Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 635

Search results for: toxicity

65 Poly(Acrylamide-Co-Itaconic Acid) Nanocomposite Hydrogels and Its Use in the Removal of Lead in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Majid Farsadrouh Rashti, Alireza Mohammadinejad, Amir Shafiee Kisomi

Abstract:

Lead (Pb²⁺), a cation, is a prime constituent of the majority of the industrial effluents such as mining, smelting and coal combustion, Pb-based painting and Pb containing pipes in water supply systems, paper and pulp refineries, printing, paints and pigments, explosive manufacturing, storage batteries, alloy and steel industries. The maximum permissible limit of lead in the water used for drinking and domesticating purpose is 0.01 mg/L as advised by Bureau of Indian Standards, BIS. This becomes the acceptable 'safe' level of lead(II) ions in water beyond which, the water becomes unfit for human use and consumption, and is potential enough to lead health problems and epidemics leading to kidney failure, neuronal disorders, and reproductive infertility. Superabsorbent hydrogels are loosely crosslinked hydrophilic polymers that in contact with aqueous solution can easily water and swell to several times to their initial volume without dissolving in aqueous medium. Superabsorbents are kind of hydrogels capable to swell and absorb a large amount of water in their three-dimensional networks. While the shapes of hydrogels do not change extensively during swelling, because of tremendously swelling capacity of superabsorbent, their shape will broadly change.Because of their superb response to changing environmental conditions including temperature pH, and solvent composition, superabsorbents have been attracting in numerous industrial applications. For instance, water retention property and subsequently. Natural-based superabsorbent hydrogels have attracted much attention in medical pharmaceutical, baby diapers, agriculture, and horticulture because of their non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Novel superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide and itaconic acid in the presence of nanoclay (laponite), using methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulfate, former as a crosslinking agent and the second as an initiator. The superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites structure was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and TGA Spectroscopy adsorption of metal ions on poly (AAm-co-IA). The equilibrium swelling values of copolymer was determined by gravimetric method. During the adsorption of metal ions on polymer, residual metal ion concentration in the solution and the solution pH were measured. The effects of the clay content of the hydrogel on its metal ions uptake behavior were studied. The NC hydrogels may be considered as a good candidate for environmental applications to retain more water and to remove heavy metals.

Keywords: Adsorption, nanocomposite, Hydrogel, super adsorbent

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64 Impact of the Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) Extracts on the Survival and Histological Architecture of the Midgut Epithelial Tissue of Early Fourth Instars of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

Authors: Aarti Sharma, Pushplata Tripathi, Sarita Kumar

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Aedes aegypti L. is one of the most important insect vectors in the world transmitting several diseases of concern; dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Though since ages the control of dengue vector is primarily relied upon the use of synthetic chemical insecticides, the continued and indiscriminate use of insecticides for their control has received wide public apprehension because of multifarious problems including insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly and bio-degradable plant products. Bio-insecticides, despite being the focus of research nowadays, have not been investigated much regarding their physiological effects on the mosquitoes. Thus, the present studies were carried out to investigate the anti-mosquito potential of the leaf and stem hexane extracts of Achyranthes aspera against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti L and their effects on the histological architecture of their midgut. The larvicidal bioassays conducted with the A. aspera leaf hexane extracts revealed the respective LC30, LC50 and LC90 values of 66.545 ppm, 82.555 ppm, 139.817 ppm while the assays with stem hexane extracts resulted in respective values of 54.982 ppm, 68.133 ppm, 115.075 ppm. The studies clearly indicate the efficacy of extracts as larvicidal agents against Ae. aegypti, the stem extracts being found more effective than the leaf extracts. When the larvae assayed with extracts were investigated for the modifications in the histo-architecture of the midgut, the studies showed significant damage, shrinkage, distortion and vacuolization of gut tissues and peritrophic membrane causing disintegration of epithelial cells and cytoplasmic organelles; extent of toxicity and damage varied depending upon the concentration and exposure time period. These changes revealed appreciable stomach poison potential of A. aspera extracts against Ae. aegypti larvae, which may have also caused adverse impact on the growth and development of larvae. These effects were also found to be more pronounced with the stem extract than the leaf extract. Our findings may prove significant suggesting the use of A. aspera extract as a bio-insecticide against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. Further studies are needed to identify the bioactive component in the extracts and to ascertain the use of component in the fields as anti-mosquito control agent.

Keywords: aedes aegypti, larvicidal, Achyranthes aspera, histological architecture, midgut, stomach poison

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63 Synthesis, Molecular Modeling and Study of 2-Substituted-4-(Benzo[D][1,3]Dioxol-5-Yl)-6-Phenylpyridazin-3(2H)-One Derivatives as Potential Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Authors: Jyoti Singh, Ranju Bansal

Abstract:

Fighting pain and inflammation is a common problem faced by physicians while dealing with a wide variety of diseases. Since ancient time nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) and opioids have been the cornerstone of treatment therapy, however, the usefulness of both these classes is limited due to severe side effects. NSAIDs, which are mainly used to treat mild to moderate inflammatory pain, induce gastric irritation and nephrotoxicity whereas opioids show an array of adverse reactions such as respiratory depression, sedation, and constipation. Moreover, repeated administration of these drugs induces tolerance to the analgesic effects and physical dependence. Further discovery of selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) suggested safety without any ulcerogenic side effects; however, long-term use of these drugs resulted in kidney and hepatic toxicity along with an increased risk of secondary cardiovascular effects. The basic approaches towards inflammation and pain treatment are constantly changing, and researchers are continuously trying to develop safer and effective anti-inflammatory drug candidates for the treatment of different inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. Synthetic 3(2H)-pyridazinones constitute an important scaffold for drug discovery. Structure-activity relationship studies on pyridazinones have shown that attachment of a lactam at N-2 of the pyridazinone ring through a methylene spacer results in significantly increased anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the derivatives. Further introduction of the heterocyclic ring at lactam nitrogen results in improvement of biological activities. Keeping in mind these SAR studies, a new series of compounds were synthesized as shown in scheme 1 and investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-platelet activities and docking studies. The structures of newly synthesized compounds have been established by various spectroscopic techniques. All the synthesized pyridazinone derivatives exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Homoveratryl substituted derivative was found to possess highest anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity displaying 73.60 % inhibition of edema at 40 mg/kg with no ulcerogenic activity when compared to standard drugs indomethacin. Moreover, 2-substituted-4-benzo[d][1,3]dioxole-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H)-ones derivatives did not produce significant changes in bleeding time and emerged as safe agents. Molecular docking studies also illustrated good binding interactions at the active site of the cyclooxygenase-2 (hCox-2) enzyme.

Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory, analgesic, pyridazin-3(2H)-one, selective COX-2 inhibitors

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62 Bioremediation of Phenol in Wastewater Using Polymer-Supported Bacteria

Authors: Areej K. Al-Jwaid, Dmitiry Berllio, Andrew Cundy, Irina Savina, Jonathan L. Caplin

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Phenol is a toxic compound that is widely distributed in the environment including the atmosphere, water and soil, due to the release of effluents from the petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries, coking plants and oil refineries. Moreover, a range of daily products, using phenol as a raw material, may find their way into the environment without prior treatment. The toxicity of phenol effects both human and environment health, and various physio-chemical methods to remediate phenol contamination have been used. While these techniques are effective, their complexity and high cost had led to search for alternative strategies to reduce and eliminate high concentrations of phenolic compounds in the environment. Biological treatments are preferable because they are environmentally friendly and cheaper than physico-chemical approaches. Some microorganisms such as Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococus sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. have shown a high ability to degrade phenolic compounds to provide a sole source of energy. Immobilisation process utilising various materials have been used to protect and enhance the viability of cells, and to provide structural support for the bacterial cells. The aim of this study is to develop a new approach to the bioremediation of phenol based on an immobilisation strategy that can be used in wastewater. In this study, two bacterial species known to be phenol degrading bacteria (Pseudomonas mendocina and Rhodococus koreensis) were purchased from National Collection of Industrial, Food and Marine Bacteria (NCIMB). The two species and mixture of them were immobilised to produce macro porous crosslinked cell cryogels samples by using four types of cross-linker polymer solutions in a cryogelation process. The samples were used in a batch culture to degrade phenol at an initial concentration of 50mg/L at pH 7.5±0.3 and a temperature of 30°C. The four types of polymer solution - i. glutaraldehyde (GA), ii. Polyvinyl alcohol with glutaraldehyde (PVA+GA), iii. Polyvinyl alcohol–aldehyde (PVA-al) and iv. Polyetheleneimine–aldehyde (PEI-al), were used at different concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5% to crosslink the cells. The results of SEM and rheology analysis indicated that cell-cryogel samples crosslinked with the four cross-linker polymers formed monolithic macro porous cryogels. The samples were evaluated for their ability to degrade phenol. Macro porous cell–cryogels crosslinked with GA and PVA+GA showed an ability to degrade phenol for only one week, while the other samples crosslinked with a combination of PVA-al + PEI-al at two different concentrations have shown higher stability and viability to reuse to degrade phenol at concentration (50 mg/L) for five weeks. The initial results of using crosslinked cell cryogel samples to degrade phenol indicate that is a promising tool for bioremediation strategies especially to eliminate and remove the high concentration of phenol in wastewater.

