are currently working in Selangor and Klang Valley area in Malaysia. The data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The results show that there is a significant relationship between the dimension of intellectual stimulation, inspiration motivation and individual consideration on employee engagement. In contrast, the results have revealed that there is no significant relationship between idealized influences of a leader on employee engagement among Generation Y.

Keywords: employee engagement, transformational leadership styles, gen Y, survey

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1314 The Role of Meaningful Work in Transformational Leadership and Work Outcomes Relationship

Authors: Zainur Rahman

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Meaningful work is the topic that will be discussed in this article, especially in changing period. It has an important role because by reaching meaningful work, it will drive to be positive in the workplace. Therefore, task performance will be increased and cynicism about organizational change (CAOC) will be reduced. Moreover, it is influenced by situational factor, which is transformational leadership. In this conceptual paper, the author discusses how the construct of meaningful work influenced by transformational leadership that will have impact on the follower’ work outcomes in the organizational change. It is proposed that the construct of meaningful work are susceptible with situational variable. Transformational leaders who are respectful on the process of humanizing the followers affect task performance and reduce CAOC in organizational change.

Keywords: transformational leadership, meaningful work, task performance, CAOC

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1313 The Evaluation of Transformational Leadership Characteristics and Behaviors in Air Forces

Authors: Cuma Şimşek

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Nowadays our globalized world is in a very rapid and sophisticated change. In the information age, notion of ‘information’ has begun to spread faster than ever also in this age, changes and transformation has gained tremendous momentum with technology boom. This continuous change and transformation, increased the competition between existing organizations and corporations. Besides, the organizations which show resistance to change has been put out of action in this competitive environment. It is not possible to sustain the existence of organizations without adapting to change and transformation by isolating itself from developments. As a consequence of improved communication and dialog possibilities by means of increasing knowledge level, there has been made a change of scene in administrative mentality, style and activation, especially in 21th century. Leaders emerge as the most important factor in this process of perception and success. At the same time it is not enough to adapt the alteration with conventional leadership abilities and behaviors. In parallel with alteration, new types of leadership are coming up. The optimal leadership type for our era and a trending topic "Transformational Leadership" is in great demand now. In this research, current situation of the Air Forces which use high-technology weapons efficiently, operates in an environment full of threats and is analyzed. It is evaluated that in order to be ready for war continuously and adjusting itself to changing terms of warfare atmosphere , Air Forces need ‘transformational leaders’ who are innovative, foreseeing and having a vision so that they can develop new methods and strategies for complex problems. Because it is the Air Force which is responsible for being the deterrent force of its country.

Keywords: transformational, change, air force, leadership

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1312 Leadership Styles in the Hotel Sector and Its Effect on Employees’ Creativity and Organizational Commitment

Authors: Hatem Radwan Ibrahim Radwan

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Leadership is crucial for hotel survival and success. It enables hotels to develop and compete effectively. This research intends to explore the implementation of six leadership styles by frontline hotel managers in four star hotels in Cairo and assess its impact on employees’ creativity and organizational commitment. The leadership patterns considered in this study includes: democratic, autocratic, laissez-faire, transformational, transactional, and ethical leaderships. Questionnaire was used as a research method to gather data. A structured survey was established and distributed on employees in Cairo’s four star hotels. A total of 284 questionnaire forms were returned and usable for statistical analysis. The results of this study identified that transactional and autocratic leadership were the prevalent styles used in four star hotels in Cairo. Two leadership styles proved to have significant high correlation and impact on employees’ creativity and organizational commitment including: transformational and democratic leadership. Besides, laissez-faire leadership was found had a smaller effect on employees’ creativity and ethical leadership had a lesser influence on employees’ commitment. The autocratic leadership had strong negative correlation and significant impact on both dependent variables. This research concludes that frontline hotel managers should adopt transformational and/or democratic leadership style in managing their subordinates.