Keywords: Bioremediation, phenol degradation, crosslinked cells, immobilisation

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61 Carboxyfullerene-Modified Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Singlet Oxygen and Hydroxyl Radicals Scavenging Activity

Authors: Kai-Cheng Yang, Yen-Ling Chen, Er-Chieh Cho, Kuen-Chan Lee

Abstract:

Titanium dioxide nanomaterials offer superior protection for human skin against the full spectrum of ultraviolet light. However, some literature reviews indicated that it might be associated with adverse effects such as cytotoxicity or reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to their nanoscale. The surface of fullerene is covered with π electrons constituting aromatic structures, which can effectively scavenge large amount of radicals. Unfortunately, fullerenes are poor solubility in water, severe aggregation, and toxicity in biological applications when dispersed in solvent have imposed the limitations to the use of fullerenes. Carboxyfullerene acts as the scavenger of radicals for several years. Some reports indicate that carboxyfullerene not only decrease the concentration of free radicals in ambience but also prevent cells from reducing the number or apoptosis under UV irradiation. The aim of this study is to decorate fullerene –C70-carboxylic acid (C70-COOH) on the surface of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (P25) for the purpose of scavenging ROS during the irradiation. The modified material is prepared through the esterification of C70-COOH with P25 (P25/C70-COOH). The binding edge and structure are studied by using Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The diameter of P25 is about 30 nm and C70-COOH is found to be conjugated on the edge of P25 in aggregation morphology with the size of ca. 100 nm. In the next step, the FTIR was used to confirm the binding structure between P25 and C70-COOH. There are two new peaks are shown at 1427 and 1720 cm-1 for P25/C70-COOH, resulting from the C–C stretch and C=O stretch formed during esterification with dilute sulfuric acid. The IR results further confirm the chemically bonded interaction between C70-COOH and P25. In order to provide the evidence of scavenging radical ability of P25/C70-COOH, we chose pyridoxine (Vit.B6) and terephthalic acid (TA) to react with singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals. We utilized these chemicals to observe the radicals scavenging statement via detecting the intensity of ultraviolet adsorption or fluorescence emission. The UV spectra are measured by using different concentration of C70-COOH modified P25 with 1mM pyridoxine under UV irradiation for various duration times. The results revealed that the concentration of pyridoxine was increased when cooperating with P25/C70-COOH after three hours as compared with control (only P25). It indicates fewer radicals could be reacted with pyridoxine because of the absorption via P25/C70-COOH. The fluorescence spectra are observed by measuring P25/C70-COOH with 1mM terephthalic acid under UV irradiation for various duration times. The fluorescence intensity of TAOH was decreased in ten minutes when cooperating with P25/C70-COOH. Here, it was found that the fluorescence intensity was increased after thirty minutes, which could be attributed to the saturation of C70-COOH in the absorption of radicals. However, the results showed that the modified P25/C70-COOH could reduce the radicals in the environment. Therefore, we expect that P25/C70-COOH is a potential materials in using for antioxidant.

Keywords: Fullerene, titanium dioxide, antioxidant, radical scavenging activity

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60 Chemical Analysis of Particulate Matter (PM₂.₅) and Volatile Organic Compound Contaminants

Authors: S. Ebadzadsahraei, H. Kazemian

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The main objective of this research was to measure particulate matter (PM₂.₅) and Volatile Organic Compound (VOCs) as two classes of air pollutants, at Prince George (PG) neighborhood in warm and cold seasons. To fulfill this objective, analytical protocols were developed for accurate sampling and measurement of the targeted air pollutants. PM₂.₅ samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (i.e., toxic trace elements) in order to assess their potential source of emission. The City of Prince George, widely known as the capital of northern British Columbia (BC), Canada, has been dealing with air pollution challenges for a long time. The city has several local industries including pulp mills, a refinery, and a couple of asphalt plants that are the primary contributors of industrial VOCs. In this research project, which is the first study of this kind in this region it measures physical and chemical properties of particulate air pollutants (PM₂.₅) at the city neighborhood. Furthermore, this study quantifies the percentage of VOCs at the city air samples. One of the outcomes of this project is updated data about PM₂.₅ and VOCs inventory in the selected neighborhoods. For examining PM₂.₅ chemical composition, an elemental analysis methodology was developed to measure major trace elements including but not limited to mercury and lead. The toxicity of inhaled particulates depends on both their physical and chemical properties; thus, an understanding of aerosol properties is essential for the evaluation of such hazards, and the treatment of such respiratory and other related diseases. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filters were selected for this research as a suitable filter for PM₂.₅ air sampling. Chemical analyses were conducted using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for elemental analysis. VOCs measurement of the air samples was performed using a Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) allowing for quantitative measurement of VOC molecules in sub-ppb levels. In this study, sorbent tube (Anasorb CSC, Coconut Charcoal), 6 x 70-mm size, 2 sections, 50/100 mg sorbent, 20/40 mesh was used for VOCs air sampling followed by using solvent extraction and solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) techniques to prepare samples for measuring by a GC-MS/FID instrument. Air sampling for both PM₂.₅ and VOC were conducted in summer and winter seasons for comparison. Average concentrations of PM₂.₅ are very different between wildfire and daily samples. At wildfire time average of concentration is 83.0 μg/m³ and daily samples are 23.7 μg/m³. Also, higher concentrations of iron, nickel and manganese found at all samples and mercury element is found in some samples. It is able to stay too high doses negative effects.

Keywords: Chemical analysis, Air Pollutants, VOCs, volatile organic compound, particulate matter (PM₂.₅)

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59 Recirculation Type Photocatalytic Reactor for Degradation of Monocrotophos Using TiO₂ and W-TiO₂ Coated Immobilized Clay Beads

Authors: Abhishek Sraw, Amit Sobti, Yamini Pandey, R. K. Wanchoo, Amrit Pal Toor

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Monocrotophos (MCP) is a widely used pesticide in India, which belong to an extremely toxic organophosphorus family, is persistent in nature and its toxicity is widely reported in all environmental segments in the country. Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) is a promising solution to the problem of water pollution. TiO₂ is being widely used as a photocatalyst because of its many advantages, but it has a large band gap, due to which it is modified using metal and nonmetal dopant to make it active under sunlight and visible light. The use of nanosized powdered catalysts makes the recovery process extremely complicated. Hence the aim is to use low cost, easily available, eco-friendly clay material in form of bead as the support for the immobilization of catalyst, to solve the problem of post-separation of suspended catalyst from treated water. A recirculation type photocatalytic reactor (RTPR), using ultraviolet light emitting source (blue black lamp) was designed which work effectively for both suspended catalysts and catalyst coated clay beads. The bare, TiO₂ and W-TiO₂ coated clay beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and N₂ adsorption–desorption measurements techniques (BET) for their structural, textural and electronic properties. The study involved variation of different parameters like light conditions, recirculation rate, light intensity and initial MCP concentration under UV and sunlight for the degradation of MCP. The degradation and mineralization studies of the insecticide solution were performed using UV-Visible spectrophotometer, and COD vario-photometer and GC-MS analysis respectively. The main focus of the work lies in checking the recyclability of the immobilized TiO₂ over clay beads in the developed RTPR up to 30 continuous cycles without reactivation of catalyst. The results demonstrated the economic feasibility of the utilization of developed RTPR for the efficient purification of pesticide polluted water. The prepared TiO₂ clay beads delivered 75.78% degradation of MCP under UV light with negligible catalyst loss. Application of W-TiO₂ coated clay beads filled RTPR for the degradation of MCP under sunlight, however, shows 32% higher degradation of MCP than the same system based on undoped TiO₂. The COD measurements of TiO₂ coated beads led to 73.75% COD reduction while W-TiO₂ resulted in 87.89% COD reduction. The GC-MS analysis confirms the efficient breakdown of complex MCP molecules into simpler hydrocarbons. This supports the promising application of clay beads as a support for the photocatalyst and proves its eco-friendly nature, excellent recyclability, catalyst holding capacity, and economic viability.

Keywords: TiO2, immobilized clay beads, monocrotophos, recirculation type photocatalytic reactor

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58 Cytotoxic Effects of Ag/TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Unicellular Organism Paramecium tetraurelia

Authors: Juan Bernal-Martinez, Zoe Quinones-Jurado, Miguel Waldo-Mendoza, Elias Perez

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Introduction and Objective: Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) have been characterized as effective antibacterial compounds against E. aureous, E. coli, Salmonella and others. Because these nanoparticles have been used in plastic-food containers, there is a concern about the toxicity of Ag-TiO2 NP for higher organisms from protozoan, invertebrates, and mammals. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of Ag-TiO2 NP on the survival and swimming behavior of the unicellular organism Paramecium tetraurelia. Material and Methods: Preparation of metallic silver on TiO2 surface was based on chemical reduction route of AgNO3. Aqueous suspension of TiO2 nanoparticles was preparing by adding 5 g of TiO2 to 250 ml of deionized water and followed by sonication for 10 min. The required amount of AgNO3 solutions was added to TiO2 suspension, maintaining heating and stirring. Silver concentration was 0.5, 1.5, 5.0, 25, 35 and 45 % w/w versus TiO2. Paramecium tetraurelia (Carolina Biological, Cat. # 131560) was used as a biological preparation. It was cultured in artificial culture media made as follows: Stigmasterol 5 mg/ml of ethanol, Caseaminoacids 0.3 gr/lt.; KCl 4mM; CaCl2 1mM; MgCl2 100uM and MOPS 1mM, pH 7.3. This media was inoculated with Enterobacter-sp. Paramecium was concentrated after 24 hours of incubation by centrifugation. The pellet of cells was resuspended in 4.1.1 solution prepared as follows (in mM): KCl, 4 mM; CaCl2, 1mM and Trizma, 1mM; pH 7.3. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed to evaluate the appropriate dispersion and topographic distribution AgNPs deposited on TiO2. The experimental solutions were prepared as follows: 50 mg of Polyvinyhlpirolidone were added to 5 ml of 4.1.1. solution. Then, 50 mg of powder 25-Ag-TiO2 was added, mixing for 10 min and sonicated for 60 min. Survival of Paramecium and possible toxic effects after 25-Ag-TiO2 treatment was observed through an inverted microscope. The Paramecium swimming behavior and possible dead cells were recorded for periods of approximately 20-50 seconds by using a digital USB camera adapted to the microscope. Results and Discussion: TEM micrographs demonstrated the topographic distribution of AgNPs deposited on TiO2. 25Ag-TiO2 NP was efficiently dissolved and dispersed in 4.1.1 solution at concentrations from 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/ml. When Paramecium were treated with 25Ag-TiO2 NP at 100 ug/ml, it was observed that cells started swimming backwards. This backward swimming behavior is the typical avoiding reaction of the ciliate in response to a noxious stimulus. After 10 min of incubation, it was observed that Paramecium stopped swimming backwards and exploited. We can argue that this toxic effect of 25Ag-TiO2 NP is probably due to the calcium influx and calcium accumulation during the long-lasting swimming backwards. Conclusions: Here we have demonstrated that 25Ag-TiO2 NP has a specific toxic effect on an organism higher than bacteria such as the protozoan Paremecium. Probably these toxic phenomena could be expected to be observed in a higher organism such as invertebrates and mammals.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, Ag-TiO2, calcium permeability, paramecium

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57 The Photovoltaic Panel at End of Life: Experimental Study of Metals Release

Authors: M. Tammaro, S. Manzo, J. Rimauro, A. Salluzzo, S. Schiavo

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The solar photovoltaic (PV) modules are considered to have a negligible environmental impact compared to the fossil energy. Therefore also the waste management and the corresponding potential environmental hazard needs to be considered. The case of the photovoltaic panel is unique because the time lag from the manufacturing to the decommissioning as waste usually takes 25-30 years. Then the environmental hazard associated with end life of PV panels has been largely related to their metal contents. The principal concern regards the presence of heavy metals as Cd in thin film (TF) modules or Pb and Cr in crystalline silicon (c-Si) panels. At the end of life of PV panels, these dangerous substances could be released in the environment, if special requirements for their disposal are not adopted. Nevertheless, in literature, only a few experimental study about metal emissions from silicon crystalline/thin film panels and the corresponding environmental effect are present. As part of a study funded by the Italian national consortium for the waste collection and recycling (COBAT), the present work was aimed to analyze experimentally the potential release into the environment of hazardous elements, particularly metals, from PV waste. In this paper, for the first time, eighteen releasable metals a large number of photovoltaic panels, by c-Si and TF, manufactured in the last 30 years, together with the environmental effects by a battery of ecotoxicological tests, were investigated. Leaching tests are conducted on the crushed samples of PV module. The test is conducted according to Italian and European Standard procedure for hazard assessment of the granular waste and of the sludge. The sample material is shaken for 24 hours in HDPE bottles with an overhead mixer Rotax 6.8 VELP at indoor temperature and using pure water (18 MΩ resistivity) as leaching solution. The liquid-to-solid ratio was 10 (L/S=10, i.e. 10 liters of water per kg of solid). The ecotoxicological tests were performed in the subsequent 24 hours. A battery of toxicity test with bacteria (Vibrio fisheri), algae (Pseudochirneriella subcapitata) and crustacea (Daphnia magna) was carried out on PV panel leachates obtained as previously described and immediately stored in dark and at 4°C until testing (in the next 24 hours). For understand the actual pollution load, a comparison with the current European and Italian benchmark limits was performed. The trend of leachable metal amount from panels in relation to manufacturing years was then highlighted in order to assess the environmental sustainability of PV technology over time. The experimental results were very heterogeneous and show that the photovoltaic panels could represent an environmental hazard. The experimental results showed that the amounts of some hazardous metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni), for c-Si and TF, exceed the law limits and they are a clear indication of the potential environmental risk of photovoltaic panels "as a waste" without a proper management.

Keywords: Environment, Ecotoxicity, photovoltaic panel, metals emission

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56 Antimicrobial Value of Olax subscorpioidea and Bridelia ferruginea on Micro-Organism Isolates of Dental Infection

Authors: I. C. Orabueze, A. A. Amudalat, S. A. Adesegun, A. A. Usman

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Dental and associated oral diseases are increasingly affecting a considerable portion of the population and are considered some of the major causes of tooth loss, discomfort, mouth odor and loss of confidence. This study focused on the ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in oral therapy and evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of two selected plants from the survey for their efficacy against dental microorganisms. The ethnobotanical survey was carried out in six herbal markets in Lagos State, Nigeria by oral interviewing and information obtained from an old family manually complied herbal medication book. Methanolic extracts of Olax subscorpioidea (stem bark) and Bridelia ferruginea (stem bark) were assayed for their antimicrobial activities against clinical oral isolates (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In vitro microbial technique (agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay) were employed for the assay. Chlorhexidine gluconate was used as the reference drug for comparison with the extract results. And the preliminary phytochemical screening of the constituents of the plants were done. The ethnobotanical survey produced plants (28) of diverse family. Different parts of plants (seed, fruit, leaf, root, bark) were mentioned but 60% mentioned were either the stem or the bark. O. subscorpioidea showed considerable antifungal activity with zone of inhibition ranging from 2.650 – 2.000 cm against Aspergillus fumigatus but no such encouraging inhibitory activity was observed in the other assayed organisms. B. ferruginea showed antibacterial sensitivity against Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone of inhibitions ranging from 3.400 - 2.500, 2.250 - 1.600, 2.700 - 1.950, 2.225 – 1.525 cm respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of O. subscorpioidea against Aspergillus fumigatus was 51.2 mg ml-1 while that of B. ferruginea against Streptococcus spp was 0.1mg ml-1 and for Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 25.6 mg ml-1. A phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycoside, tannins, phenols and terpenoids in both plants, with steroids only in B. ferruginea. No toxicity was observed among mice given the two methanolic extracts (1000 mg Kg-1) after 21 days. The barks of both plants exhibited antimicrobial properties against periodontal diseases causing organisms assayed, thus up-holding their folkloric use in oral disorder management. Further research could be done viewing these extracts as combination therapy, checking for possible synergistic value in toothpaste and oral rinse formulations for reducing oral bacterial flora and fungi load.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, ethnobotanical survey, methanolic extract, Bridelia ferruginea, dental disinfection, Olax subscorpioidea

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55 Utilization of Fly Ash Amended Sewage Sludge as Sustainable Building Material

Authors: Manish Kumar, KALING TAKI, ROHIT GAHLOT

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Disposal of Sewage Sludge (SS) is a big issue especially in developing nation like India, where there is no control in the dynamicity of SS produced. The present research work demonstrates the potential application of SS amended with varying percentage (0-100%) of Fly Ash (FA) for brick manufacturing as an alternative of SS management. SS samples were collected from Jaspur sewage treatment plant (Ahmedabad, India) and subjected to different preconditioning treatments: (i) atmospheric drying (ii) pulverization (iii) heat treatment in oven (110°C, moisture removal) and muffle furnace (440°C, organic content removal). Geotechnical parameters of the SS were obtained as liquid limit (52%), plastic limit (24%), shrinkage limit (10%), plasticity index (28%), differential free swell index (DFSI, 47%), silt (68%), clay (27%), organic content (5%), optimum moisture content (OMC, 20%), maximum dry density (MDD, 1.55gm/cc), specific gravity (2.66), swell pressure (57kPa) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS, 207kPa). For FA liquid limit, plastic limit and specific gravity was 44%, 0% and 2.2 respectively. Initially, for brick casting pulverized SS sample was heat treated in a muffle furnace around 440℃ (5 hours) for removal of organic matter. Later, mixing of SS, FA and water by weight ratio was done at OMC. 7*7*7 cm3 sample mold was used for casting bricks at MDD. Brick samples were then first dried in room temperature for 24 hours, then in oven at 100℃ (24 hours) and finally firing in muffle furnace for 1000℃ (10 hours). The fired brick samples were then cured for 3 days according to Indian Standards (IS) common burnt clay building bricks- specification (5th revision). The Compressive strength of brick samples (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 ,60, 70, 80, 90, 100%) of FA were 0.45, 0.76, 1.89, 1.83, 4.02, 3.74, 3.42, 3.19, 2.87, 0.78 and 4.95MPa when evaluated through compressive testing machine (CTM) for a stress rate of 14MPa/min. The highest strength was obtained at 40% FA mixture i.e. 4.02MPa which is much higher than the pure SS brick sample. According to IS 1077: 1992 this combination gives strength more than 3.5 MPa and can be utilized as common building bricks. The loss in weight after firing was much higher than the oven treatment, this might be due to degradation temperature higher than 100℃. The thermal conductivity of the fired brick was obtained as 0.44Wm-1K-1, indicating better insulation properties than other reported studies. TCLP (Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) test of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe and Ni in raw SS was found as 69, 70, 21, 39502 and 47 mg/kg. The study positively concludes that SS and FA at optimum ratio can be utilized as common building bricks such as partitioning wall and other small strength requirement works. The uniqueness of the work is it emphasizes on utilization of FA for stabilizing SS as construction material as a replacement of natural clay as reported in existing studies.

Keywords: fly ash, Sewage Sludge, compressive strength, curing

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54 Direct Current Electric Field Stimulation against PC12 Cells in 3D Bio-Reactor to Enhance Axonal Extension

Authors: S. Tanaka, E. Nakamachi, K. Yamamoto, Y. Morita

Abstract:

In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) direct current electric field (DCEF) stimulation bio-reactor for axonal outgrowth enhancement to generate the neural network of the central nervous system (CNS). By using our newly developed 3D DCEF stimulation bio-reactor, we cultured the rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and investigated the effects on the axonal extension enhancement and network generation. Firstly, we designed and fabricated a 3D bio-reactor, which can load DCEF stimulation on PC12 cells embedded in the collagen gel as extracellular environment. The connection between the electrolyte and the medium using salt bridges for DCEF stimulation was introduced to avoid the cell death by the toxicity of metal ion. The distance between the salt bridges was adopted as the design variable to optimize a structure for uniform DCEF stimulation, where the finite element (FE) analyses results were used. Uniform DCEF strength and electric flux vector direction in the PC12 cells embedded in collagen gel were examined through measurements of the fabricated 3D bio-reactor chamber. Measurement results of DCEF strength in the bio-reactor showed a good agreement with FE results. In addition, the perfusion system was attached to maintain pH 7.2 ~ 7.6 of the medium because pH change was caused by DCEF stimulation loading. Secondly, we disseminated PC12 cells in collagen gel and carried out 3D culture. Finally, we measured the morphology of PC12 cell bodies and neurites by the multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscope (MPM). The effectiveness of DCEF stimulation to enhance the axonal outgrowth and the neural network generation was investigated. We confirmed that both an increase of mean axonal length and axogenesis rate of PC12, which have been exposed 5 mV/mm for 6 hours a day for 4 days in the bioreactor. We found following conclusions in our study. 1) Design and fabrication of DCEF stimulation bio-reactor capable of 3D culture nerve cell were completed. A uniform electric field strength of average value of 17 mV/mm within the 1.2% error range was confirmed by using FE analyses, after the structure determination through the optimization process. In addition, we attached a perfusion system capable of suppressing the pH change of the culture solution due to DCEF stimulation loading. 2) Evaluation of DCEF stimulation effects on PC12 cell activity was executed. The 3D culture of PC 12 was carried out adopting the embedding culture method using collagen gel as a scaffold for four days under the condition of 5.0 mV/mm and 10mV/mm. There was a significant effect on the enhancement of axonal extension, as 11.3% increase in an average length, and the increase of axogenesis rate. On the other hand, no effects on the orientation of axon against the DCEF flux direction was observed. Further, the network generation was enhanced to connect longer distance between the target neighbor cells by DCEF stimulation.