Keywords: creativity, hotels, leadership styles, organizational commitment

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1311 Leadership Education for Law Enforcement Mid-Level Managers: The Mediating Role of Effectiveness of Training on Transformational and Authentic Leadership Traits

Authors: Kevin Baxter, Ron Grove, James Pitney, John Harrison, Ozlem Gumus

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The purpose of this research is to determine the mediating effect of effectiveness of the training provided by Northwestern University’s School of Police Staff and Command (SPSC), on the ability of law enforcement mid-level managers to learn transformational and authentic leadership traits. This study will also evaluate the leadership styles, of course, graduates compared to non-attendees using a static group comparison design. The Louisiana State Police pay approximately $40,000 in salary, tuition, housing, and meals for each state police lieutenant attending the 10-week program of the SPSC. This school lists the development of transformational leaders as an increasing element. Additionally, the SPSC curriculum addresses all four components of authentic leadership - self-awareness, transparency, ethical/moral, and balanced processing. Upon return to law enforcement in roles of mid-level management, there are questions as to whether or not students revert to an “autocratic” leadership style. Insufficient evidence exists to support claims for the effectiveness of management training or leadership development. Though it is widely recognized that transformational styles are beneficial to law enforcement, there is little evidence that suggests police leadership styles are changing. Police organizations continue to hold to a more transactional style (i.e., most senior police leaders remain autocrats). Additionally, research in the application of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership related to police organizations is minimal. The population of the study is law enforcement mid-level managers from various states within the United States who completed leadership training presented by the SPSC. The sample will be composed of 66 active law enforcement mid-level managers (lieutenants and captains) who have graduated from SPSC and 65 active law enforcement mid-level managers (lieutenants and captains) who have not attended SPSC. Participants will answer demographics questions, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, and the Kirkpatrick Hybrid Evaluation Survey. Analysis from descriptive statistics, group comparison, one-way MANCOVA, and the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model survey will be used to determine training effectiveness in the four levels of reaction, learning, behavior, and results. Independent variables are SPSC graduates (two groups: upper and lower) and no-SPSC attendees, and dependent variables are transformational and authentic leadership scores. SPSC graduates are expected to have higher MLQ scores for transformational leadership traits and higher ALQ scores for authentic leadership traits than SPSC non-attendees. We also expect the graduates to rate the efficacy of SPSC leadership training as high. This study will validate (or invalidate) the benefits, costs, and resources required for leadership development from a nationally recognized police leadership program, and it will also help fill the gap in the literature that exists between law enforcement professional development and transformational and authentic leadership styles.

Keywords: training effectiveness, transformational leadership, authentic leadership, law enforcement mid-level manager

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1310 Inconsistent Safety Leadership as a Predictor of Employee Safety Behavior

Authors: Jane Mullen, Ann Rheaume, Kevin Kelloway

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Research on the effects of inconsistent safety leadership is limited, particularly regarding employee safety behavior in organizations. Inconsistent safety leadership occurs when organizational leaders display both effective and ineffective styles of safety leadership (i.e., transformational vs laissez-faire). In this study, we examine the effect of inconsistent safety leadership style on employee safety participation. Defined as the interaction of S.A.F.E.R (Speak, Act, Focus, Engage and Recognize) leadership style and passive leadership style, inconsistent safety leadership was found to be a significant predictor of safety participation in a sample of 307 nurses in Eastern Canada. Results of the moderated regression analysis also showed a significant main effect for S.A.F.E.R leadership, but not for passive leadership. To further explore the significant interaction, the simple slopes for S.A.F.E.R leadership at high and low levels (1 SD above and below the mean) of passive leadership were plotted. As predicted, the positive effects of S.A.F.E.R leadership behavior were attenuated when leaders were perceived by employees as also displaying high levels of passive leadership (i.e., inconsistent leadership styles). The research makes important theoretical and practical contributions to the occupational health and safety literature. The results demonstrate that leadership behavior, which is characteristic of the S.A.F.E.R model, is positively associated with employee safety participation. This finding is particularly important as researchers continue to explore what leaders can do to engage employees in work-related safety activities. The results also demonstrate how passive leadership may undermine the positive outcomes associated with safety leadership behavior in organizations. The data suggest that employee safety behavior is highest when leaders engage in safety effective leadership behavior on a consistent basis, rather than periodically.