Keywords: axonal extension, PC12, DCEF stimulation, neural network generation

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53 Cut-Off of CMV Cobas® Taqman® (CAP/CTM Roche®) for Introduction of Ganciclovir Pre-Emptive Therapy in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

Authors: B. B. S. Pereira, M. O. Souza, L. P. Zanetti, L. C. S. Oliveira, J. R. P. Moreno, M. P. Souza, V. R. Colturato, C. M. Machado

Abstract:

Background: The introduction of prophylactic or preemptive therapies has effectively decreased the CMV mortality rates after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CMV antigenemia (pp65) or quantitative PCR are methods currently approved for CMV surveillance in pre-emptive strategies. Commercial assays are preferred as cut-off levels defined by in-house assays may vary among different protocols and in general show low reproducibility. Moreover, comparison of published data among different centers is only possible if international standards of quantification are included in the assays. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the first international standard for CMV detection. The real time PCR COBAS Ampliprep/ CobasTaqMan (CAP/CTM) (Roche®) was developed using the WHO standard for CMV quantification. However, the cut-off for the introduction of antiviral has not been determined yet. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to determine: 1) the sensitivity and specificity of the new CMV CAP/CTM test in comparison with pp65 antigenemia to detect episodes of CMV infection/reactivation, and 2) the cut-off of viral load for introduction of ganciclovir (GCV). Pp65 antigenemia was performed and the corresponding plasma samples were stored at -20°C for further CMV detection by CAP/CTM. Comparison of tests was performed by kappa index. The appearance of positive antigenemia was considered the state variable to determine the cut-off of CMV viral load by ROC curve. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 19 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA.). Results: Thirty-eight patients were included and followed from August 2014 through May 2015. The antigenemia test detected 53 episodes of CMV infection in 34 patients (89.5%), while CAP/CTM detected 37 episodes in 33 patients (86.8%). AG and PCR results were compared in 431 samples and Kappa index was 30.9%. The median time for first AG detection was 42 (28-140) days, while CAP/CTM detected at a median of 7 days earlier (34 days, ranging from 7 to 110 days). The optimum cut-off value of CMV DNA was 34.25 IU/mL to detect positive antigenemia with 88.2% of sensibility, 100% of specificity and AUC of 0.91. This cut-off value is below the limit of detection and quantification of the equipment which is 56 IU/mL. According to CMV recurrence definition, 16 episodes of CMV recurrence were detected by antigenemia (47.1%) and 4 (12.1%) by CAP/CTM. The duration of viremia as detected by antigenemia was shorter (60.5% of the episodes lasted ≤ 7 days) in comparison to CAP/CTM (57.9% of the episodes lasting 15 days or more). This data suggests that the use of antigenemia to define the duration of GCV therapy might prompt early interruption of antiviral, which may favor CMV reactivation. The CAP/CTM PCR could possibly provide a safer information concerning the duration of GCV therapy. As prolonged treatment may increase the risk of toxicity, this hypothesis should be confirmed in prospective trials. Conclusions: Even though CAP/CTM by ROCHE showed great qualitative correlation with the antigenemia technique, the fully automated CAP/CTM did not demonstrate increased sensitivity. The cut-off value below the limit of detection and quantification may result in delayed introduction of pre-emptive therapy.

Keywords: cytomegalovirus, antigenemia, CMV COBAS/TAQMAN, antiviral cut-off

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52 Composition and Catalytic Behaviour of Biogenic Iron Containing Materials Obtained by Leptothrix Bacteria Cultivation in Different Growth Media

Authors: Z. Cherkezova-Zheleva, M. Shopska, D. Paneva, G. Kadinov, I. Mitov

Abstract:

The iron containing materials are used as catalysts in different processes. The chemical methods of their synthesis use toxic and expensive chemicals; sophisticated devices; energy consumption processes that raise their cost. Besides, dangerous waste products are formed. At present time such syntheses are out of date and wasteless technologies are indispensable. The bioinspired technologies are consistent with the ecological requirements. Different microorganisms participate in the biomineralization of the iron and some phytochemicals are involved, too. The methods for biogenic production of iron containing materials are clean, simple, nontoxic, realized at ambient temperature and pressure, cheaper. The biogenic iron materials embrace different iron compounds. Due to their origin these substances are nanosized, amorphous or poorly crystalline, porous and have number of useful properties like SPM, high magnetism, low toxicity, biocompatibility, absorption of microwaves, high surface area/volume ratio, active sites on the surface with unusual coordination that distinguish them from the bulk materials. The biogenic iron materials are applied in the heterogeneous catalysis in different roles - precursor, active component, support, immobilizer. The application of biogenic iron oxide materials gives rise to increased catalytic activity in comparison with those of abiotic origin. In our study we investigated the catalytic behavior of biomasses obtained by cultivation of Leptothrix bacteria in three nutrition media – Adler, Fedorov, and Lieske. The biomass composition was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and transmission IRS. Catalytic experiments on CO oxidation were carried out using in situ DRIFTS. Our results showed that: i) the used biomasses contain α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, γ-Fe2O3 in different ratios; ii) the biomass formed in Adler medium contains γ-FeOOH as main phase. The CO conversion was about 50% as evaluated by decreased integrated band intensity in the gas mixture spectra during the reaction. The main phase in the spent sample is γ-Fe2O3; iii) the biomass formed in Lieske medium contains α-FeOOH. The CO conversion was about 20%. The main phase in the spent sample is α-Fe2O3; iv) the biomass formed in Fedorov medium contains γ-Fe2O3 as main phase. CO conversion in the test reaction was about 19%. The results showed that the catalytic activity up to 200°C resulted predominantly from α-FeOOH and γ-FeOOH. The catalytic activity at temperatures higher than 200°C was due to the formation of γ-Fe2O3. The oxyhydroxides, which are the principal compounds in the biomass, have low catalytic activity in the used reaction; the maghemite has relatively good catalytic activity; the hematite has activity commensurate with that of the oxyhydroxides. Moreover it can be affirmed that catalytic activity is inherent in maghemite, which is obtained by transformation of the biogenic lepidocrocite, i.e. it has biogenic precursor.

Keywords: nanosized biogenic iron compounds, catalytic behavior in reaction of CO oxidation, in situ DRIFTS, Moessbauer spectroscopy

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51 Toward Understanding the Glucocorticoid Receptor Network in Cancer

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Mattia Lauriola, Yuval Gilad, Adi Kimchi, Yosef Yarden

Abstract:

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been proposed to play important, but incompletely understood roles in cancer. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as co-medication of various carcinomas, due to their ability to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. Furthermore, GR antagonism has proven to be a strategy to treat triple negative breast cancer and castration-resistant prostate cancer. These observations suggest differential GR involvement in cancer subtypes. The goal of our study has been to elaborate the current understanding of GR signaling in tumor progression and metastasis. Our study involves two cellular models, non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) and Ewing sarcoma cells (CHLA9). In our breast cell model, the results indicated that the GR agonist dexamethasone inhibits EGF-induced mammary cell migration, and this effect was blocked when cells were stimulated with a GR antagonist, namely RU486. Microarray analysis for gene expression revealed that the mechanism underlying inhibition involves dexamenthasone-mediated repression of well-known activators of EGFR signaling, alongside with enhancement of several EGFR’s negative feedback loops. Because GR mainly acts primarily through composite response elements (GREs), or via a tethering mechanism, our next aim has been to find the transcription factors (TFs) which can interact with GR in MCF10A cells.The TF-binding motif overrepresented at the promoter of dexamethasone-regulated genes was predicted by using bioinformatics. To validate the prediction, we performed high-throughput Protein Complementation Assays (PCA). For this, we utilized the Gaussia Luciferase PCA strategy, which enabled analysis of protein-protein interactions between GR and predicted TFs of mammary cells. A library comprising both nuclear receptors (estrogen receptor, mineralocorticoid receptor, GR) and TFs was fused to fragments of GLuc, namely GLuc(1)-X, X-GLuc(1), and X-GLuc(2), where GLuc(1) and GLuc(2) correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of the luciferase gene.The resulting library was screened, in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells, for all possible interactions between nuclear receptors and TFs. By screening all of the combinations between TFs and nuclear receptors, we identified several positive interactions, which were strengthened in response to dexamethasone and abolished in response to RU486. Furthermore, the interactions between GR and the candidate TFs were validated by co-immunoprecipitation in MCF10A and in CHLA9 cells. Currently, the roles played by the uncovered interactions are being evaluated in various cellular processes, such as cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion. In conclusion, our assay provides an unbiased network analysis between nuclear receptors and other TFs, which can lead to important insights into transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors in various diseases, in this case of cancer.

Keywords: Transcription Factor, epidermal growth factor, glucocorticoid receptor, protein complementation assay

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50 Food Safety in Wine: Removal of Ochratoxin a in Contaminated White Wine Using Commercial Fining Agents

Authors: Luís Abrunhosa, António Inês, Davide Silva, Filipa Carvalho, Luís Filipe-Riberiro, Fernando M. Nunes, Fernanda Cosme

Abstract:

The presence of mycotoxins in foodstuff is a matter of concern for food safety. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain molds, being ochratoxin A (OTA) one of the most relevant. Wines can also be contaminated with these toxicants. Several authors have demonstrated the presence of mycotoxins in wine, especially ochratoxin A. Its chemical structure is a dihydro-isocoumarin connected at the 7-carboxy group to a molecule of L-β-phenylalanine via an amide bond. As these toxicants can never be completely removed from the food chain, many countries have defined levels in food in order to attend health concerns. OTA contamination of wines might be a risk to consumer health, thus requiring treatments to achieve acceptable standards for human consumption. The maximum acceptable level of OTA in wines is 2.0 μg/kg according to the Commission regulation No. 1881/2006. Therefore, the aim of this work was to reduce OTA to safer levels using different fining agents, as well as their impact on white wine physicochemical characteristics. To evaluate their efficiency, 11 commercial fining agents (mineral, synthetic, animal and vegetable proteins) were used to get new approaches on OTA removal from white wine. Trials (including a control without addition of a fining agent) were performed in white wine artificially supplemented with OTA (10 µg/L). OTA analyses were performed after wine fining. Wine was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 min and 1 mL of the supernatant was collected and added of an equal volume of acetonitrile/methanol/acetic acid (78:20:2 v/v/v). Also, the solid fractions obtained after fining, were centrifuged (4000 rpm, 15 min), the resulting supernatant discarded, and the pellet extracted with 1 mL of the above solution and 1 mL of H2O. OTA analysis was performed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The most effective fining agent in removing OTA (80%) from white wine was a commercial formulation that contains gelatin, bentonite and activated carbon. Removals between 10-30% were obtained with potassium caseinate, yeast cell walls and pea protein. With bentonites, carboxymethylcellulose, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and chitosan no considerable OTA removal was verified. Following, the effectiveness of seven commercial activated carbons was also evaluated and compared with the commercial formulation that contains gelatin, bentonite and activated carbon. The different activated carbons were applied at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer in order to evaluate their efficiency in reducing OTA levels. Trial and OTA analysis were performed as explained previously. The results showed that in white wine all activated carbons except one reduced 100% of OTA. The commercial formulation that contains gelatin, bentonite and activated carbon reduced only 73% of OTA concentration. These results may provide useful information for winemakers, namely for the selection of the most appropriate oenological product for OTA removal, reducing wine toxicity and simultaneously enhancing food safety and wine quality.

Keywords: Food Safety, Wine, ota removal, fining

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49 Effect of Graded Level of Nano Selenium Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chicken

Authors: Raj Kishore Swain, Kamdev Sethy, Sumanta Kumar Mishra

Abstract:

Selenium is an essential trace element for the chicken with a variety of biological functions like growth, fertility, immune system, hormone metabolism, and antioxidant defense systems. Selenium deficiency in chicken causes exudative diathesis, pancreatic dystrophy and nutritional muscle dystrophy of the gizzard, heart and skeletal muscle. Additionally, insufficient immunity, lowering of production ability, decreased feathering of chickens and increased embryo mortality may occur due to selenium deficiency. Nano elemental selenium, which is bright red, highly stable, soluble and of nano meter size in the redox state of zero, has high bioavailability and low toxicity due to the greater surface area, high surface activity, high catalytic efficiency and strong adsorbing ability. To assess the effect of dietary nano-Se on performance and expression of gene in Vencobb broiler birds in comparison to its inorganic form (sodium selenite), four hundred fifty day-old Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 9 dietary treatment groups with two replicates with 25 chicks per replicate. The dietary treatments were: T1 (Control group): Basal diet; T2: Basal diet with 0.3 ppm of inorganic Se; T3: Basal diet with 0.01875 ppm of nano-Se; T4: Basal diet with 0.0375 ppm of nano-Se; T5: Basal diet with 0.075 ppm of nano-Se, T6: Basal diet with 0.15 ppm of nano-Se, T7: Basal diet with 0.3 ppm of nano-Se, T8: Basal diet with 0.60 ppm of nano-Se, T9: Basal diet with 1.20 ppm of nano-Se. Nano selenium was synthesized by mixing sodium selenite with reduced glutathione and bovine serum albumin. The experiment was carried out in two phases: starter phase (0-3 wks), finisher phase (4-5 wk) in deep litter system. The body weight at the 5th week was best observed in T4. The best feed conversion ratio at the end of 5th week was observed in T4. Erythrocytic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all the nano selenium treated groups at 5th week. The antibody titers (log2) against Ranikhet diseases vaccine immunization of 5th-week broiler birds were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the treatments T4 to T7. The selenium levels in liver, breast, kidney, brain, and gizzard were significantly (P < 0.05) increased with increasing dietary nano-Se indicating higher bioavailability of nano-Se compared to inorganic Se. The real time polymer chain reaction analysis showed an increase in the expression of antioxidative gene in T4 and T7 group. Therefore, it is concluded that supplementation of nano-selenium at 0.0375 ppm over and above the basal level can improve the body weight, antioxidant enzyme activity, Se bioavailability and expression of the antioxidative gene in broiler birds.

Keywords: Growth, Immunity, Chicken, nano selenium

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48 Statistical Optimization of Adsorption of a Harmful Dye from Aqueous Solution

Authors: M. Arun, A. Kannan

Abstract:

Textile industries cater to varied customer preferences and contribute substantially to the economy. However, these textile industries also produce a considerable amount of effluents. Prominent among these are the azo dyes which impart considerable color and toxicity even at low concentrations. Azo dyes are also used as coloring agents in food and pharmaceutical industry. Despite their applications, azo dyes are also notorious pollutants and carcinogens. Popular techniques like photo-degradation, biodegradation and the use of oxidizing agents are not applicable for all kinds of dyes, as most of them are stable to these techniques. Chemical coagulation produces a large amount of toxic sludge which is undesirable and is also ineffective towards a number of dyes. Most of the azo dyes are stable to UV-visible light irradiation and may even resist aerobic degradation. Adsorption has been the most preferred technique owing to its less cost, high capacity and process efficiency and the possibility of regenerating and recycling the adsorbent. Adsorption is also most preferred because it may produce high quality of the treated effluent and it is able to remove different kinds of dyes. However, the adsorption process is influenced by many variables whose inter-dependence makes it difficult to identify optimum conditions. The variables include stirring speed, temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. Further, the internal diffusional resistance inside the adsorbent particle leads to slow uptake of the solute within the adsorbent. Hence, it is necessary to identify optimum conditions that lead to high capacity and uptake rate of these pollutants. In this work, commercially available activated carbon was chosen as the adsorbent owing to its high surface area. A typical azo dye found in textile effluent waters, viz. the monoazo Acid Orange 10 dye (CAS: 1936-15-8) has been chosen as the representative pollutant. Adsorption studies were mainly focused at obtaining equilibrium and kinetic data for the batch adsorption process at different process conditions. Studies were conducted at different stirring speed, temperature, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration settings. The Full Factorial Design was the chosen statistical design framework for carrying out the experiments and identifying the important factors and their interactions. The optimum conditions identified from the experimental model were validated with actual experiments at the recommended settings. The equilibrium and kinetic data obtained were fitted to different models and the model parameters were estimated. This gives more details about the nature of adsorption taking place. Critical data required to design batch adsorption systems for removal of Acid Orange 10 dye and identification of factors that critically influence the separation efficiency are the key outcomes from this research.

Keywords: activated carbon, acid orange 10, optimum adsorption conditions, statistical design

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47 Strength Performance and Microstructure Characteristics of Natural Bonded Fiber Composites from Malaysian Bamboo

Authors: Shahril Anuar Bahari, Mohd Azrie Mohd Kepli, Mohd Ariff Jamaludin, Kamarulzaman Nordin, Mohamad Jani Saad

Abstract:

Formaldehyde release from wood-based panel composites can be very toxicity and may increase the risk of human health as well as environmental problems. A new bio-composites product without synthetic adhesive or resin is possible to be developed in order to reduce these problems. Apart from formaldehyde release, adhesive is also considered to be expensive, especially in the manufacturing of composite products. Natural bonded composites can be termed as a panel product composed with any type of cellulosic materials without the addition of synthetic resins. It is composed with chemical content activation in the cellulosic materials. Pulp and paper making method (chemical pulping) was used as a general guide in the composites manufacturing. This method will also generally reduce the manufacturing cost and the risk of formaldehyde emission and has potential to be used as an alternative technology in fiber composites industries. In this study, the natural bonded bamboo fiber composite was produced from virgin Malaysian bamboo fiber (Bambusa vulgaris). The bamboo culms were chipped and digested into fiber using this pulping method. The black liquor collected from the pulping process was used as a natural binding agent in the composition. Then the fibers were mixed and blended with black liquor without any resin addition. The amount of black liquor used per composite board was 20%, with approximately 37% solid content. The composites were fabricated using a hot press machine at two different board densities, 850 and 950 kg/m³, with two sets of hot pressing time, 25 and 35 minutes. Samples of the composites from different densities and hot pressing times were tested in flexural strength and internal bonding (IB) for strength performance according to British Standard. Modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) was determined in flexural test, while tensile force perpendicular to the surface was recorded in IB test. Results show that the strength performance of the composites with 850 kg/m³ density were significantly higher than 950 kg/m³ density, especially for samples from 25 minutes hot pressing time. Strength performance of composites from 25 minutes hot pressing time were generally greater than 35 minutes. Results show that the maximum mean values of strength performance were recorded from composites with 850 kg/m³ density and 25 minutes pressing time. The maximum mean values for MOE, MOR and IB were 3251.84, 16.88 and 0.27 MPa, respectively. Only MOE result has conformed to high density fiberboard (HDF) standard (2700 MPa) in British Standard for Fiberboard Specification, BS EN 622-5: 2006. Microstructure characteristics of composites can also be related to the strength performance of the composites, in which, the observed fiber damage in composites from 950 kg/m³ density and overheat of black liquor led to the low strength properties, especially in IB test.