Keywords: employee safety behavior, leadership, participation, safety training

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1309 Exploratory Study of Contemporary Models of Leadership

Authors: Gadah Alkeniah

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Leadership is acknowledged internationally as fundamental to school efficiency and school enhancement nevertheless there are various understandings of what leadership is and how it is realised in practice. There are a number of educational leadership models that are considered important. However, the present study uses a systematic review method to examine and compare five models of the most well-known contemporary models of leadership as well as introduces the dimension of each model. Our results reveal that recently the distributed leadership has grown in popularity within the field of education. The study concludes by suggesting future directions in leadership development and education research.

Keywords: distributed leadership, instructional leadership, leadership models, moral leadership, strategic leadership, transformational leadership

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1308 Transformational Justice for Employees' Job Satisfaction

Authors: Hassan Barau Singhry

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Purpose: Leadership or the absence of it is an important behaviour affecting employees’ job satisfaction. Although, there are many models of leadership, one that stands out in a period of change is the transformational behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of an organizational justice on the relationship between transformational leadership and employee job satisfaction. The study is based on the assumption that change begins with leaders and leaders should be fair and just. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey through structured questionnaire was employed to collect the data of this study. The population is selected the three tiers of government such as the local, state, and federal governments in Nigeria. The sampling method used in this research is stratified random sampling. 418 middle managers of public organizations respondents to the questionnaire. Multiple regression aided by structural equation modeling was employed to test 4 hypothesized relationships. Finding: The regression results support for the mediating role of organizational justice such as distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational justice in the link between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Originality/value: This study adds to the literature of human resource management by empirically validating and integrating transformational leadership behaviour with the four dimensions of organizational justice theory. The study is expected to be beneficial to the top and middle-level administrators as well as theory building and testing.

Keywords: distributive justice, job satisfaction, organizational justice, procedural justice, transformational leadership

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1307 Authentic and Transformational Leadership Model of the Directors of Tambon Health Promoting Hospitals Effecting to the Effectiveness of Southern Tambon Health Promoting Hospitals: The Interaction and Invariance Tests of Gender Factor

Authors: Suphap Sikkhaphan, Muwanga Zake, Johnnie Wycliffe Frank

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The purposes of the study included a) investigating the authentic and transformational leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals b) evaluating the relation between the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals and the effectiveness of their hospitals and c) assessing the invariance test of the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals. All 400 southern tambon health promoting hospital directors were enrolled into the study. Half were males (200), and another half were females (200). They were sampled via a stratified method. A research tool was a questionnaire paper containing 4 different sections. The Alpha-Cronbach’s Coefficient was equally to .98. Descriptive analysis was used for demographic data, and inferential statistics was used for the relation and invariance tests of authentic and transformational leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals. The findings revealed overall the authentic and transformation leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals has the relation to the effectiveness of the hospitals. Only the factor of “strong community support” was statistically significantly related to the authentic leadership (p < .05). However, there were four latent variables statistically related to the transformational leadership including, competency and work climate, management system, network cooperation, and strong community support (p = .01). Regarding the relation between the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals and the effectiveness of their hospitals, four casual variables of authentic leadership were not related to those latent variables. In contrast, all four latent variables of transformational leadership has statistically significantly related to the effectiveness of tambon health promoting hospitals (p = .001). Furthermore, only management system variable was significantly related to those casual variables of the authentic leadership (p < .05). Regarding the invariance test, the result found no statistical significance of the authentic and transformational leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals, especially between male and female genders (p > .05).