Keywords: black liquor, mechanical tests, bamboo fiber, natural bonded, microstructure observations

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46 Effect of Copper Complexes on Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line and Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Katarína Koňariková, Georgios A. Perdikaris, Lucia Andrezálová, Zdeňka Ďuračková, Lucia Laubertová, Helena Gbelcová, Ingrid Žitňanová

Abstract:

Introduction: The continuous demand for new anti-cancer drugs has stimulated chemotherapeutic research based on the use of essential metalloelements with the aim to develop potential drugs with lower toxicity and higher antiproliferative activity against tumors. Copper(II) and its complexes play an important role as suitable species for antiproliferative tests. Objectives: The central objective of the current study was to investigate the potential in vitro anti-proliferative effects of N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes and molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by tested complexes. In our project we tested N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes ZK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK0 - ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O); MK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol); MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] at concentration range 0.001-100 µmol/L against human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 and human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Methods: Viability was assessed by direct counting of 0.4% trypan blue dye-excluding cells after 24, 48 and 72 hour cultivations with or without copper complex and by MTT assay. To analyze the type of cell death and its mechanism induced by our copper complex we used different methods. To distinguish apoptosis from necrosis we used electrophoretic analysis, to study the activity of caspases 8 and 9 – luminometric analysis and caspase activity 3 colorimetric assay. Results: The observed anti-proliferative effect of the copper complexes appeared to be dose-, time- and cell line- dependent. Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) than to ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)). Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex than human breast carcinoma cells MCF-7. IC50 decreased with time of incubation (24, 48 and 72h) for HT-29, but increased for MCF-7. By electrophoresis we found apoptotic cell death induced by our copper complexes in HT-29 at concentrations 1, 10, 50 and 100 µmol/L after 48h (ZK1) and 72h (MK0, MK1) and in MCF-7 we did not find apoptosis. We also studied molecular mechanism of apoptosis in HT-29 induced by copper complexes. We found active caspase 9 in HT-29 after ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)) influence and active caspase 8 after MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) influence. Conclusion: Our copper complexes showed cytotoxic activities against human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro. Apoptosis was activated by mitochondrial pathway (intrinsic pathway) in case of ZK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol) and MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] copper complexes and by death receptors (extrinsic pathway) in case of MK0 [Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O copper complex in HT-29.

Keywords: Cancer, apoptosis, copper complex, carcinoma cell line

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45 Gastro-Protective Actions of Melatonin and Murraya koenigii Leaf Extract Combination in Piroxicam Treated Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Kuladip Jana, Syed Benazir Firdaus, Debosree Ghosh, Aindrila Chattyopadhyay, Debasish Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

Gastro-toxic effect of piroxicam, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has restricted its use in arthritis and similar diseases. The present study aims to find if a combination of melatonin and Murraya koenigii leaf extract therapy can protect against piroxicam induced ulcerative damage in rats. For this study, rats were divided into four groups namely control group where rats were orally administered distilled water, only combination treated group, piroxicam treated group and combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. Each group of rats consisted of six animals. Melatonin at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight and antioxidant rich Murraya koenigii leaf extract at a dose of 50 mg /kg body weight were successively administered at 30 minutes interval one hour before oral administration of piroxicam at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to Wistar rats in the combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. The rats of the animal group which was only combination treated were administered both the drugs respectively without piroxicam treatment whereas the piroxicam treated animal group was administered only piroxicam at 30mg/kg body weight without any pre-treatment with the combination. Macroscopic examination along with histo-pathological study of gastric tissue using haemotoxylin-eosin staining and alcian blue dye staining showed protection of the gastric mucosa in the combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. Determination of adherent mucus content biochemically and collagen content through Image J analysis of picro-sirius stained sections of rat gastric tissue also revealed protective effects of the combination in piroxicam mediated toxicity. Gelatinolytic activity of piroxicam was significantly reduced by pre-administration of the drugs which was well exhibited by the gelatin zymography study of the rat gastric tissue. Mean ulcer index determined from macroscopic study of rat stomach reduced to a minimum (0±0.00; Mean ± Standard error of mean and number of animals in the group=6) indicating the absence of ulcer spots on pre-treatment of rats with the combination. Gastro-friendly prostaglandin (PGE2) which otherwise gets depleted on piroxicam treatment was also well protected when the combination was pre-administered in the rats prior to piroxicam treatment. The requirement of the individual drugs in low doses in this combinatorial therapeutic approach will possibly minimize the cost of therapy as well as it will eliminate the possibility of any pro-oxidant side effects on the use of high doses of antioxidants. Beneficial activity of this combination therapy in the rat model raises the possibility that similar protective actions might be also observed if it is adopted by patients consuming NSAIDs like piroxicam. However, the introduction of any such therapeutic approach is subject to future studies in human.

Keywords: Melatonin, piroxicam, gastro-protective action, Murraya koenigii leaf extract

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44 Identification and Quantification of Lisinopril from Pure, Formulated and Urine Samples by Micellar Thin Layer Chromatography

Authors: Sudhanshu Sharma

Abstract:

Lisinopril, 1-[N-{(s)-I-carboxy-3 phenyl propyl}-L-proline dehydrate is a lysine analog of enalaprilat, the active metabolite of enalapril. It is long-acting, non-sulhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor that is used for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure in daily dosage 10-80 mg. Pharmacological activity of lisinopril has been proved in various experimental and clinical studies. Owing to its importance and widespread use, efforts have been made towards the development of simple and reliable analytical methods. As per our literature survey, lisinopril in pharmaceutical formulations has been determined by various analytical methodologies like polaragraphy, potentiometry, and spectrophotometry, but most of these analytical methods are not too suitable for the Identification of lisinopril from clinical samples because of the interferences caused by the amino acids and amino groups containing metabolites present in biological samples. This report is an attempt in the direction of developing a simple and reliable method for on plate identification and quantification of lisinopril in pharmaceutical formulations as well as from human urine samples using silica gel H layers developed with a new mobile phase comprising of micellar solutions of N-cetyl-N, N, N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Micellar solutions have found numerous practical applications in many areas of separation science. Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) has gained immense popularity and wider applicability due to operational simplicity, cost effectiveness, relatively non-toxicity and enhanced separation efficiency, low aggressiveness. Incorporation of aqueous micellar solutions as mobile phase was pioneered by Armstrong and Terrill as they accentuated the importance of TLC where simultaneous separation of ionic or non-ionic species in a variety of matrices is required. A peculiarity of the micellar mobile phases (MMPs) is that they have no macroscopic analogues, as a result the typical separations can be easily achieved by using MMPs than aqueous organic mobile phases. Previously MMPs were successfully employed in TLC based critical separations of aromatic hydrocarbons, nucleotides, vitamin K1 and K5, o-, m- and p- aminophenol, amino acids, separation of penicillins. The human urine analysis for identification of selected drugs and their metabolites has emerged as an important investigation tool in forensic drug analysis. Among all chromatographic methods available only thin layer chromatography (TLC) enables a simple fast and effective separation of the complex mixtures present in various biological samples and is recommended as an approved testing for forensic drug analysis by federal Law. TLC proved its applicability during successful separation of bio-active amines, carbohydrates, enzymes, porphyrins, and their precursors, alkaloid and drugs from urine samples.

Keywords: Chromatography, surfactant, lisnopril, micellar solutions

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43 Influence of Iron Content in Carbon Nanotubes on the Intensity of Hyperthermia in the Cancer Treatment

Authors: L. Szymanski, Z. Kolacinski, G. Raniszewski, L. Pietrzak, S. Wiak, Z. Staniszewska

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The term ‘cancer’ is given to a collection of related diseases that may affect any part of the human body. It is a pathological behaviour of cells with the potential to undergo abnormal breakdown in the processes that control cell proliferation, differentiation, and death of particular cells. Although cancer is commonly considered as modern disease, there are beliefs that drastically growing number of new cases can be linked to the extensively prolonged life expectancy and enhanced techniques for cancer diagnosis. Magnetic hyperthermia therapy is a novel approach to cancer treatment, which may greatly contribute to higher efficiency of the therapy. Employing carbon nanotubes as nanocarriers for magnetic particles, it is possible to decrease toxicity and invasiveness of the treatment by surface functionalisation. Despite appearing in recent years, magnetic particle hyperthermia has already become of the highest interest in the scientific and medical environment. The reason why hyperthermia therapy brings so much hope for future treatment of cancer lays in the effect that it produces in malignant cells. Subjecting them to thermal shock results in activation of numerous degradation processes inside and outside the cell. The heating process initiates mechanisms of DNA destruction, protein denaturation and induction of cell apoptosis, which may lead to tumour shrinkage, and in some cases, it may even cause complete disappearance of cancer. The factors which have the major impact on the final efficiency of the treatment include temperatures generated inside the tissues, time of exposure to the heating process, and the character of an individual cancer cell type. The vast majority of cancer cells is characterised by lower pH, persistent hypoxia and lack of nutrients, which can be associated to abnormal microvasculature. Since in healthy tissues we cannot observe presence of these conditions, they should not be seriously affected by elevation of the temperature. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of iron content in iron filled Carbon Nanotubes on the desired nanoparticles for cancer therapy. In the article, the development and demonstration of the method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nanocontainers. The methodology of the production carbon- ferromagnetic nanocontainers (FNCs) includes the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical, and physical characterization, increasing the content of a ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. The ferromagnetic nanocontainers were synthesised in CVD and microwave plasma system. The research work has been financed from the budget of science as a research project No. PBS2/A5/31/2013.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, hyperthermia, cancer colon cells, radio frequency field

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42 Evaluation of Trabectedin Safety and Effectiveness at a Tertiary Cancer Center at Qatar: A Retrospective Analysis