Keywords: authentic leadership, transformational leadership, tambon health promoting hospital

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1306 A Relationship between Transformational Leadership, Internal Audit and Risk Management Implementation in the Indonesian Public Sector

Authors: Tio Novita Efriani

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Public sector organizations work in a complex and risky environment. Since the beginning of 2000s, the public sector has paid attention to the need for an effective risk management. The Indonesian public sector has also concerned about this issue and in 2008 it enacted the Government Regulation that gives mandate for the implementation of risk management in government organizations. This paper investigates risk management implementation in the Indonesian public sector organizations and the role of transformational leadership and internal audit activities. Data was collected via survey. A total of 202 effective responses (30% response rate) from employees in 34 government ministries were statistically analyzed by using Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) and the software was SmartPLS 3.0. All the constructs were lower order, except for the risk management implementation construct, which was treated as a second-order construct. A two-stage approach was employed in the analysis of the higher order component. The findings revealed that transformational leadership positively influence risk management implementation. The findings also found that the core and legitimate roles of internal audit in risk management positively affect the implementation of risk management. The final finding showed that internal auditing mediates a relationship between transformational leadership and risk management implementation. These results suggest that the implementation of risk management in the Indonesian public sector was significantly supported by internal auditors and leadership. The findings confirm the importance of transformational leadership and internal audit in the public sector risk management strategies.

Keywords: Indonesian public sector, internal audit, risk management, transformational leadership

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1305 Transformational Leadership and Its Effect on Teacher Job Satisfaction

Authors: Shujie Liu

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between teachers’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors and their job satisfaction in China after controlling for teacher self-efficacy. Hierarchical regression analysis (HRA) technique was employed to examine factors’ contributions to teacher job satisfaction with a sample of Chinese high school teachers. The finding of this study provided evidence that teachers’ perceived transformational leadership behaviors accounted for a large percentage (44.9%) of the variance in Chinese teachers’ job satisfaction. Uniquely, school principals’ sense of power was a negative significant predictor of teacher job satisfaction, meaning that the more teachers perceived their principals’ sense of power, the lower of their job satisfaction. Furthermore, this study provided evidence that teacher self-efficacy significantly contributes to teacher job satisfaction. Specifically, teachers’ self-efficacy on student engagement was found to be a significant predictor of teacher job satisfaction. The conclusions were discussed in terms of Chinese cultures. The authors pointed out that how to make teachers involved in school policy making is a challenge for China and that more shared leadership is needed in Chinese schools.

Keywords: Chinese teachers, teacher job satisfaction, teacher self-efficacy, transformational leadership

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1304 The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Interpersonal Interaction on Mentoring Function

Authors: Ching-Yuan Huang, Rhay-Hung Weng, Yi-Ting Chen

Abstract:

Mentoring functions will improve new nurses' job performance, provide support with new nurses, and then reduce the turnover rate of them. This study explored the impact of transformational leadership and interpersonal interaction on mentoring functions. We employed a questionnaire survey to collect data and selected a sample of new nurses from three hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 306 valid surveys were obtained. Multiple regression model analysis was conducted to test the study hypothesis. Inspirational motivation, idealized influence, and individualized consideration had a positive influence on overall mentoring function, but intellectual stimulation had a positive influence on career development function only. Perceived similarity and interaction frequency also had positive influences on mentoring functions. When the shift overlap rate exceeded 80%, mentoring function experienced a negative result. The transformational leadership of mentors actually would improve the mentoring functions among new staff nurses. Perceived similarity and interaction frequency between mentees and mentors also had a positive influence on mentoring functions. Managers should enhance the transformational leadership of mentors by designing leadership training and motivation programs. Furthermore, nursing managers should promote the interaction between new staff nurses and their mentors, but the shift overlap rate should not exceed 80%.