Authors: Nabil Omar, Farah Jibril, Oraib Amjad

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Purpose: Trabecatine is a is a potent marine-derived antineoplastic drug which binds to the minor groove of the DNA, bending DNA towards the major groove resulting in a changed conformation that interferes with several DNA transcription factors, repair pathways and cell proliferation. Trabectedin was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA; London, UK) for the treatment of adult patients with advanced stage soft tissue sarcomas in whom treatment with anthracyclines and ifosfamide has failed, or for those who are not candidates for these therapies. The recommended dosing regimen is 1.5 mg/m2 IV over 24 hours every 3 weeks. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review available data on the safety and efficacy of trabectedin used as indicated for patients at a Tertiary Cancer Center at Qatar. Methods: A medication administration report generated in the electronic health record identified all patients who received trabectedin between November 1, 2015 and November 1, 2017. This retrospective chart review evaluated the indication of trabectedin use, compliance to administration protocol and the recommended monitoring parameters, number of patients improved on the drug and continued treatment, number of patients discontinued treatment due to side-effects and the reported side effects. Progress and discharged notes were utilized to report experienced side effects during trabectedin therapy. A total of 3 patients were reviewed. Results: Total of 2 out of 3 patients who received trabectedin were receiving it for non-FDA and non-EMA, approved indications; metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma and ovarian cancer stage IV with poor prognosis. And only one patient received it as indicated for leiomyosarcoma of left ureter with metastases to liver, lungs and bone. None of the patients has continued the therapy due to development of serious side effects. One patient had stopped the medication after one cycle due to disease progression and transient hepatic toxicity, the other one had disease progression and developed 12 % reduction in LVEF after 12 cycles of trabectedin, and the third patient deceased, had disease progression on trabectedin after the 10th cycle that was received through peripheral line which resulted in developing extravasation and left arm cellulitis requiring debridement. Regarding monitoring parameters, at baseline the three patients had ECHO, and Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) but it was not monitored during treatment as recommended. Conclusion: Utilizing this medication as indicated with performing the appropriate monitoring parameters as recommended can benefit patients who are receiving it. It is important to reinforce the intravenous administration via central intravenous line, the re-assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiogram or multigated acquisition (MUGA) scan at 2- to 3-month intervals thereafter until therapy is discontinued, and CPK and LFTs levels prior to each administration of trabectedin.

Keywords: Safety, monitoring, Effectiveness, trabectedin, adverse drug reaction, drug-use evaluation

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41 Brazilian Brown Propolis as a Natural Source against Leishmania amazonensis

Authors: Victor Pena Ribeiro, Caroline Arruda, Jennyfer Andrea Aldana Mejia, Jairo Kenupp Bastos

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Leishmaniasis is a serious health problem around the world. The treatment of infected individuals with pentavalent antimonial drugs is the main therapeutic strategy. However, they present high toxicity and persistence side effects. Therefore, the discovery of new and safe natural-derived therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis is important. Propolis is a resin of viscous consistency produced by Apis mellifera bees from parts of plants. The main types of Brazilian propolis are green, red, yellow and brown. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the chemical composition and leishmanicidal properties of a brown propolis (BP). For this purpose, the hydroalcoholic crude extract of BP was obtained and was fractionated by liquid-liquid chromatography. The chemical profile of the extract and its fractions were obtained by HPLC-UV-DAD. The fractions were submitted to preparative HPLC chromatography for isolation of the major compounds of each fraction. They were analyzed by NMR for structural determination. The volatile compounds were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified by GC/MS. Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were cultivated in M199 medium and then 2×106 parasites.mL-1 were incubated in 96-well microtiter plates with the samples. The BP was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diluted into the medium, to give final concentrations of 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg.mL⁻¹. The plates were incubated at 25ºC for 24 h, and the lysis percentage was determined by using a Neubauer chamber. The bioassays were performed in triplicate, using a medium with 0.5% DMSO as a negative control and amphotericin B as a positive control. The leishimnicidal effect against promastigote forms was also evaluated at the same concentrations. Cytotoxicity experiments also were performed in 96-well plates against normal (CHO-k1) and tumor cell lines (AGP01 and HeLa) using XTT colorimetric method. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and terpenoids were identified in brown propolis. The major compounds were identified as follows: p-coumaric acid (24.6%) for a methanolic fraction, Artepelin-C (29.2%) for ethyl acetate fraction and the compounds of hexane fraction are in the process of structural elucidation. The major volatile compounds identified were β-caryophyllene (10.9%), germacrene D (9.7%), nerolidol (10.8%) and spathulenol (8.5%). The propolis did not show cytotoxicity against normal cell lines (CHO) with IC₅₀ > 100 μg.mL⁻¹, whereas the IC₅₀ < 10 μg.mL⁻¹ showed a potential against the AGP01 cell line, propolis did not demonstrate cytotoxicity against HeLa cell lines IC₅₀ > 100 μg.mL⁻¹. In the determination of the leishmanicidal activity, the highest (50 μg.mL⁻¹) and lowest (1.56 μg.mL⁻¹) concentrations of the crude extract caused the lysis of 76% and 45% of promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, respectively. To the amastigote form, the highest (50 μg.mL⁻¹) and lowest (1.56 μg.mL⁻¹) concentrations caused the mortality of 89% and 75% of L. amazonensis, respectively. The IC₅₀ was 2.8 μg.mL⁻¹ to amastigote form and 3.9 μg.mL⁻¹ to promastigote form, showing a promising activity against Leishmania amazonensis.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, amastigote, brown propolis, promastigote

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40 Highly Selective Phosgene Free Synthesis of Methylphenylcarbamate from Aniline and Dimethyl Carbonate over Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Nayana T. Nivangune, Vivek V. Ranade, Ashutosh A. Kelkar

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Organic carbamates are versatile compounds widely employed as pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, dyes, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and in the synthesis of polyurethanes. Carbamates can be easily transformed into isocyanates by thermal cracking. Isocyantes are used as precursors for manufacturing agrochemicals, adhesives and polyurethane elastomers. Manufacture of polyurethane foams is a major application of aromatic ioscyanates and in 2007 the global consumption of polyurethane was about 12 million metric tons/year and the average annual growth rate was about 5%. Presently Isocyanates/carbamates are manufactured by phosgene based process. However, because of high toxicity of phoegene and formation of waste products in large quantity; there is a need to develop alternative and safer process for the synthesis of isocyanates/carbamates. Recently many alternative processes have been investigated and carbamate synthesis by methoxycarbonylation of aromatic amines using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as a green reagent has emerged as promising alternative route. In this reaction methanol is formed as a by-product, which can be converted to DMC either by oxidative carbonylation of methanol or by reacting with urea. Thus, the route based on DMC has a potential to provide atom efficient and safer route for the synthesis of carbamates from DMC and amines. Lot of work is being carried out on the development of catalysts for this reaction and homogeneous zinc salts were found to be good catalysts for the reaction. However, catalyst/product separation is challenging with these catalysts. There are few reports on the use of supported Zn catalysts; however, deactivation of the catalyst is the major problem with these catalysts. We wish to report here methoxycarbonylation of aniline to methylphenylcarbamate (MPC) using amino acid complexes of Zn as highly active and selective catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, IR, solid state NMR and XPS analysis. Methoxycarbonylation of aniline was carried out at 170 °C using 2.5 wt% of the catalyst to achieve >98% conversion of aniline with 97-99% selectivity to MPC as the product. Formation of N-methylated products in small quantity (1-2%) was also observed. Optimization of the reaction conditions was carried out using zinc-proline complex as the catalyst. Selectivity was strongly dependent on the temperature and aniline:DMC ratio used. At lower aniline:DMC ratio and at higher temperature, selectivity to MPC decreased (85-89% respectively) with the formation of N-methylaniline (NMA), N-methyl methylphenylcarbamate (MMPC) and N,N-dimethyl aniline (NNDMA) as by-products. Best results (98% aniline conversion with 99% selectivity to MPC in 4 h) were observed at 170oC and aniline:DMC ratio of 1:20. Catalyst stability was verified by carrying out recycle experiment. Methoxycarbonylation preceded smoothly with various amine derivatives indicating versatility of the catalyst. The catalyst is inexpensive and can be easily prepared from zinc salt and naturally occurring amino acids. The results are important and provide environmentally benign route for MPC synthesis with high activity and selectivity.

Keywords: Heterogeneous catalyst, aniline, methoxycarbonylation, methylphenyl carbamate

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39 Polymer Matrices Based on Natural Compounds: Synthesis and Characterization

Authors: Bozena Tyliszczak, Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec, Dagmara Malina, Anna Drabczyk, Sonia Kudlacik-Kramarczyk

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Introduction: In the preparation of polymer materials, compounds of natural origin are currently gaining more and more interest. This is particularly noticeable in the case of synthesis of materials considered for biomedical use. Then, selected material has to meet many requirements. It should be characterized by non-toxicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Therefore special attention is directed to substances such as polysaccharides, proteins or substances that are the basic building components of proteins, i.e. amino acids. These compounds may be crosslinked with other reagents that leads to the preparation of polymer matrices. Such amino acids as e.g. cysteine or histidine. On the other hand, previously mentioned requirements may be met by polymers obtained as a result of biosynthesis, e.g. polyhydroxybutyrate. This polymer belongs to the group of aliphatic polyesters that is synthesized by microorganisms (selected strain of bacteria) under specific conditions. It is possible to modify matrices based on given polymer with substances of various origin. Such a modification may result in the change of their properties or/and in providing the material with new features desirable in viewpoint of specific application. Described materials are synthesized using UV radiation. Process of photopolymerization is fast, waste-free and enables to obtain final products with favorable properties. Methodology: Polymer matrices have been prepared by means of photopolymerization. First step involved the preparation of solutions of particular reagents and mixing them in the appropriate ratio. Next, crosslinking agent and photoinitiator have been added to the reaction mixture and the whole was poured into the Petri dish and treated with UV radiation. After the synthesis, polymer samples were dried at room temperature and subjected to the numerous analyses aimed at the determining their physicochemical properties. Firstly, sorption properties of obtained polymer matrices have been determined. Next, mechanical properties have been characterized, i.e. tensile strength. The ability to deformation under applied stress of all prepared polymer matrices has been checked. Such a property is important in viewpoint of the application of analyzed materials e.g. as wound dressings. Wound dressings have to be elastic because depending on the location of the wound and its mobility, such a dressing has to adhere properly to the wound. Furthermore, considering the use of the materials for biomedical purposes it is essential to determine its behavior in environments simulating these ones occurring in human body. Therefore incubation studies using selected liquids have also been conducted. Conclusions: As a result of photopolymerization process, polymer matrices based on natural compounds have been prepared. These exhibited favorable mechanical properties and swelling ability. Moreover, biocompatibility in relation to simulated body fluids has been stated. Therefore it can be concluded that analyzed polymer matrices constitute an interesting materials that may be considered for biomedical use and may be subjected to the further more advanced analyses using specific cell lines.