Keywords: interpersonal interaction, mentoring function, mentor, new nurse, transformational leadership

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1303 The Impact of Leadership Style and Managers Decision Making on Organizational Resulting in Ship Manufacturing Company

Authors: ZeinolAbedin Rahmani, Marzieh Evazi Borazjani, Nooshin Salehi

Abstract:

Organizations are increasingly facing changes and developments scientific, technological, social, cultural changes among these organizations those ones are reckoned successful and effective that in addition to coordinating the development of modern society can forecast future changes and be able to accommodate these changes in order to create favorable developments to build a better future. But we can change that with the changes that occur in the organization of the program it will distinguish. Today's organizations need leaders that change and grow them have to survive. In fact, without transformational managers and leaders, it is certainly difficult to create changes in organizations. Both private and public organizations need to increase knowledge and awareness of the cause widespread changes in the structure, culture and practice for the viability and sustainability of life and growth and development. By now, different signs have determined different causes for a suitable function of employees. However, the important thing is that the commitment of the employees to their organization has always been very important. Since the decrease of organization commitment causes the high rate of absenteeism, turnover intentions, and even to reduce the impact of health staff. and these factors prevent organizations from achieving its goals. If organizations want to retain staff, the organization must find a way to be happy and continue their work with commitment, motivation, and willingness. So here is the need for strong leaders, analysts, creative and transformational upper ranks more than ever is felt. The aim of this study is to revise history, the leadership style of managers shipbuilding company by using the MLQ model.

Keywords: leadership style, managers, organizational, manufacturing company, sustainability of life

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1302 The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Individual Entrepreneurial Behavior and the Moderating Role of Hierarchy

Authors: Patrick Guggenberger

Abstract:

Extant literature has highlighted the importance of individual employees in the entrepreneurial process, as they are those that come up with novel ideas and promote their implementation throughout the organization. However, research on antecedents of individual entrepreneurial behavior (IEB) is very limited. The present study takes an initial step to investigate the interplay between transformational leader behaviors of direct supervisors and employees’ ability and willingness to act entrepreneurial and sheds light on the moderating role of an individual’s hierarchical level. A theoretically derived research model is empirically tested, drawing on survey data of 450 individuals working in medium- and large-sized corporations in two countries. Findings indicate that various transformational leader behaviors have a strong positive impact on IEB, while the ability of direct supervisors to influence their followers’ entrepreneurial behavior depends strongly on their own hierarchical level. The study reveals that transformational leadership has most impact at lower hierarchical levels, where employees’ motivation to act entrepreneurial is the lowest.

Keywords: corporate entrepreneurship, hierarchy, individual entrepreneurial behavior, transformational leadership

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1301 The Experience of Head Nurse: Phenomenological Research of Implementing Islamic Leadership Style in Syarif Hidayatullah Hospital

Authors: Jamaludin Tarkim, Yoga Teguh Guntara, Maftuhah

Abstract:

Islamic leadership style is model of leadership style applied by the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Islamic leadership style is applied, namely Syura (deliberation), ‘Adl bil qisth (justice, with equality), and Hurriyyah al-kalam (freedom of expression) and along with the values of Islam in the Islamic leadership style. This research aims to gain an overview of the experience of Head Nurse in the implementation of Islamic leadership style. This research is a qualitative one with descriptive phenomenology design through in-depth interviews. Participants were occupied as Head Nurse at the Hospital room Syarif Hidayatullah, set directly (purposive) with the principle of suitability (appropriateness) and sufficiency (adequacy). Retrieval of data and research conducted during the month of June 2014. Data collected in the form of recording in-depth interviews and analysis with Collazi method. This research identified four themes Syura (deliberation);‘Adl bil qisth (justice, with equality); Hurriyyah al-kalam (freedom of expression) and along with the values of Islam in the Islamic leadership style. The results of this research can provide a review of the Head Room experience in the application of Islamic leadership style at Syarif Hidayatullah Hospital already skilled leadership during the process, but the application is still not maximized. Required further research on in-depth exploration of how to get more comprehensive results from room Head Nurse experience in the application of Islamic leadership style, as well as subsequent researchers can choose a wider scope and complex so get more complete data.

Keywords: experience, Islamic leadership style, head nurse, nursing management

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