Keywords: Polymer Matrices, Photopolymerization, swelling properties, simulated body fluids

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38 Green Production of Chitosan Nanoparticles and their Potential as Antimicrobial Agents

Authors: L. P. Gomes, G. F. Araújo, Y. M. L. Cordeiro, C. T. Andrade, E. M. Del Aguila, V. M. F. Paschoalin

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The application of nanoscale materials and nanostructures is an emerging area, these since materials may provide solutions to technological and environmental challenges in order to preserve the environment and natural resources. To reach this goal, the increasing demand must be accompanied by 'green' synthesis methods. Chitosan is a natural, nontoxic, biopolymer derived by the deacetylation of chitin and has great potential for a wide range of applications in the biological and biomedical areas, due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity and versatile chemical and physical properties. Chitosan also presents high antimicrobial activities against a wide variety of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Ultrasonication is a common tool for the preparation and processing of polymer nanoparticles. It is particularly effective in breaking up aggregates and in reducing the size and polydispersity of nanoparticles. High-intensity ultrasonication has the potential to modify chitosan molecular weight and, thus, alter or improve chitosan functional properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sonication intensity and time on the changes of commercial chitosan characteristics, such as molecular weight and its potential antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The nanoparticles (NPs) were produced from two commercial chitosans, of medium molecular weight (CS-MMW) and low molecular weight (CS-LMW) from Sigma-Aldrich®. These samples (2%) were solubilized in 100 mM sodium acetate pH 4.0, placed on ice and irradiated with an ultrasound SONIC ultrasonic probe (model 750 W), equipped with a 1/2" microtip during 30 min at 4°C. It was used on constant duty cycle and 40% amplitude with 1/1s intervals. The ultrasonic degradation of CS-MMW and CS-LMW were followed up by means of ζ-potential (Brookhaven Instruments, model 90Plus) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. After sonication, the concentrated samples were diluted 100 times and placed in fluorescence quartz cuvettes (Hellma 111-QS, 10 mm light path). The distributions of the colloidal particles were calculated from the DLS and ζ-potential are measurements taken for the CS-MMW and CS-LMW solutions before and after (CS-MMW30 and CS-LMW30) sonication for 30 min. Regarding the results for the chitosan sample, the major bands can be distinguished centered at Radius hydrodynamic (Rh), showed different distributions for CS-MMW (Rh=690.0 nm, ζ=26.52±2.4), CS-LMW (Rh=607.4 and 2805.4 nm, ζ=24.51±1.29), CS-MMW30 (Rh=201.5 and 1064.1 nm, ζ=24.78±2.4) and CS-LMW30 (Rh=492.5, ζ=26.12±0.85). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using different chitosan samples concentrations. MIC values were determined against to E. coli (106 cells) harvested from an LB medium (Luria-Bertani BD™) after 18h growth at 37 ºC. Subsequently, the cell suspension was serially diluted in saline solution (0.8% NaCl) and plated on solid LB at 37°C for 18 h. Colony-forming units were counted. The samples showed different MICs against E. coli for CS-LMW (1.5mg), CS-MMW30 (1.5 mg/mL) and CS-LMW30 (1.0 mg/mL). The results demonstrate that the production of nanoparticles by modification of their molecular weight by ultrasonication is simple to be performed and dispense acid solvent addition. Molecular weight modifications are enough to provoke changes in the antimicrobial potential of the nanoparticles produced in this way.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Green Production, chitosan, antimicrobial agent

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37 Hydrogen Production from Auto-Thermal Reforming of Ethanol Catalyzed by Tri-Metallic Catalyst

Authors: Sebastiano Candamano, Patrizia Frontera, Anastasia Macario, Fortunato Crea, Pierluigi Antonucci

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The increasing of the world energy demand makes today biomass an attractive energy source, based on the minimizing of CO2 emission and on the global warming reduction purposes. Recently, COP-21, the international meeting on global climate change, defined the roadmap for sustainable worldwide development, based on low-carbon containing fuel. Hydrogen is an energy vector able to substitute the conventional fuels from petroleum. Ethanol for hydrogen production represents a valid alternative to the fossil sources due to its low toxicity, low production costs, high biodegradability, high H2 content and renewability. Ethanol conversion to generate hydrogen by a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming reactions is generally called auto-thermal reforming (ATR). The ATR process is advantageous due to the low energy requirements and to the reduced carbonaceous deposits formation. Catalyst plays a pivotal role in the ATR process, especially towards the process selectivity and the carbonaceous deposits formation. Bimetallic or trimetallic catalysts, as well as catalysts with doped-promoters supports, may exhibit high activity, selectivity and deactivation resistance with respect to the corresponding monometallic ones. In this work, NiMoCo/GDC, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC (where GDC is Gadolinia Doped Ceria support and the metal composition is 60:30:10 for all catalyst) have been prepared by impregnation method. The support, Gadolinia 0.2 Doped Ceria 0.8, was impregnated by metal precursors solubilized in aqueous ethanol solution (50%) at room temperature for 6 hours. After this, the catalysts were dried at 100°C for 8 hours and, subsequently, calcined at 600°C in order to have the metal oxides. Finally, active catalysts were obtained by reduction procedure (H2 atmosphere at 500°C for 6 hours). All sample were characterized by different analytical techniques (XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, CHNS, H2-TPR and Raman Spectorscopy). Catalytic experiments (auto-thermal reforming of ethanol) were carried out in the temperature range 500-800°C under atmospheric pressure, using a continuous fixed-bed microreactor. Effluent gases from the reactor were analyzed by two Varian CP4900 chromarographs with a TCD detector. The analytical investigation focused on the preventing of the coke deposition, the metals sintering effect and the sulfur poisoning. Hydrogen productivity, ethanol conversion and products distribution were measured and analyzed. At 600°C, all tri-metallic catalysts show the best performance: H2 + CO reaching almost the 77 vol.% in the final gases. While NiMoCo/GDC catalyst shows the best selectivity to hydrogen whit respect to the other tri-metallic catalysts (41 vol.% at 600°C). On the other hand, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC demonstrated high sulfur poisoning resistance (up to 200 cc/min) with respect to the NiMoCo/GDC catalyst. The correlation among catalytic results and surface properties of the catalysts will be discussed.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Ethanol, Catalysts, Nickel, ceria, gadolinia

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36 Antioxidant Potential of Sunflower Seed Cake Extract in Stabilization of Soybean Oil

Authors: Ivanor Zardo, Fernanda Walper Da Cunha, Júlia Sarkis, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira Marczak

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Lipid oxidation is one of the most important deteriorating processes in oil industry, resulting in the losses of nutritional value of oils as well as changes in color, flavor and other physiological properties. Autoxidation of lipids occurs naturally between molecular oxygen and the unsaturation of fatty acids, forming fat-free radicals, peroxide free radicals and hydroperoxides. In order to avoid the lipid oxidation in vegetable oils, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertiary butyl hydro-quinone (TBHQ) are commonly used. However, the use of synthetic antioxidants has been associated with several health side effects and toxicity. The use of natural antioxidants as stabilizers of vegetable oils is being suggested as a sustainable alternative to synthetic antioxidants. The alternative that has been studied is the use of natural extracts obtained mainly from fruits, vegetables and seeds, which have a well-known antioxidant activity related mainly to the presence of phenolic compounds. The sunflower seed cake is rich in phenolic compounds (1 4% of the total mass), being the chlorogenic acid the major constituent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro application of the phenolic extract obtained from the sunflower seed cake as a retarder of the lipid oxidation reaction in soybean oil and to compare the results with a synthetic antioxidant. For this, the soybean oil, provided from the industry without any addition of antioxidants, was subjected to an accelerated storage test for 17 days at 65 °C. Six samples with different treatments were submitted to the test: control sample, without any addition of antioxidants; 100 ppm of synthetic antioxidant BHT; mixture of 50 ppm of BHT and 50 ppm of phenolic compounds; and 100, 500 and 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds concentration in the extract was expressed in gallic acid equivalents. To evaluate the oxidative changes of the samples, aliquots were collected after 0, 3, 6, 10 and 17 days and analyzed for the peroxide, diene and triene conjugate values. The soybean oil sample initially had a peroxide content of 2.01 ± 0.27 meq of oxygen/kg of oil. On the third day of the treatment, only the samples treated with 100, 500 and 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds showed a considerable oxidation retard compared to the control sample. On the sixth day of the treatment, the samples presented a considerable increase in the peroxide value (higher than 13.57 meq/kg), and the higher the concentration of phenolic compounds, the lower the peroxide value verified. From the tenth day on, the samples had a very high peroxide value (higher than 55.39 meq/kg), where only the sample containing 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds presented significant oxidation retard. The samples containing the phenolic extract were more efficient to avoid the formation of the primary oxidation products, indicating effectiveness to retard the reaction. Similar results were observed for dienes and trienes. Based on the results, phenolic compounds, especially chlorogenic acid (the major phenolic compound of sunflower seed cake), can be considered as a potential partial or even total substitute for synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: Waste Valorization, Chlorogenic Acid, natural antioxidant, vegetables oil deterioration

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